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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(3): 106106, 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonagenarians have been underrepresented in stroke trials that established endovascular treatment as the standard for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Evidence remains inconclusive regarding the efficacy of thrombectomy in this population. OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with thrombectomy in nonagenarians with stroke, and to identify predictors of mortality. We further investigated the effects of first-pass reperfusion and the addition of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) on achieving better outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected for consecutively treated patients at three affiliated comprehensive stroke centers from 2010 to 2021. We included patients ≥90 years-old with AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion. Bivariate analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, and χ2 and Fisher's exact tests, respectively, for nominal and ordinal variables. RESULTS: Thirty-two nonagenarians underwent thrombectomy, of whom 25 (81%) had prestroke mRS ≤2. Thrombectomies were performed using stents (2, 6.7%), aspiration (8, 26.7%), or a combination of both (20, 66.7%). Successful recanalization was achieved in 97%. Procedural complications occurred in 2 (6.3%) and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 (9.4%). Sixteen patients (50%) were discharged home or to rehabilitation, 9 (28.2%) to nursing home or hospice, and 7 (21.9%) died during hospitalization. Only 2 (6%) patients had mRS ≤2 at discharge. No independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified, and neither first-pass reperfusion nor the addition of IVT correlated with improvement in clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although thrombectomy is safe for nonagenarian stroke and can achieve excellent recanalization, high mortality and poor functional status remain high given the advanced age and frailty of this population.

2.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 56(6): 584-590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614493

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are fistulous intracranial malformations arising congenitally within the choroidal fissure that can present with an array of neurological and cardiac sequelae. Associated venous stenosis may result in intracranial venous hypertension and ischemia leading to severe, irreversible cerebral injury. Management of neonatal VOGMs typically involves staged embolization and angioplasty/stenting for relief of venous stenosis. Rarely, jugular foraminal narrowing has been identified as causing jugular bulb stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 22-month-old female diagnosed with VOGM prenatally who displayed persistent intracranial venous hypertension despite multiple neuroembolization procedures during the neonatal period. Following initial reduction in arteriovenous shunting, she once again developed venous hypertension secondary to jugular bulb stenosis for which angioplasty was attempted. Failure of angioplasty to relieve the venous hypertension prompted skull base imaging, which revealed jugular foraminal ossification and stenosis. Microsurgical jugular foraminotomy followed by balloon angioplasty and stenting significantly reduced jugular pressure gradients. Restenosis requiring re-stenting developed postoperatively at 9 months, but the patient has remained stable with significant improvement in cortical venous congestion. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the efficacy of microsurgical decompression of the jugular foramen and endovascular angioplasty/stenting as a novel treatment paradigm for the management of intracranial venous hypertension in the setting of VOGM.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais , Embolização Terapêutica , Hipertensão Intracraniana , Malformações da Veia de Galeno , Criança , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações da Veia de Galeno/cirurgia
4.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 82(Suppl 1): S22-S24, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717807

RESUMO

Objectives Safe maximal resection is the basic principle of cranial base surgery and the grade of resection is an important factor influencing the prognostic outcome. This operative video highlights the surgical principles and technical nuances in the microsurgical resection of foramen magnum meningioma (FMM). Case Description The surgery was performed in a 45-year-old lady who presented with hoarseness of voice and spastic quadriparesis (grade 4/5). On imaging, FMM with mass effect on brainstem and spinal cord was identified. The tumor was gross totally resected through modified far lateral approach with minimal occipital condyle drilling. This video demonstrates the surgical techniques of tumor resection including early devascularization, operating in the arachnoid plane to dissect the neurovascular structures, piecemeal decompression, sharp dissection to separate tumor from lower cranial nerves (LCN), identifying the brainstem veins, and resecting the lesion from tumor-brainstem interface. Postoperatively, she had significant neurological improvement and the magnetic resonance imaging revealed excellent radiological outcome ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). Conclusion The surgery of FMM is challenging due to the deep surgical corridor, critical location, close proximity with various neurovascular structures, firm consistency, and high vascularity of the tumor. The modified far lateral approach by preserving the occipital condyle may prevent the postoperative incidence of craniovertebral junction instability. The key operative principles to achieve the best surgical outcome include careful dissection along the arachnoid plane, gentle handling of cranial nerves, veins, and perforator vessels, avoidance of traction on brainstem and spinal cord, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, proper hemostasis, and meticulous dural closure. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/1qvAeUmNIUw .

5.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(6): 3151-3163, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723970

RESUMO

Current evidence regarding the benefit of preoperative embolization (POE) of meningiomas is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the safety profile of the procedure and to compare outcomes in embolized versus non-embolized meningiomas. PubMed was queried for studies after January 1990 reporting outcomes of POE. Pertinent variables were extracted and synthesized from eligible articles. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2, and random-effects model was employed to calculate pooled 95% CI effect sizes. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Harbord's and Begg's tests. Meta-analyses were used to assess estimated blood loss and operative duration (mean difference; MD), gross-total resection (odds ratio; OR), and postsurgical complications and postsurgical mortality (risk difference; RD). Thirty-four studies encompassing 1782 preoperatively embolized meningiomas were captured. The pooled immediate complication rate following embolization was 4.3% (34 studies, n = 1782). Although heterogeneity was moderate to high (I2 = 35-86%), meta-analyses showed no statistically significant differences in estimated blood loss (8 studies, n = 1050, MD = 13.9 cc, 95% CI = -101.3 to 129.1), operative duration (11 studies, n = 1887, MD = 2.4 min, 95% CI = -35.5 to 30.8), gross-total resection (6 studies, n = 1608, OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.8-1.5), postsurgical complications (12 studies, n = 2060, RD = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.04 to 0.07), and postsurgical mortality (12 studies, n = 2060, RD = 0.01, 95% CI = 0-0.01). Although POE is relatively safe, no clear benefit was observed in operative and postoperative outcomes. However, results must be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity and selection bias between studies. Well-controlled future investigations are needed to define the patient population most likely to benefit from the procedure.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Meningioma/cirurgia
6.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106539, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The management of traumatic pseudoaneurysm (PA) with concomitant arteriovenous fistula (AVF) arising from the thyrocervical trunk is challenging and rarely reported. Here, the usefulness of a multi-modal endovascular strategy for management of traumatic PA and AVF arising from the thyrocervical trunk is presented. A literature review describing unique clinical features and management strategies of traumatic vascular lesions of the thyrocervical trunk is included. METHODS: A 58-year-old man presented with two PAs arising from the ascending cervical artery (AsCA) and a robust AVF between the AsCA and the left vertebral venous plexus which arose acutely after a stabbing incident. These lesions were managed with endovascular vessel sacrifice via coiling and controlled Onyx injection. Relevant literature was identified via a targeted search of the PubMed database. RESULTS: Post-management angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the two traumatic PAs and successful disconnection of the concomitant AVF. Our literature review demonstrates a shift in preferred management approach from invasive surgery to endovascular treatment due to the lower risk and cosmetic preferability. CONCLUSION: Timely treatment of enlarging PA is necessary for reducing associated morbidity and mortality. While surgical resection has been the mainstay therapy, endovascular management has gained popularity in recent years. The choice of endovascular technique is variable and should be individualized based on patient's clinical status, associated risk factors, and lesion morphology. We have shown that parent vessel sacrifice is safe and effective. Reconstruction with a combination of stents, coils, glue, or liquid embolics may be necessary when collateral flow is limited.

7.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276342

RESUMO

The earliest evidence of man's attempts in communicating ideas and emotions can be seen on cave walls and ceilings from the prehistoric era. Ingenuity, as well as the development of tools, allowed clay tablets to become the preferred method of documentation, then papyrus and eventually the codex. As civilizations advanced to develop structured systems of writing, knowledge became a power available to only those who were literate. As the search to understand the intricacies of the human brain moved forward, so did the demand for teaching the next generation of physicians. The different methods of distributing information were forced to advance, lest the civilization falls behind. Here, the authors present a historical perspective on the evolution of the mediums of illustration and knowledge dissemination through the lens of neurosurgery. They highlight how the medium of choice transitioned from primitive clay pots to cutting-edge virtual reality technology, aiding in the propagation of medical literature from generation to generation across the centuries.

8.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007750

RESUMO

Big data has transformed into a trend phrase in healthcare and neurosurgery, becoming a pervasive and inescapable phrase in everyday life. The upsurge in big data applications is a direct consequence of the drastic boom in information technology as well as the growing number of internet-connected devices called the Internet of Things in healthcare. Compared with business, marketing, and other sectors, healthcare applications are lagging due to a lack of technical knowledge among healthcare workers, technological limitations in acquiring and analyzing the data, and improper governance of healthcare big data. Despite these limitations, the medical literature is flooded with big data-related articles, and most of these are filled with abstruse terminologies such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, artificial neural network, and algorithm. Many of the recent articles are restricted to neurosurgical registries, creating a false impression that big data is synonymous with registries. Others advocate that the utilization of big data will be the panacea to all healthcare problems and research in the future. Without a proper understanding of these principles, it becomes easy to get lost without the ability to differentiate hype from reality. To that end, the authors give a brief narrative of big data analysis in neurosurgery and review its applications, limitations, and the challenges it presents for neurosurgeons and healthcare professionals naive to this field. Awareness of these basic concepts will allow neurosurgeons to understand the literature regarding big data, enabling them to make better decisions and deliver personalized care.

9.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874706

RESUMO

Background: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital aberrant connections between afferent arteries and draining veins with no intervening capillary bed or neural parenchyma. Other than seizures, the most common initial presentation of AVM is hemorrhage, which is typically intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or intraventricular, and very rarely subdural. Case Description: This patient is a 66-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation, chronically anticoagulated with apixaban, who presented through emergency services after a fall. On presentation, computed tomography (CT) of the head showed a small, 6 mm right subdural hematoma, and the patient was neurologically intact. The hematoma was evacuated by burr hole craniotomy and placement of a subdural drain 12 days after the initial presentation due to worsening headaches and further hematoma expansion. Two weeks postevacuation, the patient was readmitted for seizures, and at this time, CT angiography showed no intracranial vascular lesion. Approximately 1 month later, the patient was readmitted for decreased responsiveness, and CT head at this time found right frontal intraparenchymal hemorrhage. On subsequent catheter angiography, the right frontal AVM was discovered. It was treated with preoperative embolization followed by surgical resection. Postoperatively, the patient followed commands and tracked with his eyes. There was spontaneous antigravity movement of the right upper extremity, but still no movement of the left upper or bilateral lower extremities. Conclusion: This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for underlying vascular lesions when evaluating intracranial bleeding, even in the setting of traumatic history, particularly in cases of hematoma expansion.

10.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 19(3): 241-248, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of intracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) can be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, endovascular treatment techniques, and prognostic outcome of patients diagnosed with intracranial VAD at our institution. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 35 patients who were diagnosed with VAD at our institution over 17-yr period (2001-2017) is presented. A total of 27 patients with a total of 30 affected arteries underwent endovascular treatment, and their outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 35 total patients with VAD, 15 presented with headache, 12 with focal neurological deficits, 2 with neck pain, 2 with dizziness, 1 with syncope, and 3 after trauma. Of the 30 dissected arteries, 18 were treated with deconstruction and 12 were treated with stent reconstruction. Treatment method was determined by the dominance of the affected artery and location relative to the ipsilateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and the basilar artery. Deconstructive techniques were utilized in all cases of hypoplastic artery dissection and the majority of codominant artery dissections, whereas reconstruction was performed on the majority of dominant artery dissections. Rupture did not impact treatment technique. Four patients demonstrated post-treatment infarcts, and another 1 patient died because of intraparenchymal bleed. The remaining 22 patients demonstrated favorable clinical outcome. None of the patients developed recanalization or needed retreatment till the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that endovascular treatment of intracranial VAD with deconstruction or stent reconstruction based on the patients anatomy, particularly vessel dominance and location with respect to PICA, is feasible and effective though the revascularization procedures still has its role in selected cases.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 196: 106028, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to identify novel medulloblastoma (MB) biomarkers through proteomic profiling, correlate it with the molecular subgroups of MB and assess the clinical significance. METHODS: Archived paraffin embedded tumor tissue blocks from 118 MB patients, operated at our institute were retrieved. Clinical information was documented from the hospital database. Tumours were stratified into molecular subgroups using the IHC markers- ß Catenin, GAB-1, YAP-1 and p53. Six fresh MB tumour tissues and two control cerebellar tissues were subjected to proteomic profiling to study differential protein expression in molecular subgroups using high resolution mass spectrometry. Prominent signalling pathways activated in each subgroup were identified using the Panther pathway software. RESULTS: Non WNT/SHH group was the most common (61.1 %), followed by SHH and WNT. p53 immunopositivity did not correlate with prognosis in any subgroup. Proteomic profiling revealed several novel proteins differentially expressed between MB molecular subgroups. Signalling pathways exclusively enriched in each molecular subgroup were also identified. The top upregulated proteins were PMEL and FBN2 in the WNT subgroup, SYNGR2 in the SHH subgroup and GFAP, IMPG2 and MAGEA10 in the Non WNT/Non SHH group. We validated GFAP by immunohistochemistry on the archived samples (n = 118) and noted two types of staining pattern in MBs - reactive (stellate) astrocytes and tumour cell staining. GFAP immunopositivity in tumor cells of SHH subgroup correlated with a better prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Proteomic profile identified several novel proteins differentially regulated within the molecular subgroups that could serve as potential diagnostic /prognostic biomarkers. Notably, GFAP, which was derived from proteomics data, when validated by IHC, revealed a variable staining pattern in MB tumours. The prognostic significance of GFAP in SHH tumor patients further points at the heterogeneity of this subgroup. The study also throws light on the signaling pathways activated in MB and in turn its plausible role in the tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cerebelares/metabolismo , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteômica
12.
World Neurosurg ; 141: e213-e222, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aftermath of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) witnessed the rise of narrow networks, which feature fewer providers in exchange for lower premiums. Debate still continues on whether narrow networks provide adequate access to health care, especially in specialty care services such as neurosurgery. The objective of this article was to analyze the 2019 Marketplace plans' impact on delivering outpatient neurosurgical care in New Jersey. METHODS: The 2019 Marketplace Public Use Files were queried for "silver" plans, identifying a total of 11 plans across 3 insurance companies. Online search engines were used to identify the number of in-network neurosurgeons within 20-25 miles of ZIP codes at the center of each county. The primary outcome was the number of neurosurgeon-deficient plans, defined as those having no in-network neurosurgeons within the assigned mile radius. RESULTS: Of all individuals who purchased an insurance plan, 73% (185,797/255,246) opted for a silver plan. Out of 111 active neurosurgeons in New Jersey, 25% (28/111) did not participate in any of the silver plans. Analysis showed 8 plans as neurosurgeon-deficient in Sussex and Warren. Meanwhile, most of the silver plans provided access to >5 neurosurgeons within 20-25 miles of most (17/21) county centers. CONCLUSIONS: In more densely populated states such as New Jersey, the impact of narrow networks on neurosurgical coverage is less apparent. However, frustrations regarding access to care still exist because nearly 25% of neurosurgeons do not participate in the standard ACA insurance product. Furthermore, guidelines that define network adequacy in neurosurgery remain elusive, which calls for more robust parameters to monitor and ensure adequate access to health care.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/economia , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/economia , New Jersey , Estados Unidos
13.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 121-131, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Management of incidental asymptomatic brain tumors in children is controversial due to lack of clear evidence-based guidelines. We present this systematic review in an attempt to highlight an optimal treatment paradigm. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in compliance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Databases were searched up to August 2019 using the keywords "incidental," "brain tumor," and "pediatric." Our main focus was on brain lesions suspected for neoplasm, diagnosed incidentally on neuroimaging in an otherwise asymptomatic patient <18 years old. Cystic, vascular, and inflammatory brain lesions were excluded. RESULTS: Fourteen studies comprising 308 patients were included. All cases were diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. The most common indications for imaging were headache (93; 30%) and trauma (72; 23%). Lesion distribution was supratentorial (179; 58%), infratentorial (121; 40%), and intraventricular (8; 3%). Of 308 cases, 243 (79%) were managed with neuroradiological surveillance and 57 (19%) by upfront surgical excision. Of those managed conservatively, 177 (73%) remained stable within a mean follow-up of 30 months, 54 (22%) progressed, and 12 (5%) spontaneously regressed. Meanwhile, upfront excision achieved complete remission in all 57 cases over a mean follow-up of 68.3 months. CONCLUSION: A small body of evidence has emerged, highlighting the marked heterogeneity and contradictory results between the available studies, limiting our ability to draw solid conclusions. At this point, the decision between surgery and "watchful waiting" should be tailored on an individual patient basis depending on suspicion of malignancy, clinical or radiologic progression, and parental preference.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Tratamento Conservador , Achados Incidentais , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neurocirurgia , Pediatria
14.
Neurosurgery ; 87(5): E584-E589, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195549

RESUMO

Milton Dave Heifetz (1921-2013) was a pioneer American neurosurgeon who spent the majority of his career at Cedars-Sinai Hospital in California. Heifetz greatly influenced the field of neurosurgery as an innovator, leader, and academic neurosurgeon. His redesign of the aneurysm clip addressed the long-standing issue of a fatiguing spring. Heifetz's innovation allowed the spring to maintain adequate closing force despite repetitive opening and closing. This clip was recognized as one of the most effective aneurysm clips for approximately 15 yr. While he was best known for this eponymous aneurysm clip, Heifetz also developed other various microsurgical instruments and tools for stereotactic approaches. Beyond neurosurgery, he was an influential figure and well-published author in fields such as medical ethics, philosophy, astronomy, and poetry. In 1975, he published The Right to Die: A Neurosurgeon Speaks of Death With Candor, a book which played a major role in our modern-day advanced directives. Throughout his life, Heifetz was an inspirational individual who consistently worked towards solutions to surgical and ethical problems. We present a historical vignette on his life, career, and contributions to neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Neurocirurgia/história , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neurocirurgia/instrumentação
15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 194: 105798, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222653

RESUMO

When an incapacitated Jehovah's Witness neurologically deteriorates and requires immediate craniectomy, institutional protocols may delay surgery if the patient's refusal of blood products is ambiguous. We are among the first to describe such an ethically contentious case in emergency neurosurgery, review the morbidity of operative delays, discuss medicolegal concerns raised, and provide a detailed guide to hemostasis in patients who refuse blood products. We discuss the case of a 46-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, and right-sided weakness, progressing to stupor over several hours. When an initial Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a large, left-sided intraparenchymal hematoma with significant midline shift, she was booked for an emergency hemicraniectomy. According to the family, she was a Jehovah's Witness and would have refused blood consent, but was without the proper documentation. Despite her worsening neurological status, an indeterminate blood consent delayed surgery for more than two hours. Her neurological exam did not improve postoperatively, and she later expired. The ethical, legal, and operative concerns that arise in the emergency neurosurgical treatment of Jehovah's Witness patients pose unique management challenges. Since operative delay is a preventable cause of mortality in patients requiring urgent craniectomy, and the likelihood of requiring a transfusion from hemorrhage is minimal, an ambiguous blood consent should not postpone a potentially life-saving treatment. For the beneficence and autonomy of Jehovah's Witness patients, institutional policies should respect the family's wishes in order to expedite surgical decompression. In addition to discussing the nuances of such ethical considerations, we also provide a detailed list of commonly used, topical and parenteral hemostatic agents from the neurosurgical operating room which, depending on whether they are blood-derived, either should or should not be used when treating a Jehovah's Witness.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Testemunhas de Jeová , Neurocirurgia/ética , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/ética , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Descompressão Cirúrgica/ética , Feminino , Hemostasia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(4): 923-928, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997070

RESUMO

Extravasation of Onyx is a rare complication during embolization of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We present a case of embolization that was complicated by leakage of Onyx into the cerebellum which was later encountered during surgical excision of the AVM. Our goal is to report this rare event and to outline successful treatment of this complication. The patient's records were reviewed for medical history, laboratory and radiologic workup, and outpatient clinical follow-up. A 62-year-old female presented with Hunt Hess grade 2 and modified Fisher grade 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm associated with a superior cerebellar vermian AVM. Following endovascular intervention, the aneurysm was completely embolized; however, only 75% of the AVM could be safely obliterated. Extravasation of Onyx from the ruptured aneurysm was noted on her initial angiogram. Elective suboccipital craniectomy was subsequently planned for resection of the residual AVM where the extravasated Onyx posed an operative nuisance during resection. Post-op angiogram confirmed complete resection of the AVM, as well as the bulk of the extravasated Onyx. Patient did well post-operatively, remaining neurologically intact throughout her hospital course. Although infrequently reported in the literature, Onyx extravasation is a potential complication that neurosurgeons should be ready to face. Adherence of Onyx to surrounding parenchyma could hinder optimal surgical resection of AVM and increase complications. Therefore, careful surgical dissection should be performed with special care to delicate neurovasculature. In this case, complete resection of the AVM and Onyx mass was safely achieved.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Craniotomia/métodos , Dissecação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/cirurgia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/cirurgia , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Dissecação/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia
17.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(3): 499-507, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Refractory or chronic subdural hematomas (cSDH) constitute a challenging entity that neurosurgeons face frequently nowadays. Middle meningeal artery embolization (MMAE) has emerged in the recent years as a promising treatment option. However, solid evidence that can dictate management guidelines is still lacking. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MMAE compared with conventional treatments for refractory or cSDH. Databases were searched up to March 2019. Using a random-effects model, meta-analyses of proportions and risk difference were conducted recurrence, need for surgical rescue, and complications. RESULTS: Eleven studies (177 patients) were included. Majority (116, 69%) were males with a weighted mean age of 71 + -19.5 years. Meta-analysis of proportions showed treatment failure to be 2.8%, need for surgical rescue 2.7%, and embolization-related complications 1.2%. Meta-analysis of risk-difference between embolized and non-embolized patients showed a 26% (p < 0.001, 95% CI 21%-31%, I2 = 0) lower risk of hematoma recurrence in MMAE. Similarly, in the embolized group, the need for surgical rescue was 20% less (p < 0.001, 95% CI = 12%-27%, I2 = 12.4), and complications were 3.6% less (p = 0.008, 95% CI 1%-6%, I2 = 0) compared to conventional groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although MMAE appears to be a promising treatment for refractory or cSDH, drawing definitive conclusions remains limited by paucity of data and small sample sizes. Multicenter, randomized, prospective trials are needed to compare embolization to conventional treatments like watchful waiting, medical management, or surgical evacuation. More extensive research on MMAE could begin a new era in the minimally invasive management of cSDH.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artérias Meníngeas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Neurosurg Rev ; 43(4): 1089-1099, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385110

RESUMO

The management of posterior cranial fossa meningioma [PCFM] is challenging and many neurosurgeons advise gamma knife radiosurgery [GKRS] as a modality for its upfront or adjuvant treatment. Due to the varying radiosurgical response based on lesion location, tumor biology, and radiation dosage, we performed a pioneer attempt in doing a systematic review analyzing the treatment efficacy and safety profile of GKRS for PCFM based on current literature. A systematic review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [PRISMA] guidelines. A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of science, and Cochrane data base; articles were selected systematically based on PRISMA protocol, reviewed completely, and relevant data was summarized and discussed. A total of 18 publications pertaining to GKRS for PCFM were included with a pooled sample size of 2131 patients. The median pre-GKRS tumor volume ranged from 2.28 to 10.5 cm [3]. Primary GKRS was administered in 61.1% of the pooled study cohorts, adjuvant treatment in 32.9%, and salvage therapy in 6.5% patients. Majority of the meningiomas were WHO grade 1 tumors (99.7%). The pooled mean marginal dose in the studies was 13.6 Gy (range 12-15.2 Gy) while the mean of maximum doses was 28.6 Gy (range 25-35 Gy). Most studies report an excellent radiosurgical outcome including the tumor control rate and the progression-free survival [PFS] of over 90%. The tumor control, PFS, and adverse radiation effect [ARE] rates in author's series were 92.3%, 91%, and 9.6%, respectively. The favorable radiosurgical outcome depends on multiple factors such as small tumor volume, absence of previous radiotherapy, tumor location, elderly patients, female gender, longer time from symptom onset, and decreasing maximal dose. GKRS as primary or adjuvant treatment modality needs to be considered as a promising management strategy for PCFM in selected patients in view of the growing evidence of high tumor control rate, improved neurological functions, and low incidence of ARE. The use of multiple isocenters, 3-D image planning, and limit GKRS treatment to tumors less than 3.5 cm help to avoid complications and achieve the best results. The treatment decisions in PCFM cases must be tailored and should consider the factors such as radiological profile, symptom severity, performance level, and patient preference for a good outcome.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Neoplasias da Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Fossa Craniana Posterior , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
World Neurosurg ; 134: 518-531, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542444

RESUMO

Aneurysm clips are indispensable tools in the armamentarium of vascular neurosurgeons. The history of the development of aneurysm clips is witness to ingenuity and tenacity in treating a potentially devastating disease. Few know the stories of their innovators and the inspiration behind their designs. Hence, we present this historical vignette in an attempt to shed more light on the pioneers who shaped the evolution of aneurysm clips as we know them. A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Google Books, and library historical archives, as well as personal communications with relatives, colleagues, and institutions of the surgeon-designers. We present the following aneurysm clip innovators and chronicle their biographies and contributions: Herbert Olivecrona (1891-1980), Frank Mayfield (1908-1991), Charles Drake (1920-1998), Joseph McFadden (1920-present), Thoralf Sundt Jr. (1930-1992), William M. Lougheed (1923-2004), William B. Scoville (1906-1984), Milton D. Heifetz (1921-2015), Gazi Yasargil (1925-present), Kenichiro Sugita (1932-1994), and Robert Spetzler (1944-present). Although this compilation of eponymous clips is by no means complete, we hope that it provides an informative historical perspective and an inspiration for aspiring neurosurgeons. The history of aneurysm surgery, an entity once deemed inoperable, teaches us the importance of innovation in medicine.


Assuntos
Aneurisma/cirurgia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/instrumentação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
20.
Neurol India ; 67(5): 1286-1289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744960

RESUMO

Background: A number of pharmacological agents have been tried to circumvent the problem of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) with ozagrel sodium being one such agent aimed at the prevention of DCI. Ozagrel is an inhibitor of thromboxane synthetase. It has anti-platelet aggregation action and it dilates vessels. Ozagrel was not available outside Japan till recently. It is available now in India and we had the opportunity to use it among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Aims: To analyse the results of ozagrel administration for patients with aneurysmal SAH. Settings and Design: Tertiary care neurosurgical center. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the outcomes of patients who received ozagrel after microsurgical cllipping of aneurysm and comparison with a control grpup who received treatment as usual. Statistical Analysis: The t-test (two-tailed), Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U-test asymptomatic significance (two-tailed), were used respectively for continuous, categorical, and ordinal variables. The significance was determined at P = 0.05 level. Results: A total of 106 patients underwent surgical clipping of their ruptured intracranial aneurysms over a period of 22 months. Forty two (39.6%) patients received ozagrel, and 62 (60.4%) received the standard treatment. Ozagrel was started at a median of one [interquartile range (IQR) 0.75] day after the surgery, and was given for a median of five (IQR 5) days after the surgery. There was no difference in age, postictal days, World Federation Neurosurgical Society grade, Fisher grade, and the size of ruptured aneurysm in patients who received ozagrel compared to the patients who did not receive ozagrel. Of the 42 patients who received ozagrel, 30 patients (71.4%) had preoperative angiographic vasospasm which improved after the administration of ozagrel. Fifteen (35.5%) patients who received ozagrel developed delayed cerebral ischemia compared to only 11 (17.2%) patients who did not receive ozagrel. Thirty-six (85.7%) patients who received ozagrel had favorable outcome at discharge compared to 52 (81.3%) patients who did not receive ozagrel. No adverse event was observed with ozagrel therapy. At 3-month follow-up, 37 patients (88.1%) who received ozagrel had favorable outcomes against 53 patients (82.8%) who did not receive ozagrel. Conclusion: Ozagrel may be a useful drug in the armamentarium to treat vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH. A future multicenter large cohort study may validate the findings of our study.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Metacrilatos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia
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