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1.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(3): 1000-1007, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy is associated with postoperative delirium, but its pathophysiology is not well defined. We conducted this study to measure the relationship among serum biomarkers of inflammation and neuronal injury and delirium incidence and severity in a cohort of esophagectomy patients. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from patients preoperatively and on postoperative days 1 and 3 and were analyzed for S100 calcium-binding protein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 8 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Delirium was assessed twice daily using the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit. Delirium severity was assessed once daily with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. RESULTS: Samples from 71 patients were included. Preoperative biomarker concentrations were not associated with postoperative delirium. Significant differences in change in concentrations from preoperatively to postoperative day 1 were seen in IL-8 (delirium, 38.6; interquartile range [IQR], 29.3-69.8; no delirium, 24.8; IQR, 16.0-41.7, P = .022), and IL-10 (delirium, 26.1; IQR, 13.9-36.7; no delirium, 12.4; IQR, 7.7-25.7; P = .025). Greater postoperative increase in S100 calcium-binding protein B (Spearman r = 0.289, P = .020) and lower levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 were correlated with greater delirium severity (Spearman r = -0.27, P = .040). Greater CRP change quartiles were associated with higher delirium incidence adjusting for severity of illness (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.75; P = .037) or comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.76, P = .030). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in change in serum CRP, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were associated with postoperative delirium, suggesting biomarker measurement early in the postoperative course is associated with delirium.


Assuntos
Delírio , Interleucina-8 , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Interleucina-10
2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(1): 199-204, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448437

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T) is characterized by anemia, ring sideroblast erythroid precursors, and persistent thrombocytosis. Case reports suggest lenalidomide may be effective in treating MDS/MPN-RS-T. We evaluated a large series of patients with MDS/MPN-RS-T to compare hematological improvement (HI) response rates among different drug therapies including lenalidomide. We identified 167 patients with MDS/MPN-RS-T. Among the patients tested, 84% had SF3B1 mutations and 43% had JAK2 V617F mutations. The median OS for the cohort was 81 months. Overall, 76 patients (46%) received erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), 47 patients (28%) received lenalidomide, and 45 patients (27%) received hypomethylating agents (HMAs). The HI rates were 58%, 53%, and 24%, respectively. The median duration of treatment was 11 months for lenalidomide compared to 6 months for HMAs. Rates of HI improvement were higher in patients with MDS/MPN-RS-T treated with ESAs or lenalidomide, in comparison to those treated with HMAs.


Assuntos
Anemia Sideroblástica , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas , Neoplasias , Trombocitose , Anemia Sideroblástica/diagnóstico , Anemia Sideroblástica/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Sideroblástica/etiologia , Humanos , Mutação , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Mieloproliferativas-Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitose/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Br J Haematol ; 195(3): 378-387, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340254

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is upregulated in cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34)+ bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Hypomethylating agent (HMA) treatment results in further increased expression of these immune checkpoints. We hypothesised that combining an anti-PD-1 antibody with HMAs may have efficacy in patients with MDS. To test this concept, we designed a phase II trial of the combination of azacitidine and pembrolizumab with two cohorts. In the 17 previously untreated patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 76%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 18% and median overall survival (mOS) not reached after a median follow-up of 12·8 months. For the HMA-failure cohort (n = 20), the ORR was 25% and CR rate was 5%; with a median follow-up of 6·0 months, the mOS was 5·8 months. The most observed toxicities were pneumonia (32%), arthralgias (24%) and constipation (24%). Immune-related adverse events requiring corticosteroids were required in 43%. Overall, this phase II trial suggests that azacitidine and pembrolizumab is safe with manageable toxicities in patients with higher-risk MDS. This combined therapy may have anti-tumour activity in a subset of patients and merits further studies in the front-line setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Risco
5.
Cancer ; 127(17): 3113-3124, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the clonal mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis, prognostic factors, and optimal therapy for atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). METHODS: The authors evaluated the clinicopathologic features, outcomes, and responses to therapy of 65 patients with aCML. The median age was 67 years (range, 46-89 years). RESULTS: The most frequently mutated genes included ASXL1 (83%), SRSF2 (68%), and SETBP1 (58%). Mutations in SETBP1, SRSF2, TET2, and GATA2 appeared at variant allele frequencies (VAFs) greater than 40%, whereas other RAS pathway mutations were more likely to appear at low VAFs. The acquisition of new, previously undetectable mutations at transformation was observed in 63% of the evaluable patients, with the most common involving signaling pathway mutations. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) were associated with the highest response rates but with a short duration of response (median, 2.7 months). Therapy with ruxolitinib was not associated with clinically significant responses as a single agent or in combination with an HMA. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was the only therapy associated with improved outcomes (hazard ratio, 0.144; 95% CI, 0.035-0.593; P = .007). Age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were independent predictors of survival and were integrated in a multivariable model that allowed the prediction of 1- and 3-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: aCML is characterized by high frequencies of ASXL1, SRSF2, and SETBP1 mutations and is associated with a high risk of acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Response and survival outcomes with current therapies remain poor. The incorporation of age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and LDH levels can allow survival prediction, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered for all eligible patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa , Idoso , Medula Óssea/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Crônica Atípica BCR-ABL Negativa/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico
7.
Leuk Res ; 101: 106511, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517186

RESUMO

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is characterized by myelomonocytic bias and monocytic proliferation. Whether cell-intrinsic innate immune or inflammatory upregulation mediate disease pathogenesis and phenotype or whether the degree of aberrant monocytic differentiation influences outcomes remains unclear. We compared the transcriptomic features of bone marrow CD34+ cells from 19 patients with CMML and compared to healthy individuals. A total of 1495 genes had significantly differential expression in CMML (q<0.05, fold change>2), including 1271 genes that were significantly upregulated and 224 that were significantly downregulated in CMML. Top upregulated genes were associated with interferon (IFN) alpha and beta signaling, chemokine receptors, IFN gamma, G protein-coupled receptor ligand signaling, and genes involved in immunomodulatory interactions between lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. Additionally, 6 gene sets were differentially upregulated and 139 were significantly downregulated in patients with myeloproliferative compared to myelodysplastic CMML. A total of 23 genes involved in regulation of monopoiesis were upregulated in CMML compared to healthy controls. We developed a prediction model using Cox regression including 3 of these genes, which differentiated patients into two prognostic subsets with distinct survival outcomes. This data warrants further evaluation of the roles and therapeutic potential of type I IFN signaling and monopoiesis in CMML.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon Tipo I/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica , Mielopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/genética , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética
8.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1894-1900, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New drug combinations have led to significant improvements in remission rates for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, many patients with high-risk AML who respond to their initial treatment and are not candidates for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) will eventually relapse with poor outcomes. METHODS: In this phase 2 trial, the efficacy of lenalidomide maintenance was evaluated in patients with high-risk AML who had achieved their first or second remission after induction chemotherapy and at least 1 consolidation cycle and who were not candidates for immediate ASCT. Lenalidomide was given orally at 10 to 20 mg daily on days 1 to 28 of a 28-day cycle for up to 24 cycles. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were enrolled in this study with a median age of 61 years (range, 24-87 years). The median number of cycles was 8 (range, 1-24 cycles). Ten patients (36%) completed 24 months of maintenance treatment. With a median follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 2.6-55 months), 12 patients (43%) relapsed after a median of 3 months (range, 0.7-23 months). The median duration of remission for all patients was 18.7 months (range, 0.7-55.1 months). The 2-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates from the time of enrollment were 63% and 50%, respectively. Overall, lenalidomide was well tolerated; serious adverse events of grade 3 or 4, including rash (n = 5), thrombocytopenia (n = 4), neutropenia (n = 4), and fatigue (n = 2), were observed in 13 patients (46%). CONCLUSIONS: Lenalidomide is a safe and feasible maintenance strategy in patients with high-risk AML who are not candidates for ASCT, and it has beneficial effects for patients with negative measurable residual disease.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Lenalidomida , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): 1755-1763, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mold-active primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is routinely recommended in neutropenic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC). Isavuconazole (ISAV) is an extended spectrum mold-active triazole and has superior tolerability and fewer significant drug-drug interactions compared with other triazoles. METHODS: In our investigator-initiated, phase 2 trial, treatment-naive adult patients with AML or MDS starting RIC received ISAV per the dosing recommendations in the US label until neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] ≥ 0.5 × 109/L) and attainment of complete remission, occurrence of invasive fungal infection (IFI), or for a maximum of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the incidence of proven/probable IFI during ISAV PAP and up to 30 days after the last dose. RESULTS: Sixty-five of 75 enrolled patients received ISAV PAP (median age, 67 years, median ANC at enrollment, 0.72 × 109/L). Thirty-two patients (49%) received oral targeted leukemia treatments (venetoclax, FTL3 inhibitors). Including the 30-day follow-up period, probable/proven and possible IFIs were encountered in 4 (6%) and 8 patients (12%), respectively. ISAV trough serum concentrations were consistently > 1 µg/mL, showed low intraindividual variation, and were not significantly influenced by chemotherapy regimen. Tolerability of ISAV was excellent, with only 3 cases (5%) of mild to moderate elevations of liver function tests and no QTc prolongations. CONCLUSIONS: ISAV is a safe and effective alternative for PAP in patients with newly diagnosed AML/MDS undergoing RIC in the era of recently approved or emerging small-molecule antileukemia therapies. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03019939.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Micoses , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Triazóis/uso terapêutico
10.
Haematologica ; 106(11): 2853-2858, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054123

RESUMO

Approximately 20-50% patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or with myelofibrosis (MF) treated with ruxolitinib develop grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia needing treatment interruptions and dose reductions. We conducted a non-randomized, phase II, single-arm study to determine the efficacy of eltrombopag for patients with CML or MF with persistent thrombocytopenia while on TKI or ruxolitinib. Eltrombopag was initiated at 50 mg/day, with dose escalation up to 300 mg daily allowed every 2 weeks. Twenty-one patients were enrolled (CML=15, MF=6); median age 60 years (range, 31-97 years). The median platelet count was 44x109/L (range, 3-49x109/L) in CML and 62x109/L (range, 21-75x109/L) in MF. After a median of 18 months (range, 5-77 months), 12/15 patients with CML achieved complete platelet response. The median peak platelet count among responders was 154x109/L (range, 74-893x109/L). Among CML patients 5 could re-escalate the TKI dose and 9 improved their response. None of the 6 patients with MF had a sustained response. Therapy was generally well tolerated. One patient discontinued therapy due to toxicity (elevated transaminases). One patient with CML developed significant thrombocytosis (>1000x109/L). Another CML patient developed non occlusive deep venous thrombosis in the right upper extremity without thrombocytosis, and one MF patient had myocardial infarction. Eltrombopag may help improve platelet counts in CML patients receiving TKI with recurrent thrombocytopenia. Further studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Mielofibrose Primária , Trombocitopenia , Benzoatos , Humanos , Hidrazinas , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Pirazóis , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Hematol ; 96(2): 241-250, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180322

RESUMO

Extreme gradient boosting methods outperform conventional machine-learning models. Here, we have developed the LEukemia Artificial intelligence Program (LEAP) with the extreme gradient boosting decision tree method for the optimal treatment recommendation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). A cohort of CML-CP patients was randomly divided into training/validation (N = 504) and test cohorts (N = 126). The training/validation cohort was used for 3-fold cross validation to develop the LEAP CML-CP model using 101 variables at diagnosis. The test cohort was then applied to the LEAP CML-CP model and an optimum TKI treatment was suggested for each patient. The area under the curve in the test cohort was 0.81899.Backward multivariate analysis identified age at diagnosis, the degree of comorbidities, and TKI recommended therapy by the LEAP CML-CP model as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The bootstrapping method internally validated the association of the LEAP CML-CP recommendation with overall survival as an independent prognostic for overall survival. Selecting treatment according to the LEAP CML-CP personalized recommendations, in this model, is associated with better survival probability compared to treatment with a LEAP CML-CP non-recommended therapy. This approach may pave a way of new era of personalized treatment recommendations for patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Am J Hematol ; 96(3): 282-291, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264443

RESUMO

Hypomethylating agents (HMA) with venetoclax is a new standard for older/unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, it is unknown how HMA with venetoclax compare to intensive chemotherapy (IC) in patients who are "fit" or "unfit" for IC. We compared outcomes of older patients with newly diagnosed AML receiving 10-day decitabine with venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) vs IC. DEC10-VEN consisted of daily venetoclax with decitabine 20 mg/m2 for 10 days for induction and decitabine for 5 days as consolidation. The IC cohort received regimens containing cytarabine ≥1 g/m2 /d. A validated treatment-related mortality score (TRMS) was used to classify patients at high-risk or low-risk for TRM with IC. Propensity scores were used to match patients to minimize bias. Median age of the DEC10-VEN cohort (n = 85) was 72 years (range 63-89) and 28% patients were at high-risk of TRM with IC. The comparator IC group (n = 85) matched closely in terms of baseline characteristics. DEC10-VEN was associated with significantly higher CR/CRi compared to IC (81% vs 52%, P < .001), and lower rate of relapse (34% vs 56%, P = .01), 30-day mortality (1% vs 24%, P < .01), and longer overall survival (OS; 12.4 vs 4.5 months, HR = 0.48, 95%CI 0.29-0.79, P < .01). In patients at both at high-risk and low-risk of TRM, DEC10-VEN showed significantly higher CR/CRi, lower 30-day mortality, and longer OS compared to IC. Patients at both high-risk and low-risk of TRM had comparable outcomes with DEC10-VEN. In conclusion, DEC10-VEN offers better outcomes compared to intensive chemotherapy in older patients with newly diagnosed AML, particularly in those at high-risk of TRM.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(10): 1385-1415, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022644

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is defined by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) which results from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22] that gives rise to a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. CML occurs in 3 different phases (chronic, accelerated, and blast phase) and is usually diagnosed in the chronic phase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is a highly effective first-line treatment option for all patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with chronic phase CML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Oncologia , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Translocação Genética
16.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e724-e736, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents is a new standard of care for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who are 75 years or older, or unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Pharmacodynamic studies have suggested superiority of the longer 10-day regimen of decitabine that has shown promising results in patients with high-risk AML in phase 2 trials. We hypothesised that venetoclax with 10-day decitabine could have improved activity in patients with newly diagnosed AML and those with relapsed or refractory AML, particularly in high-risk subgroups. METHODS: This single centre, phase 2 trial was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). The study enrolled older patients (aged >60 years) with newly diagnosed AML, not eligible for intensive chemotherapy; secondary AML (progressed after myelodysplastic syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia); and relapsed or refractory AML. Patients were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 3 or less, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109 per L, and adequate end-organ function. Patients with favourable-risk cytogenetics (eg, t[15;17] or core-binding factor AML) or who had received previous BCL2-inhibitor therapy were excluded. Patients received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 10 days with oral venetoclax 400 mg daily for induction, followed by decitabine for 5 days with daily venetoclax for consolidation. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. The secondary endpoints analysed within this report include safety, overall survival, and duration of response, in keeping with recommendations of European LeukemiaNet 2017 guidelines. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were eligible for safety and response assessments. The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03404193) and continues to accrue patients. FINDINGS: Between Jan 19, 2018, and Dec 16, 2019, we enrolled 168 patients; 70 (42%) had newly diagnosed AML, 15 (9%) had untreated secondary AML, 28 (17%) had treated secondary AML, and 55 (33%) had relapsed or refractory AML. The median age was 71 years (IQR 65-76) and 30% of patients had ECOG performance status of 2 or higher. The median follow-up for all patients was 16 months (95% CI 12-18; actual follow-up 6·5 months; IQR 3·4-12·4). The overall response rate was 74% (125 of 168 patients; 95% CI 67-80) and in disease subgroups were: 89% in newly diagnosed AML (62 of 70 patients; 79-94), 80% in untreated secondary AML (12 of 15 patients; 55-93), 61% in treated secondary AML (17 of 28 patients; 42-76), and 62% in relapsed or refractory AML (34 of 55 patients; 49-74). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events included infections with grades 3 or 4 neutropenia (n=79, 47%) and febrile neutropenia (n=49, 29%). 139 (83%) of 168 patients had serious adverse events, most frequently neutropenic fever (n=63, 38%), followed by pneumonia (n=17, 10%) and sepsis (n=16, 10%). The 30-day mortality for all patients was 3·6% (n=6, 95% CI 1·7-7·8). The median overall survival was 18·1 months (95% CI 10·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 7·8 months (2·9-10·7) in untreated secondary AML, 6·0 months (3·4-13·7) in treated secondary AML, and 7·8 months (5·4-13·3) relapsed or refractory AML. The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI 9·0-not reached) in newly diagnosed AML, 5·1 months (95% CI 0·9-not reached) in untreated secondary AML, not reached (95% CI 2·5-not reached) in previously treated secondary AML, and 16·8 months (95% CI 6·6-not reached) in relapsed or refractory AML. INTERPRETATION: Venetoclax with 10-day decitabine has a manageable safety profile and showed high activity in newly diagnosed AML and molecularly defined subsets of relapsed or refractory AML. Future larger and randomised studies are needed to clarify activity in high-risk subsets. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Leukemia ; 34(11): 2914-2924, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546726

RESUMO

CPX-351 is a liposomal formulation of cytarabine/daunorubicin with a 5:1 fixed molar ratio. We investigated the safety and efficacy of escalating doses of CPX-351 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at high risk of induction mortality with standard chemotherapy determined through assessment of leukemia and patient-related risk factors for intensive chemotherapy in an open-label, phase II trial. Patients were randomized to receive 50 or 75 units/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5. Once safety was established, a 100 units/m2 arm was opened. Fifty-six patients were enrolled, 16, 24, and 16 in the 50, 75, and 100 units/m2 arms, respectively. The composite complete remission rate (complete remission + complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery) was lowest with 50 units/m2 (19%) compared with 75 units/m2 (38%) and 100 units/m2 (44%) (P = 0.35). The 50 units/m2 arm had a median OS of 4.3 months, compared with 8.6 and 6.2 months for the 75 and 100 units/m2 respectively (P = 0.04). Nonhematologic grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events included febrile neutropenia (34%), pneumonia (23%), and sepsis (16%). CPX-351 at 75 units/m2 has favorable safety and efficacy for AML patients at high risk of induction mortality with some tolerating the standard dose of 100 units/m2.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Daunorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Citarabina/efeitos adversos , Daunorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Blood Adv ; 4(7): 1311-1320, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251497

RESUMO

Nucleophosmin-1 mutations (NPM1+) occur in ∼30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Although typically associated with favorable prognosis, the beneficial impact of NPM1+ decreases with increasing age in patients treated with standard intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hypomethylating agents (HMAs). This retrospective analysis compared outcomes of NPM1+ AML patients treated with 1 of 3 induction approaches: HMA plus BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax (VEN), HMA, or IC therapy. Composite complete response (CRc: CR + CR with incomplete count recovery) was seen in 96% (27/28), 36% (17/47), and 89% (204/228) of HMA + VEN, HMA, and IC patients, respectively (HMA + VEN vs HMA, P < .001; HMA + VEN vs IC, P = .10). Older patients (age >65 years) treated with HMA + VEN, HMA, or IC had CR rates of 88%, 28%, and 56%, respectively (HMA + VEN vs HMA, P < .001; HMA + VEN vs IC, P = .01). Significant improvement in overall survival (OS) was seen in patients age >65 years treated with HMA + VEN vs HMA (not reached [NR] vs 0.4 years; P < .001) or IC (NR vs 0.93 years; P = .001). Older patients treated with HMA + VEN had OS of 80% after median 1-year follow-up, with estimated 2-year OS of 70%. In the multivariable Cox model analysis, HMA + VEN was associated with a 69% lower risk of death compared with IC (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.83; type I error-adjusted P = .038). HMA + VEN combinations demonstrated impressive results compared with traditional standard-of-care regimens in older patients with NPM1+ AML.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(8): 1943-1953, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264726

RESUMO

FF-10501-01 potently inhibits inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), inducing anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) human cell lines resistant to hypomethylating agents. In this Phase 1/2a study, Phase 1 enrolled 38 patients with relapsed/refractory AML (n = 28) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS/CMML, n = 10) to receive FF-10501 oral doses 50-500 mg/m2 BID for 14 or 21 days out of each 28-day cycle. Fifteen additional patients with HMA-resistant MDS/CMML (Phase 2a) were treated at 400 mg/m2 BID for 21 days. Most Phase 1 adverse events were disease-related and low-grade. 3 of 19 (16%) evaluable AML patients achieved partial remission (31, 7, and 5 months). 2 of 20 (10%) evaluable MDS/CMML patients (Phase 1 and 2a) attained marrow complete remission, one continuing treatment for 17 months. While FF-10501-01 demonstrated clinical activity and target inhibition in heavily pretreated patients with AML and MDS/CMML, increased mucositis events led to Phase 2a closure (ClinTrials.gov#NCT02193958).


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , IMP Desidrogenase , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Acta Haematol ; 143(6): 567-573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) advanced leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast phase (MBP), have poor outcomes. Venetoclax has shown synergism with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in preclinical studies. However, clinical activity of venetoclax and TKI-based regimens is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients with Ph+ AML (n = 7) and CML-MBP (n = 9) who received venetoclax combined with TKI-based regimens at our institution. RESULTS: Median patient age was 42 years, and the median number of prior therapy cycles was 5 (range 2-8). Nine patients received decitabine-based, and 7 received intensive chemotherapy-based regimens. Ten patients (63%) received ponatinib. The overall response rate (ORR) in 15 evaluable patients was 60% (1 complete remission [CR], 6 CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi], 1 morphologic leukemia-free state, and 1 partial response). The ORR was 43% in Ph+ AML and 75% in CML-MBP. The median overall survival (OS) for all patients was 3.6 months, for AML OS was 2.0 months, and for CML-MBP OS was 10.9 months. The median relapse-free survival for AML and CML-MBP was 3.6 and 3.9 months, respectively. Compared to nonresponders, patients achieving CR/CRi had higher baseline Ph+ metaphases and BCR-ABL1 PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy of venetoclax with TKI-based regimens shows encouraging activity in very heavily pretreated, advanced Ph+ leukemias, particularly CML-MBP.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Crise Blástica , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Crise Blástica/tratamento farmacológico , Crise Blástica/enzimologia , Crise Blástica/genética , Crise Blástica/mortalidade , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida
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