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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9798, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278348

RESUMO

During angiogenesis, single endothelial cells (EC) specialize into tip cells that guide vessel sprouting towards growth factor gradients and instruct the adjacent vessel stalk. The balance between tip and stalk cells is regulated by endothelial Notch signalling through the expression of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) in tip cells, which suppresses a tip cell fate in adjacent stalk cells. Here we show, using genetic reporter and conditional deletion strategies, that myeloid cells regulate tip cell numbers and Dll4 expression via the Notch ligand Dll1 during vascular development in the retina. Dll1 is selectively expressed by a subpopulation of retinal myeloid cells, which progressively localizes to the sprouting vascular network. Conditional, myeloid-specific deletion of Dll1 impairs endothelial Dll4 tip-stalk gradient resulting in an increase of endothelial tip cells and EC filopodia, accompanied by an increase in vascular density and branching. In vitro, co-culture of human EC with monocyte-derived macrophages induced Dll1 upregulation in macrophages and Dll4 upregulation and an endothelial tip cell signature in EC. Furthermore, culturing human EC on recombinant DLL1 induced endothelial Dll4 expression and a tip cell program, indicating that changes are Dll1-dependent. Thus, myeloid cells regulate tip cell fate and angiogenesis through expression of Notch ligand Dll1.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 96-104, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155332

RESUMO

For patients with myocardial infarct-related cardiogenic shock (CS), urgent percutaneous coronary intervention is the recommended treatment strategy to limit cardiac and systemic ischemia. However, a specific therapeutic intervention is often missing in non-ischemic CS cases. Though drug treatment with inotropes and/or vasopressors may be required to stabilize the patient initially, their ongoing use is associated with excess mortality. Coronary intervention in unstable patients often leads to further hemodynamic compromise either during or shortly after revascularization. Support devices like the intra-aortic balloon pump failed to improve clinical outcomes in infarct-related CS. Currently, more powerful and active hemodynamic support devices unloading the left ventricle such as transvalvular microaxial pumps are available and are being increasingly used. However, as for other devices large randomized trials are not yet available, and device use is based on registry data and expert consensus. In this article, a multidisciplinary group of experienced users of transvalvular microaxial pumps outlines the pathophysiological background on hemodynamic changes in CS, the available mechanical support devices, and current guideline recommendations. Furthermore, different hemodynamic situations in several case-based scenarios are used to illustrate candidate settings and to provide the theoretic and scientific rationale for left-ventricular unloading in these scenarios. Finally, organization of shock networks, monitoring, weaning, and typical complications and their prevention are discussed.

5.
Blood Purif ; : 1-12, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096211

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and extracorporeal life support are increasingly used for treating various forms of shock, lung failure, protected interventions and life support including resuscitation. Most patients on ECMO are affected by a systemic inflammatory response caused by the underlying disease as well as the ECMO support itself, which contributes to vasoplegia, multi-organ failure, deterioration and death. Unfortunately, effective strategies for control of inflammation and related organ failure and shock on ECMO are lacking. Recently, a new polystyrene-based device for hemoadsorption, which aims to reduce excessive levels of inflammatory molecules such as interleukins, cytokines as well as damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, has become available. Here we summarize the rationale, available data and technical aspects of polystyrene-based hemoadsorption during ECMO support, and give recommendations based on existing experience.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(8): 1590-1591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036324
8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 155-157, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611721
9.
Circulation ; 139(15): 1798-1812, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) elicits an inflammatory response that drives tissue repair and adverse cardiac remodeling. Inflammatory cell trafficking after MI is controlled by C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). CXCR4 antagonists mobilize inflammatory cells and promote infarct repair, but the cellular mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the therapeutic potential and mode of action of the peptidic macrocycle CXCR4 antagonist POL5551 in mice with reperfused MI. We applied cell depletion and adoptive transfer strategies using lymphocyte-deficient Rag1 knockout mice; DEREG mice, which express a diphtheria toxin receptor-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion protein under the control of the promoter/enhancer region of the regulatory T (Treg) cell-restricted Foxp3 transcription factor; and dendritic cell-depleted CD11c-Cre iDTR mice. Translational potential was explored in a porcine model of reperfused MI using serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal POL5551 injections in wild-type mice (8 mg/kg at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) enhanced angiogenesis in the infarct border zone, reduced scar size, and attenuated left ventricular remodeling and contractile dysfunction at 28 days. Treatment effects were absent in splenectomized wild-type mice, Rag1 knockout mice, and Treg cell-depleted DEREG mice. Conversely, treatment effects could be transferred into infarcted splenectomized wild-type mice by transplanting splenic Treg cells from POL5551-treated infarcted DEREG mice. Instructive cues provided by infarct-primed dendritic cells were required for POL5551 treatment effects. POL5551 injections mobilized Treg cells into the peripheral blood, followed by enhanced Treg cell accumulation in the infarcted region. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes displayed similar mobilization kinetics, but their cardiac recruitment was not affected. POL5551, however, attenuated inflammatory gene expression in monocytes and macrophages in the infarcted region via Treg cells. Intravenous infusion of the clinical-stage POL5551 analogue POL6326 (3 mg/kg at 4, 6, 8, and 10 days) decreased infarct volume and improved left ventricular ejection fraction in pigs. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm CXCR4 blockade as a promising treatment strategy after MI. We identify dendritic cell-primed splenic Treg cells as the central arbiters of these therapeutic effects and thereby delineate a pharmacological strategy to promote infarct repair by augmenting Treg cell function in vivo.

10.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 20(2): 153-166, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581088

RESUMO

In part 2 of this two-part manuscript on takotsubo syndrome (TTS), we discuss typical biomarkers (particularly excess catecholamines and what kinds of electrocardiographic information operators should look for) and numerous complications the syndrome can cause. This consensus paper is the result of a multinational effort aiming to summarize the current state of the art on TTS. Several novel and unique sections are emphasized in this document, including the current state of the art on genetics of takotsubo syndrome, microRNAs (miRs), racial differences, role of cardiac spectroscopy and intracoronary imaging, as well as mechanical circulatory support. New structured algorithms are also proposed to aid clinicians in the decision-making process as well as future directions for research given the current lack of evidence-based medical approaches.

13.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 20(1): 70-79, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528096

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute cardiac condition independent of epicardial coronary obstruction that mimics acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by acute heart failure with reversible ventricular motion abnormalities. This consensus paper is the result of a multinational effort aiming to summarize the current state of the art on TTS. Experts in the field provide a thorough and detailed review of this syndrome. Several novel and unique sections are emphasized in this document, including the current state of the art on genetics of takotsubo syndrome, microRNAs (miRs), racial differences, role of cardiac spectroscopy and intracoronary imaging, as well as mechanical circulatory support. In part 1 of this two-part manuscript, we discuss how TTS came to be known, several patterns and forms it can take in patients, epidemiology and pathophysiology of the syndrome, and clinical presentation.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(18): 1811-1820, 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to analyze the impact of mandatory therapeutic hypothermia and cardiac catheterization in the absence of overt noncardiac cause of arrest as part of the Hannover Cardiac Resuscitation Algorithm before intensive care admission. BACKGROUND: Despite advanced therapies, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still associated with high mortality rates. Recently, the TTM (Target Temperature Management 33°C Versus 36°C After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest)-trial caused severe uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for therapeutic hypothermia. Furthermore, the role of early coronary angiography in OHCA survivors without ST-segment elevation remains undetermined. METHODS: In the HACORE (HAnnover Cooling REgistry) we investigated 233 consecutive patients (median age 64 [interquartile range: 53 to 74] years) with OHCA admitted to our institution between January 2011 and December 2015 who were treated according to the algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 73% had ventricular fibrillation as primary rhythm. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after 20 (interquartile range: 10 to 30) min. Immediate percutaneous coronary angiography was performed in 96% and coronary angioplasty in 59% of all cases. ST-segment elevation was present in 47%. Critical coronary stenosis requiring percutaneous coronary intervention was present in 67% of patients with and 52% of patients without ST-segment elevation. Overall 30-day intrahospital mortality in this real-world registry was 37%. Patients in our local registry who matched the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the TTM-trial (n = 145) had a markedly lower 30-day mortality (27%) compared with the published trial (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Standardized treatment of patients with OHCA following a strict protocol incorporating computed tomography, cardiac catheterization and revascularization, liberal use of active hemodynamic support in presence of shock, and mandatory therapeutic hypothermia results in mortality rates lower than previously reported.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(8): 874-882, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive. OBJECTIVES: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers. METHODS: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions. RESULTS: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).

16.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 15): S1696-S1702, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034841

RESUMO

Background: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) (HVAD, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) implantation is already a widely accepted treatment option for end-stage heart failure (HF) but also still considered as a rescue therapy for patients suffering from cardiogenic shock. Standard LVAD implantation techniques are often associated with high mortality rates and can result in severe complications, like bleeding or right heart failure (RHF). The aim of our study was to assess the outcome of Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) 1 patients (so called "crash and burn" patients) undergoing a LVAD implantation by standard or less invasive surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of the 1-year outcome of 32 consecutive HF patients in cardiogenic shock, who underwent LVAD implantation in our institution. A total of 32 INTERMACS 1 patients were emergently operated. Fourteen patients (group A) were operated by using the "Hannover-VAD-technique", which is widely known to be less invasive (upper hemisternotomy and a left-sided anterolateral thoracotomy). In contrast, 18 patients (group B) were implanted with LVAD by using the standard technique (full sternotomy). The primary endpoint was survival after 1 year without device-related re-operations. Secondary endpoints included combined analyses of rates of RHF, respiratory failure and bleeding during the trial period. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Survival after 1 year was higher in group A (69.7% vs. 50.0%). Technique-related adverse events (AEs) were also lower in the minimally invasive group, including a lower RHF (35.7% vs. 61.1%) and of further postoperative bleeding requiring surgery (14.3% vs. 33.3%). Conclusions: LVAD surgery in INTERMACS 1 patients is associated with remarkably good outcome considering the already very high mortality of those patients, and compared to previously reported surgical outcomes. Our study indicates that minimally invasive LVAD implantation in cardiogenic shock decreases mortality and the incidence of postoperative AEs.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 15): S1711-S1719, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034843

RESUMO

Background: Pump thrombosis (PT) is still one of the major adverse events in patients supported with left ventricular assist devices. Nowadays, thrombus detection relies on clinical parameters like reoccurring heart failure symptoms, on changes in pump power consumption, and on laboratory parameters such as increased LDH and hemolysis. Once detected PT is most often persistent and refractory to medical therapy. We therefore designed a novel, non-invasive acoustic method for early pump thrombus detection in an in vitro artificial thrombus model. Methods: The study was performed in vitro using a mock circulation loop, artificial blood (water-glycerin) and artificial thrombus material (silicon) allowing for repeatable and defined testing. Tested ventricular assist device (VAD) type was HVAD (Medtronic). Three different thrombus locations were evaluated: on the tilted pad of the rotor, in the primary flow path, and in the secondary flow path beneath the rotor. After evaluating baseline parameters (no thrombus, n=20 for each pump), the influence of thrombi of seven different masses (no thrombus, 0.5-5.0 mg) on pump power consumption and acoustic emission of four HVAD devices was investigated via a microphone system (Sennheiser) and subsequent frequency spectrum analysis (n=12). The acoustic analysis algorithm included the number of frequency peaks recorded. Results: Measurements with thrombi on the tilted pad showed an increased number of frequency peaks with all thrombus sizes compared to baseline measurements without any thrombus (baseline: 32.7±7.4; 0.5 mg: 45.3±10.4 up to 5 mg: 80.4±5.5). Power consumption was relevantly elevated in 5mg thrombus measurement only (6.3±1.29 W compared to 4.9±0.14 W at baseline). Measurements with thrombi in the primary and secondary showed no relevant alteration in power consumption and frequency peak count. Conclusions: We present an acoustic method that detects pump thrombi located on the tilted pad of the HVAD rotor requiring ten times less mass compared to thrombi detected by power consumption alterations used in current detection algorithms. Assuming that pump thrombi are growing over several days, the presented method may detect PT much earlier thereby increasing efficacy of medical therapy and helping to avoid pump exchange.

18.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 15): S1720-S1727, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034844

RESUMO

Background: Device thrombosis is one of the main complications in left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) therapy and remains a challenging issue. Data on device thrombosis management, especially on the application of direct thrombin inhibitors such as argatroban, is limited and a consensus on thrombosis management has not yet been established. Methods: In this study we analysed retrospective clinical data obtained from 26 patients on VAD therapy who received argatroban for suspected VAD thrombosis, between April, 2012 and February, 2017. Results: Thirteen patients (50%) showed resolution of thrombus after argatroban therapy. Eight of 26 patients (30.8%) were free of thrombotic events 90 days after discharge. Argatroban therapy was unsuccessful in 13 patients of the study cohort, leading to subsequent VAD-exchange. Six of 13 patients with first VAD-exchange had no thrombotic events 90 days after discharge. Six patients (23.1%) suffered from bleeding, especially gastrointestinal bleeding. No hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Three patients (11.5%) did not survive the follow-up period. Conclusions: Argatroban appears to be an alternative to other pharmacological treatment options in VAD thrombosis. Efficacy and safety characteristics are acceptable, but further investigation on larger populations is necessary.

19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 45(11): 1934-1944, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a promising target for molecular imaging of CXCR4+ cell types, e.g. inflammatory cells, in cardiovascular diseases. We speculated that a specific CXCR4 ligand, [68Ga]pentixafor, along with novel techniques for motion correction, would facilitate the in vivo characterization of CXCR4 expression in small culprit and nonculprit coronary atherosclerotic lesions after acute myocardial infarction by motion-corrected targeted PET/CT. METHODS: CXCR4 expression was analysed ex vivo in separately obtained arterial wall specimens. [68Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT was performed in 37 patients after stent-based reperfusion for a first acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. List-mode PET data were reconstructed to five different datasets using cardiac and/or respiratory gating. Guided by CT for localization, the PET signals of culprit and various groups of nonculprit coronary lesions were analysed and compared. RESULTS: Ex vivo, CXCR4 was upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mainly colocalized with CD68+ inflammatory cells. In vivo, elevated CXCR4 expression was detected in culprit and nonculprit lesions, and the strongest CXCR4 PET signal (median SUVmax 1.96; interquartile range, IQR, 1.55-2.31) was observed in culprit coronary artery lesions. Stented nonculprit lesions (median SUVmax 1.45, IQR 1.23-1.88; P = 0.048) and hot spots in naive remote coronary segments (median SUVmax 1.34, IQR 1.23-1.74; P = 0.0005) showed significantly lower levels of CXCR4 expression. Dual cardiac/respiratory gating provided the strongest CXCR4 PET signal and the highest lesion detectability. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the basic feasibility of motion-corrected targeted PET/CT imaging of CXCR4 expression in coronary artery lesions, which was triggered by vessel wall inflammation but also by stent-induced injury. This novel methodology may serve as a platform for future diagnostic and therapeutic clinical studies targeting the biology of coronary atherosclerotic plaque.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Movimento , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872618777876, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute peripartum cardiomyopathy complicated by cardiogenic shock is a rare but life-threatening disease. A prolactin fragment is considered causal for the pathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy. This analysis sought to investigate the role of early percutaneous mechanical circulatory support with micro-axial flow-pumps and/or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in combination with the prolactin inhibitor bromocriptine in refractory cardiogenic shock complicating peripartum cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this single-centre analysis, five peripartum cardiomyopathy patients with refractory cardiogenic shock received mechanical circulatory support with either Impella CP microaxial pump only ( n=2) or in combination with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( n=3) in the setting of biventricular failure. All patients were mechanically ventilated. In all cases mechanical circulatory support was combined with bromocriptine therapy and early administration of levosimendan. All patients survived the acute phase of refractory cardiogenic shock. Mechanical circulatory support using a micro-axial pump allowed to significantly reduce catecholamine dosage. Remarkably, early left ventricular support with micro-axial flow-pumps resulted in myocardial recovery whereas delayed Impella (mechanical circulatory support) implantation was associated with poor left ventricular recovery. CONCLUSION: Mechanical circulatory support in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock complicating peripartum cardiomyopathy was associated with a 30-day survival of 100% and a favourable outcome. Notably, early left ventricular unloading combined with bromocriptine therapy was associated with left ventricular recovery. Therefore, an immediate transfer to a tertiary hospital experienced in mechanical circulatory support in combination with bromocriptine treatment seems indispensable for successful treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy complicated by cardiogenic shock.

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