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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439764

RESUMO

Dengue fever, caused by the dengue virus (DENV), is one of the most important reemerging viral diseases transmitted by arthropods worldwide. DENV is maintained in nature in two transmission cycles: urban and sylvatic. The latter has only been recorded in Africa and Asia and involves nonhuman primates as natural hosts, although it has been suggested that other mammals may play a secondary role as potential reservoir host, including bats. The objective of this article is to review the current state of knowledge about DENV-positive bats in the Americas and to determine what ecological and human impact variables could favor DENV infection in bats. We performed a search of published studies on natural and experimental DENV infection in bats. From 1952 to 2019, 14 studies have been carried out (71.4% in the last decade) examining DENV infection in bats in seven countries of the Americas. DENV infection was examined in 1884 bats of 63 species and DENV was detected in 19 of these species. Clench's model estimated that more than 75 species could be carriers of DENV; therefore, considering that at least 350 species of bats are distributed in the Americas, to detect 95% of the DENV-bearing species, it would be necessary to examine about 10,206 bats of ∼287 species that have not been analyzed until 2019. The species with the highest number of positive cases were Molossus sinaloae and Artibeus jamaicensis. Species, colony size, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, human population size, and bat collection site (site inhabited by humans, vegetation cover, and caves) contributed to explain the variation in DENV detection in bats in the Americas. These results provide evidence on the exposure of bats to DENV in different geographic areas of the Americas and a bat sylvatic transmission cycle is very likely to be occurring, where bats may be either accidental hosts, dead-end hosts, or potential reservoir hosts for DENV.

2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670150

RESUMO

Animals have always been important for human life due to the ecological, cultural, and economic functions that they represent. This has allowed building several kinds of relationships that have promoted different emotions in human societies. The objective of this review was to identify the main emotions that humans show toward wildlife species and the impact of such emotions on animal population management. We reviewed academic databases to identify previous studies on this topic worldwide. An analysis of the emotions on wildlife and factors causing them is described in this study. We identified a controversy about these emotions. Large predators such as wolves, coyotes, bears, big felids, and reptiles, such as snakes and geckos, promote mainly anger, fear, and disgust. This is likely due to the perceptions, beliefs, and experiences that societies have historically built around them. However, in some social groups these animals have promoted emotions such as happiness due to their values for people. Likewise, sadness is an emotion expressed for the threatening situations that animals are currently facing. Furthermore, we associated the conservation status of wildlife species identified in the study with human emotions to discuss their relevance for emerging conservation strategies, particularly focused on endangered species promoting ambiguous emotions in different social groups.

3.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 11: 71, 2015 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some Mayan peasant-hunters across the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico still carry out a hunting ritual -Loojil Ts'oon, Loj Ts'oon or Carbine Ceremony- in which they renew the divine permission for hunting in order to continue deserving the gift of prey after a period of hunt. Thus they are granted access to game by the gods and the Lords of the Animals, particularly the spirit/evil-wind call. This paper focuses on the acts within the Loojil Ts'oon -which is performed in the X-Pichil community and surrounding area- that make it unique among the hunting rituals performed in other parts of the Peninsula. METHODS: The Loojil Ts'oon hunting ritual was observed and registered in audiovisual format in two different occasions in X-Pichil (Friday 04/29/2011 and Friday 07/29/2011). Afterwards, we delivered digital videodisks (DVD) to hunters and their families and to the j-men (the magic-medic-ritual specialist) who participated in these ceremonies. This delivery produced confidence among participants to talk more openly and in-depth about the Loojil Ts'oon, revealing symbolic, psychological, and material details previously unknown to outsiders. Qualitative information was obtained through the ethnographic method using techniques such as participant observation and guided tours. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to obtain complementary information. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: On one hand, we describe the preparation and cleansing of the "Sip soup", as well as its parading and distribution -delivery to the spirit/evil-wind Sip- on the streets of the community (highlingting the role of the rooster as a counter-gift). On the other hand, the cleansing of the jaws (of deer: Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama spp.; and peccaries: Tayassuidae) and their return to the Lords of Animals in the hills so that they may give these animals new life. CONCLUSIONS: By performing the Loojil Ts'oon, the act of killing an animal is legitimized. The kill transforms into an exchange to perpetuate life, in which gods and Lords of animals grant the hunter the solicited new game if he has completed his ritual duties and has not broken the prescribed hunting rules. The Loojil Ts'oon does not only represent the continuity and regeneration of animals, that is, fauna as a resource, but also of the whole hunting cycle. The hunter does so to maintain and recreate order and equilibrium in one's relationship with nature as a whole, with the rest of one's social group, and with oneself. Thus, hunting transcends the exclusively material dimension of a subsistence activity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Atividades Humanas , Simbolismo , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , México , População Rural
4.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 11: 36, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25947968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several ethnobiology studies evaluate the cultural significance (CS) of plants and mushrooms. However, this is not the case for mammals. It is important to make studies of CS allowing the comparison of cultural groups because the value given to groups of organisms may be based on different criteria. Such information would be valuable for wildlife preservation plans. In this study, the most culturally significant species of mammals from the Lacandon Rainforest (Chiapas, Mexico) for people from two Mayan-Lacandon and mestizo communities were identified. The reasons behind the CS of the studied species were explored and the existence of differences among the cultural groups was evaluated. METHODS: One hundred ninety-eight semi-structured and structured interviews were applied to compile socio-demographic information, qualitative data on CS categories, and free listings. Frequency of mention was a relative indicator to evaluate the CS of each species of mammal. Comparison of responses between communities was carried out through multivariate analyses. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the number of mentioned species by Lacandons and mestizos as well as different responses in the qualitative categories. A χ2 test was used to compare frequency of categories. RESULTS: 38 wild mammal species were identified. The classification and Principal Components Analyses show an apparent separation between Lacandon and mestizo sites based on the relative importance of species. All four communities mentioned the lowland paca the most, followed by peccary, white-tailed deer, armadillo, and jaguar. No significant difference was found in the number of mentioned species between the two groups. Eight CS categories were identified. The most important category was "harmful mammals", which included 28 species. Other relevant categories were edible, medicinal, and appearing in narratives. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained in this study demonstrates the existence of differential cultural patterns in the relationships that Lacandon and mestizo groups establish with mammals. Species are deemed important either because they are eaten of because of the harm they cause. We suggest the incorporation of local conceptions about wild animals in conservation frameworks for the fauna in the Lacandon Rainforest.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Animais , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , México , Floresta Úmida
5.
Integr Zool ; 7(4): 346-355, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23253366

RESUMO

In this manuscript, as a starting point, the ancient and current distribution of the genus Tapirus are summarized, from its origins, apparently in Europe, to current ranges. Subsequently, original and current tapir habitats are described, as well as changes in ancient habitats. As the manuscript goes on, we examine the ways in which tapir species interact with their habitats and the main aspects of habitat use, spatial ecology and adaptability. Having reviewed the historic and current distribution of tapirs, as well as their use and selection of habitats, we introduce the concept of adaptability, considering that some of the tapir physiological characteristics and behavioral strategies can reduce the negative impact of habitat alteration and climate change. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research priorities. The conservation community is still missing important pieces of information for the effective conservation of tapirs and their remaining habitats in Central and South America and Southeast Asia. Reconstructing how tapir species reached their current distribution ranges, interpreting how they interact with their habitats and gathering information regarding the strategies they use to cope with habitat changes will increase our understanding about these animals and contribute to the development of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Demografia , Ecossistema , Perissodáctilos/fisiologia , Animais
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 8: 38, 2012 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23031274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. METHODS: Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. DISCUSSION: Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and the Ocellated Turkey were extremely important for local hunters, representing around 40% of total prey taken. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Our results suggest that hunting is frequent in our study areas. Low human densities allow low hunting pressure on most game species and favor conservation of the tropical forest. We suggest that co-management may help regulating hunting, prioritizing cultural practices of sustainable use and conservation for benefiting local users and animal populations.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Atividades Humanas , Vertebrados , Animais , Comportamento Ritualístico , Comércio , Dieta , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , México , Animais de Estimação , Características de Residência , População Rural , Especificidade da Espécie
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