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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342418

RESUMO

Recovery, physicochemical and functional characteristics of proteins recovered from different meat processing wastewater streams were revealed in the present study. Wastewaters from surimi processing (SPW) and slaughterhouses, namely fish (FSW), cattle (CSW), poultry (PSW), and goat (GSW), exhibited protein, fat, ash, moisture, and microbial load in the range of 1.28-7.04%, 0.86-2.34%, 0.02-0.80%, 89.81-97.44%, and 5.33-5.81 CFU/mL, respectively. Among the wastewaters, SPW presented slightly higher protein (7.04%), fat (2.34%), and ash (0.80%) contents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, proteins recovered from SPW (SPWP) and FSW (FSWP), CSW (CSWP), PSW (PSWP), and GSW (GSWP) presented yield, protein, fat, ash, and moisture content in the range of 55.54-76.81%, 65.86-78.22%, 7.26-11.45%, 4.58-11.75%, and 5.67-14.79%. All protein samples displayed higher essential amino acid (EAA) content with leucine (8.47-14.52 g/100 g) as a predominant amino acid. GSWP and SPWP scored the highest and lowest EAA contents, respectively. SPWP displayed myofibrillar proteins as dominant proteins, while slaughterhouses' wastewater proteins showed blood proteins as major proteins. ß-Sheet is the major secondary structure presented by all protein samples. SPWP showed the highest lightness value as compared to other protein counterparts (P < 0.05). All protein samples from slaughterhouse wastewaters had the lowest protein solubility at pH 4.5. However, SPWP presented minimum solubility at pH 5.5. Among all protein samples, SPWP presented slightly higher water holding capacity and foaming property (P < 0.05), whereas FSWP displayed slightly higher emulsion property (P < 0.05). Overall, all meat processing wastewater streams served as good sources of high-quality proteins, which could be used as protein ingredients in animal feed formulation.

2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 65: 105055, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172146

RESUMO

This study deals with the production of natural fish flavouring using ultrasound-assisted heating process. The effect of ultrasound pretreatment at different amplitudes (0, 15, 30, and 45%) on the Maillard reaction rate, antioxidant activities, flavour profile, and sensory characteristics of fish flavouring was investigated. Results showed that sonication markedly accelerated the Maillard reaction (MR) rate, as evidenced by the modification of peptide structure, a decrease in pH value, free amino acid content coupled with a rise in browning intensity. Also, ultrasound pretreatment significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities of fish flavouring (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, sonication increased the type and content of aroma compounds significantly. Sensory analysis revealed that ultrasound pretreatment increased the fish-like and toasty aroma as well as umami and mouthfulness attributes coupled with the reduction of the bitter taste of the fish flavouring. This result was consistent with the GC-MS, electronic nose, cluster, and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) analyses, which clearly showed that ultrasound pretreatment enhanced the fish-like aroma, which was associated with the increase in aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, thiophenes, pyrazine, and furans contents. Thus, it could be concluded that ultrasound pretreatment, coupled with the thermal process, could be a promising process for the production of natural fish flavouring with higher antioxidant activities.

3.
Clin Med Insights Pediatr ; 13: 1179556519842827, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019374

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OS) of jaws is a rare entity characterized by malignant osteoid formation and is most commonly seen in third to fourth decade of life. Here, we present a rare and intriguing case of a 14-year-old pediatric patient, who reported with a chief complaint of swelling in the left maxilla, which was rapidly increasing in size. Both cytokeratin AE1/3 and vimentin-positive spindled cells were seen arranged in storiform pattern with minimal areas of osteoid formation on histopathologic examination. The diagnosis of fibroblastic OS was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization after excluding monomorphic synovial sarcoma. The patient underwent segmental resection of left maxilla and is on close follow-up. A PubMed search revealed that only 5 pediatric cases of fibroblastic OS have been published since 1991. Here, we highlight the diagnostic challenges encountered in reaching the histopathologic diagnosis.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is one of the signaling pathways associated with the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma. The phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) homologue controls cell migration and proliferation. It monitors the level of Akt and maintains cellular integrity. The aim of the present study was to study the genetic alteration of Exon 5 of the PTEN gene in Indian patients with ameloblastoma. STUDY DESIGN: Total DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 20 cases with solid multicystic ameloblastoma (SMA) and from 10 cases with normal tooth germ. Exon 5 of the PTEN gene, was assessed for its role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma. RESULTS: Five of 20 cases of SMA showed genetic alteration. Of these cases 3 (15%) showed silent mutation, 1 (5%) showed change in amino acid sequence from valine to glutamic acid, and 1 (5%) showed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed 25% somatic mutational frequency in exonic region 5 of the PTEN gene. This may indicate its role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma.


Assuntos
Ameloblastoma , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Ameloblastoma/genética , Éxons , Humanos , Índia , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 17(3): 251-257, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572227

RESUMO

The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy. This includes prepregnancy measures such as counselling and optimisation of medical therapy, as well as multidisciplinary management throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute and chronic illness is of clear benefit, and most drugs and many radiological investigations may be used in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
7.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 24(7): 1475-1482, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294215

RESUMO

This work studied the effect of spatial and seasonal differences on the accumulation of functional lipid components in Sargassum horneri (Turner), an edible Japanese seaweed popularly called Akamoku. S. horneri obtained from Samenoura bay area of Japan was laboratory cultured to evaluate the effect of temperature on the accumulation of total lipids (TL), fucoxanthin (Fx) and fucosterol (Fs) by the alga. The laboratory cultured 3 month old S. horneri were cultured in the open sea in two different geographical locations off Usujiri and Matsushima to evaluate the monthly variations, over a year, in their TL, Fx and Fs contents. S. horneri grown off the Usujiri area accumulated the maximum TL close to 193 mg g-1 dry weight during the coldest part of the year. Fx and Fs contributed 5.6% and 16.2% of the TL in S. horneri harvested off Usujiri in February. Further, in spite of being the same species and parent stock, S. horneri grown off the Matsushima area accumulated less TL, Fx and Fs as compared to their Usujiri counterparts. Our study clearly indicates the role of temperature and light apart from nutritional profile and depth of waters where the seaweed was grown on the accumulation of functional lipid components in S. horneri.

8.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 16(Suppl 6): s110-s116, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27956450

RESUMO

The prevalence of medical problems in pregnancy is increasing because of a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and developments in modern medicine. Maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from treatable medical conditions, such as venous thromboembolism, epilepsy and autoimmune disease, have not decreased in recent years. This is despite a marked decrease in overall maternal mortality. It is vital that all physicians acquire a basic knowledge and understanding of medical problems in pregnancy. This includes prepregnancy measures such as counselling and optimisation of medical therapy, as well as multidisciplinary management throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute and chronic illness is of clear benefit, and most drugs and many radiological investigations may be used in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Epilepsia , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa
9.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2016: 8639098, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27957361

RESUMO

A previously healthy 23-year-old MSM presented with jaundice, systemic upset, and rash 2 months after a single episode of unprotected sexual intercourse. Liver biochemistry was grossly deranged, with markedly elevated transaminases and hyperbilirubinaemia. Serology was positive for genotype 1a hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in the absence of other causes, acute HCV infection was suspected. He was subsequently successfully treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 24 weeks and made a full clinical and biochemical recovery.

10.
J Food Sci Technol ; 53(4): 2139-43, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27413244

RESUMO

Astaxanthin (Ax) and fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol (FuOH) are marine xanthophylls exhibiting anti-oxidant effects. Squalene (SQ) is a triterpenoid and is a precursor of sterols. This study aimed to determine if SQ can improve the effect of Ax/FuOH on lipid peroxidation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Ax, FuOH and SQ and corresponding rate of cell survival was noted. In addition,combination groups - Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ- were also run. Cells treated with Ax, FuOH, SQ, Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and lipid hydroperoxides were estimated. Results showed that 5 µM Ax, 2 µM FuOH and 10 µM SQ supported cell survival. In presence of SQ, cell viability improved for higher concentrations of FuOH (5, 10 µM). Lipid hydroperoxides were supressed by Ax, FuOH, Ax + SQ and FUOH +SQ and were significantly lower in Ax + SQ, indicating the synergistic effect of Ax and SQ. To conclude, combination of Ax with SQ enhances its ability to supress lipid peroxidation while with FuOH, SQ attenuates the toxic effect at higher doses. Moreover, this is the first time that the combined effect of SQ and carotenoids has been studied and reported.

11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20162016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27151054

RESUMO

A 36-year-old homeless Eritrean nulliparous woman was admitted to hospital, with abdominal pain, nausea and loss of appetite. She was found to be 17 weeks pregnant with dichorionic diamniotic twins. She was cachectic and had large palpable uterine fibroids. An extensive search for infection and malignancy did not yield any significant results. She was managed with enteral nutritional support and delivered healthy twins by emergency caesarean section at 36 weeks' gestation. She re-presented 19 days postpartum, with fever and abdominal pain. Imaging revealed multiple abdominal collections and large degenerating fibroids. At laparotomy, the fibroids were found to be adherent to, compressing and enveloping large sections of bowel. The patient required a right hemicolectomy, small bowel resection and total abdominal hysterectomy. Histology confirmed an infarcted leiomyoma and the patient made a good postoperative recovery.


Assuntos
Anorexia/etiologia , Enteropatias/cirurgia , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Eritreia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Ileostomia , Enteropatias/etiologia , Leiomioma/complicações , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Sepse/cirurgia , Miomectomia Uterina , Perda de Peso
12.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 417(1-2): 57-65, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27188184

RESUMO

Obesity and diabetes, risk factors for metabolic syndrome, are characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Marine biofunctionals, astaxanthin (Ax) and squalene (SQ), were evaluated for their combined effect. Groups of male KK-A (y) mice were fed high fat/sucrose diet for 4 weeks, supplemented with either 0.1 %Ax, 2 %SQ or 0.1 %Ax + 2 %SQ. In comparison to control, Sod was elevated in only Ax + SQ. However, Gpx was highest in Ax + SQ, indicating the combined antioxidant effect of Ax and SQ. This was supported by elevated mRNA expression of Sod1 and Gpx1. Except adiponectin (elevated in Ax and Ax + SQ), expression of other inflammatory markers was not altered. Blood glucose levels were decreased in SQ and Ax + SQ while liver triglycerides decreased in SQ group. This is the first in vivo study demonstrating combined effects of Ax and SQ resulting in antioxidant effects and modulation of glucose/triglyceride levels. This study highlights the benefit of utilizing Ax and SQ together for management of obesity/diabetes.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esqualeno/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Xantofilas/farmacologia
13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(12): 8284-91, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604405

RESUMO

Ngari and hentaak are the two most preferred traditional salt-free fermented fish products of North-Eastern (NE) states of India. Chemical and microbial composition, antioxidative potential, fatty acid profile and electrophoretic pattern of protein in ngari and hentaak were studied. pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of the products justified their stability at ambient temperature. Both ngari and hentaak showed higher contents of calcium (362.79 ± 26.89, 472.11 ± 62.7); sodium (199.66 ± 24.92, 94.0 ± 12.78); potassium (58.20 ± 7.36, 75.74 ± 6.62) and magnesium (16.056 ± 3.89, 21.125 ± 3.78) respectively. Iron, copper and zinc were found in lesser amount. DPPH (·) radical scavenging activity was close to 87 % in both the products and the ferric chloride reducing power assay was dose dependent in both the products. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were found in ngari; whereas, only omega-3 fatty acids were observed in hentaak. Linoleic acid (11.68 %) and arachidonic acid (0.65 %) were the n-6 PUFA in ngari; while, in hentaak, it was only arachidonic acid (8.54 %). Apart from essential fatty acids, essential amino acids were also found in considerable quantity in both the products. Micrococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were found to be the dominant bacterial genus in both the products; while Ngari also had lactic acid bacteria group. The nutritional properties afforded by these products justify their preference by the population.

14.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(9): 6083-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26345033

RESUMO

A simple, rapid and simultaneous method for the quantitative evaluation of squalene and cholesterol in oil recovered from different body parts of fresh water and marine fish species was developed using reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A modified fractional crystallization method was developed using absolute ethanol as a solvent to obtain a fraction of squalene and cholesterol in the oil extracted from different body parts of fish samples. Elution of squalene and cholesterol was carried out isocratically with 100 % acetonitrile at 195 nm by diode array detector. Excellent linearity of the calibration curve was observed. The limit of detection for squalene and cholesterol were found to be 5.0 ng ml(-1) and 1.0 µg ml(-1) respectively. A possible correlation was established by determining the ratio between cholesterol and squalene which was found to be ranging from 2 to 10. This method was successfully employed for the determination of squalene and cholesterol in the above mentioned samples.

15.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(3): 1328-38, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745201

RESUMO

Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized conditions. Cell growth and lipase production was modeled using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret model, respectively; and lipase production by ED-27 was found to be growth-associated. Lipase produced by ED-27 showed stability at low pH ranges from 2 to 5 with its optimal activity at 30 °C , pH 4.6; showed metal ion dependent activity wherein its catalytic activity was activated by barium, sodium, lithium and potassium (10 mM); reduced by calcium and magnesium (10 mM). However, iron and mercury (5 mM) completely inactivated the enzyme. In addition, modifying agents like SDS, DTT, ß-ME (1%v/v) increased activity of lipase of ED-27; while, PMSF, DEPC and ascorbic acid resulted in a marked decrease. ED-27 had maximum cell growth of 9.90309 log CFU/ml under optimized conditions as compared to 13 log CFU/ml in MRS. The lipase produced has potential application in poultry and slaughterhouse waste management.

16.
J Biomed Sci ; 21: 39, 2014 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24884571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riboflavin (RF) or vitamin B2 is known to have neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we report the attenuation of the neuroprotective effects of RF under UV-B irradiation. Preconditioning of UV-B irradiated riboflavin (UV-B-RF) showed attenuated neuroprotective effects compared to that of RF in SH-SY5Y neuroblostoma cell line and primary cortical neurons in vitro and a rat model of cerebral ischemia in vivo. RESULTS: Results indicated that RF pretreatment significantly inhibited cell death and reduced LDH secretion compared to that of the UV-B-RF pretreatment in primary cortical neuron cultures subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro and cortical brain tissue subjected to ischemic injury in vivo. Further mechanistic studies using cortical neuron cultures revealed that RF treatment induced increased miR-203 expression which in turn inhibited c-Jun expression and increased neuronal cell survival. Functional assays clearly demonstrated that the UV-B-RF preconditioning failed to sustain the increased expression of miR-203 and the decreased levels of c-Jun, mediating the neuroprotective effects of RF. UV-B irradiation attenuated the neuroprotective effects of RF through modulation of the miR-203/c-Jun signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: Thus, the ability of UV-B to serve as a modulator of this neuroprotective signaling pathway warrants further studies into its role as a regulator of other cytoprotective/neuroprotective signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Riboflavina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
J Food Sci Technol ; 51(11): 3050-60, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26396297

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health.

18.
ISRN Biotechnol ; 2013: 980562, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25969788

RESUMO

A medium using fish waste as substrate was designed for production of lipase by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 and Pediococcus acidilactici MTCC 11361. Medium components and culture conditions (fish waste protein hydrolysate (FWPH) concentration, fish waste oil (FWO) concentration, pH, temperature, and fermentation time) which affect lipase production were screened using factorial (5 factors ∗ 2 levels) design of which FWPH concentration, FWO concentration, and fermentation time showed significance (P < 0.05). The levels of these factors were optimized further by Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM). Optimized conditions were found to be 5% v/v FWO, 0.15 mg/mL FWPH and 24 h of fermentation time for MTCC 5695, and 4% v/v FWO, 0.15 mg/mL FWPH and 24 h of fermentation for MTCC 11361, which were further validated. Under optimized conditions, MTCC 5695 and MTCC 11361 showed 3.15- (543.63 to 1715 U/mL) and 2.3- (214.74 to 493 U/mL) fold increase in lipase production, respectively, as compared to unoptimized conditions.

19.
Curr Microbiol ; 65(2): 162-9, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22580888

RESUMO

Food borne diseases have a major impact on public health whose epidemiology is rapidly changing. The whole cells of pathogens involved or their toxins/metabolites affect the human health apart from spoiling sensory properties of the food products finally affecting the food industry as well as consumer health. With pathogens developing mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, there has been an increased need to replace antibiotics as well as chemical additives with naturally occurring bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are known to act mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and with little or no effect towards Gram-negative enteric bacteria. In the present study, combination effect of lipase and bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecium NCIM5363, a highly lipolytic lactic acid bacterium against various food pathogens was assessed. The lipase in combination with enterocin exhibited a lethal effect against Gram-negative pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to ascertain the constitutive mode of action of lipase and enterocin revealed that the lipase degrades the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria and creates a pore through which enterocin enters thereby resulting in cell death. The novelty of this work is the fact that this is the first report revealing the synergistic effect of lipase with enterocin against Gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecium/enzimologia , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipase/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
20.
J Food Sci Technol ; 49(6): 653-64, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24293684

RESUMO

Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

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