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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572659

RESUMO

To minimize complications associated with over-utilization of antibiotics, many antimicrobial stewardship programs have incorporated an antibiotic time out (ATO); however, limited data are available to support its effectiveness. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study assessing the impact of the automated electronic ATO in the setting of Gram-negative bacteremia. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who received a modification of therapy within 24 h of final culture results. Secondary outcomes included modification at any point in therapy, time to modification of therapy, time to de-escalation, and days of therapy of broad-spectrum antibiotics. There was a total of 222 patients who met inclusion criteria, 97 patients pre-ATO and 125 patients post-ATO. The primary outcome of modification of therapy within 24 h of final culture results was not significantly different (24% vs. 30%, p = 0.33). The secondary outcome of modification of therapy at any point in therapy was not significantly different between the two groups (65% vs. 67%, p = 0.73). All other secondary outcomes were not significantly different. The ATO alert was not associated with a higher rate of antibiotic modification within 24 h of culture results in patients with GNB. Further efforts are needed to optimize the ATO strategy and antibiotic prescribing practices.

2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(4): 115505, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399381

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are classified as either carbapenemase-producing CRE (CP-CRE) or non-carbapenemase-producing CRE (non-CP-CRE) based on their mechanism of carbapenem resistance. Few studies have compared outcomes associated with each type of infection. We attempted to determine if either CRE subset is associated with increased mortality. We performed a retrospective observational study to collect demographic, clinical and outcomes data to compare patients with CP-CRE and non-CP-CRE bacteremia. Of 146 cases analyzed, 88/146 (60%) were CP-CRE and 58/146 (40%) were non-CP-CRE. Patients with CP-CRE bacteremia were less likely to receive active empiric or targeted antibiotic therapy. Non-CP-CRE bacteremia was associated with a 2.4 times higher hazard of death at 30 days after bacteremia onset compared to CP-CRE (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 4.6). Patients with non-CP-CRE bacteremia had a higher hazard of death at 30 days after bacteremia onset compared to those with CP-CRE bacteremia.

3.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacists play a vital role in recommending and providing vaccines to improve public health and are on the front line of mass immunization efforts. AIM: The objective of this study is to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions on COVID-19 vaccines prior to emergency use authorization (EUA) amid a global pandemic. METHODS: A voluntary, anonymous, cross-sectional survey was conducted between September and November 2020. Survey respondents included a convenience sample of licensed pharmacists in the United States. The primary outcomes were pharmacists' willingness to receive and recommend hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines. Covariates assessed in the survey included COVID-19 exposure or personal experience, primary pharmacy practice setting, background in training, geographic region, and prioritization of clinical data. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: This study surveyed 763 pharmacists and results from 632 participants were included in final analysis. Overall, 67.1% of the pharmacists were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and 63.4% of the pharmacists were willing to recommend a COVID-19 vaccine at ≤1 year from the time of vaccine approval. At >1 year after vaccine approval, 78% of the pharmacists were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and 81.2% of the pharmacists were willing to recommend a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Survey findings suggest that, while a majority of pharmacists surveyed indicate acceptance of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines, there remains to be hesitancy among pharmacists to receive or recommend vaccination.

4.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 26(4): 445-455, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227584

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections can result in serious complications in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. The need to remain up to date on recommendations on screening, vaccinations, and chemoprophylaxis is paramount in the management of SOT patients. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of current recommendations for the prevention of infections and optimization of vaccinations from the pretransplant through posttransplant periods. RECENT FINDINGS: There is an emphasis on thorough pretransplant evaluation to guide clinicians and pretransplant testing based on epidemiological and endemic risk factors. Additionally, recent studies on vaccine safety and efficacy of newer vaccine formulations in SOT recipients are addressed. SUMMARY: This review provides insight on updated recommendations for pretransplant screening, new data on vaccine optimization in SOT recipients and posttransplant prophylaxis. Further research is needed in order to improve preventive measures including screening tests, vaccines, and chemoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Vacinação
5.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2527-2532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234480

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective of our study was to determine if obesity is associated with the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria among Enterobacterales. Patients and Methods: This two-center cohort study included adult hospitalized patients with at least one specimen sampled from any site for bacterial culture yielding an Enterobacterales bacterial species from November 2016 to May 2017. Study groups were stratified by obesity status based on body mass index <30 kg/m2 (non-obese) and ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The primary outcome was the presence of gram-negative MDR bacteria defined as presumptive extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales (ceftriaxone resistance) or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the adjusted odds ratio while controlling for potential confounders. Results: A total of 366 patients, 238 non-obese and 128 obese, were included. The most common gram-negative bacterial species identified was Escherichia coli (64.2%). There was a higher proportion of gram-negative MDR bacteria in obese versus non-obese patients (18.8 versus 11.3%, P=0.057). Obesity was independently associated with gram-negative MDR bacteria after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI 1.03-3.60). The association did not significantly vary by diabetes status (interaction term P=0.792). Conclusion: Among older adult hospitalized patients, obesity was independently associated with the presence of a gram-negative MDR bacteria (presumptive ESBL or CRE) in a culture.

6.
J Asthma ; : 1-7, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several therapeutic agents have been assessed for the treatment of COVID-19, but few approaches have been proven efficacious. Because leukotriene receptor antagonists, such as montelukast have been shown to reduce both cytokine release and lung inflammation in preclinical models of viral influenza and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we hypothesized that therapy with montelukast could be used to treat COVID-19. The objective of this study was to determine if montelukast treatment would reduce the rate of clinical deterioration as measured by the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 confirmed hospitalized patients treated with or without montelukast. We used "clinical deterioration" as the primary endpoint, a binary outcome defined as any increase in the Ordinal Scale value from Day 1 to Day 3 of the hospital stay, as these data were uniformly available for all admitted patients before hospital discharge. Rates of clinical deterioration between the montelukast and non-montelukast groups were compared using the Fisher's exact test. Univariate logistic regression was also used to assess the association between montelukast use and clinical deterioration. A total of 92 patients were analyzed, 30 who received montelukast at the discretion of the treating physician and 62 patients who did not receive montelukast. RESULTS: Patients receiving montelukast experienced significantly fewer events of clinical deterioration compared with patients not receiving montelukast (10% vs 32%, p = 0.022). Our findings suggest that montelukast associates with a reduction in clinical deterioration for COVID-19 confirmed patients as measured on the COVID-19 Ordinal Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with montelukast had fewer events of clinical deterioration, indicating that this treatment may have clinical activity. While this retrospective study highlights a potential pathway for COVID-19 treatment, this hypothesis requires further study by prospective studies.

7.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(1): e12345, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490997

RESUMO

Study objective: With increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE), more reliable identification of predictors for ESBLE urinary tract infection (UTI) in the emergency department (ED) is needed. Our objective was to evaluate risk factors and their predictive ability for ED patients with ESBLE UTI. Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study at an urban academic medical center. Microbiology reports identified adult ED patients with positive urine cultures from 2015-2018. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of UTI with monomicrobial enterobacteriaceae culture growth. Exclusions were cultures with carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteriaceae or urinary colonization. Collected variables included demographics, comorbidities, and recent medical history. Patient disposition, urine culture susceptibilities, presence of ESBLE, empiric antibiotics, and therapy modifications were collected. Patients were stratified based on ESBLE status and analyzed via descriptive statistics. The data were divided into 2 parts: the first used to identify possible predictors of ESBLE UTI and the second used to validate an additive scoring system. Results: Of 466 patients, 16.3% had ESBLE urine culture growth and 83.7% did not; 39.5% of ESBLE patients required antibiotic therapy modification, as compared to 6.4% of ESBLE negative patients (odds ratio [OR] 9.5; confidence interval [CI] 8.9-10.1). Independent predictors of ESBLE UTI were IV antibiotics within 1 year (OR 5.4; CI 2.1-12.8), surgery within 90 days (OR 6.4; CI 1.5-27.8), and current refractory UTI (OR 8.5; CI 2.0-36.6). Conclusion: Independent predictors of ESBLE UTI in emergency department patients included IV antibiotics within 1 year, surgery within 90 days, and current refractory UTI.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e995-e1003, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Clinical characteristics regarding secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 have been reported, but detailed microbiology, risk factors, and outcomes of secondary bloodstream infections (sBSIs) in patients with severe COVID-19 have not been well described. METHODS: We performed a multicenter case-control study including all hospitalized patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19 and blood cultures drawn from 1 March 2020 to 7 May 2020 at 3 academic medical centers in New Jersey. Data collection included demographics, clinical and microbiologic variables, and patient outcomes. Risk factors and outcomes were compared between cases (sBSI) and controls (no sBSI). RESULTS: A total of 375 hospitalized patients were included. There were 128 sBSIs during the hospitalization. For the first set of positive blood cultures, 117 (91.4%) were bacterial and 7 (5.5%) were fungal. Those with sBSI were more likely to have altered mental status, lower mean percentage oxygen saturation on room air, have septic shock, and be admitted to the intensive care unit compared with controls. In-hospital mortality was higher in those with an sBSI versus controls (53.1% vs 32.8%, P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 and sBSI had a more severe initial presentation, prolonged hospital course, and worse clinical outcomes. To maintain antimicrobial stewardship principles, further prospective studies are necessary to better characterize risk factors and prediction modeling to better understand when to suspect and empirically treat for sBSIs in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Sepse , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Chest ; 158(1): e15-e19, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343968

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, COVID-19 has become a pandemic affecting more than 4.1 million people worldwide. Patients with COVID-19 have a wide spectrum of manifestations, one being cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and its fatal correlate, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Anti-cytokine therapy such as tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, is a potential treatment for COVID-19; however, data regarding the efficacy of this anti-IL-6 therapy are currently lacking. We report two cases of patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 complicated by CRS and were treated with tocilizumab. Both patients progressed to sHLH despite treatment with tocilizumab, and one developed viral myocarditis, challenging the safety and clinical usefulness of tocilizumab in the treatment of COVID-19-induced CRS. These cases highlight the need for clinical trials to determine optimal patient selection and timing for the use of tocilizumab during this disease process.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19 , Deterioração Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/sangue , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/virologia , Masculino , Miocardite/terapia , Miocardite/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/terapia
10.
Hepatology ; 72(2): 399-411, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The paucity of data regarding the extent of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) associated health care burden in the United States is an important obstacle to assessing the cost-effectiveness of potential intervention strategies. In this study, we characterized the health care use and cost burdens of HDV in the United States using real-world claims data. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We conducted a case-control study using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims databases from 2011-2014. A total of 2,727 HDV cases were matched 1:1 by sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) controls using propensity scores. The HDV group had significantly higher prevalence of substance abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, decompensated cirrhosis, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C virus compared to patients with chronic HBV. First HDV diagnosis was associated with significant increases in the total number of health care claims (25.61 vs. 28.99; P < 0.0001) and total annual health care costs ($19,476 vs. $23,605; P < 0.0001) compared with pre-HDV baseline. The case-control analysis similarly indicated higher total claims (28.99 vs. 25.19; P < 0.0001) and health care costs ($23,605 vs. $18,228; P < 0.0001) in HDV compared with HBV alone. Compared with HBV controls, HDV cases had an adjusted incident rate ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.22) times the total number of annual claims and an adjusted incident rate ratio 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.17, 1.48) times the total annual health care cost. CONCLUSIONS: HDV is associated with higher health care use and cost burden than HBV alone, underscoring the need for improved screening and treatment.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B Crônica/economia , Hepatite D/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hepatite D/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(9): 7168, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871346

RESUMO

Objective. To describe what and how infectious diseases (ID) topics are taught in US schools of pharmacy and summarize pharmacy faculty members' and students' perceived successes and challenges in teaching and learning about ID. Methods. A 23-item survey instrument was distributed electronically to ID faculty members at 137 US pharmacy schools. Data collected included curricular hours and format, topics covered, active-learning strategies, and curricular successes and concerns. Results. Surveys were collected from 106 schools (77% response rate). Infectious diseases curricula were allotted a median of 60 (IQR=40) hours of classroom time. Respondents dedicated 33% of curriculum hours to ID fundamentals and 66% to disease states. Greater than 94% of schools taught all tier one ID topics from the 2016 American College of Clinical Pharmacy Pharmacotherapy Didactic Curriculum Toolkit. Curricula were primarily delivered through traditional lectures rather than active learning (75% vs 25% of classroom time, respectively). The median number of active-learning strategies used was four (IQR=3). The most common active-learning modalities used either consistently or frequently were patient case application (98%) and audience response systems (76%). The most common successes cited by faculty members were implementation of active learning, the "real-world" applicability of the ID topics, and the breadth of topics and topic exposure covered in the curriculum. The most common concerns were a lack of time to cover material and the amount of material covered. Conclusion. Increased communication and collaboration between ID educators is warranted to increase consistency of ID education and distribution of educational innovations.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(12): 1377-1386, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health care burden of hemochromatosis in the United States, despite its increased morbidity and mortality due to associated advanced liver diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health care utilization and economic burdens of hemochromatosis in the United States using real-world claims data. METHODS: We performed a case-control analysis of adult participants in the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims database from 2010 to 2015. 37,092 hemochromatosis cases were matched 1:1 by demographics and comorbidities to hemochromatosis-free controls with chronic liver disease using propensity scores. Total and service-specific health care parameters were quantified for the 12 months following versus the 12 months before the first date of hemochromatosis diagnosis and over the 12 months following a randomly selected date for controls. Incremental differences in health care burdens between cases and controls were examined using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and McNemar tests for continuous and dichotomous measures, respectively. Adjusted multivariable regression analyses using generalized linear models were used to compare the health care burdens for cases with controls. RESULTS: In comparison with the year before, the 12 months following first hemochromatosis diagnoses had a higher total number of claims per patient (34.37 vs. 29.99; P < 0.0001) and an increase in the per-patient total health care costs ($20,023 vs. $16,905; P < 0.0001). After hemochromatosis diagnosis, health care costs were 2%, 8%, 23%, and 43% higher for inpatient admissions, emergency department visits, outpatient visits, and pharmaceutical prescriptions, compared respectively with the 12 months before diagnosis. In the 12 months following the index date, hemochromatosis cases incurred $2,732 more in total unadjusted costs compared with controls. Compared with controls, cases had adjusted incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.26 (95% CI = 1.30-1.77) times the total number of claims (IRR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.38-1.43) more outpatient visits and IRR = 1.10 (95% CI = 1.08-1.11) excess pharmaceutical claims. Compared with controls, cases had significantly higher adjusted mean health care costs for inpatient services ($6,484 vs. $7,854), outpatient services ($7,032 vs. $11,005), and pharmaceutical claims ($2,520 vs. $2,822; all P values < 0.05). The annual health care costs among type 2 diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hemochromatosis were $6,968, $7,424, $2,967, and $43,847, respectively, higher than type 2 diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and CKD patients without hemochromatosis (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Hemochromatosis in the United States is associated with significant health care utilization and economic burdens driven by outpatient visits, pharmaceutical claims, and a high number of comorbidities DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. The authors have no relevant financial or other relationships to disclose. An abstract containing some of the results from this study was accepted for the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Meeting; November 9-13, 2018; San Francisco, CA.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemocromatose/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(3): 367-370, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202924

RESUMO

Recent estimates of inpatient antibiotic use in the USA suggest that broad-spectrum antibiotic use has increased significantly. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a selective antibiotic susceptibility reporting intervention on broad-spectrum intravenous (i.v.) antibiotic use in seven hospitals of a health system in New Jersey. This was a retrospective pre- and post-intervention ecological study. Standardised selective antibiotic susceptibility reporting rules were developed and implemented between January 2016 and June 2017. The 8 months before and after each individual hospital's implementation constituted the pre- and post-intervention study periods. The primary outcome was the rate of broad-spectrum i.v. antibiotic use for hospital-onset/multidrug-resistant infections (broad MDR). Secondary outcome measures were the use rates of non-glycopeptide anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) agents, carbapenems, non-carbapenem antipseudomonal ß-lactams, third-generation cephalosporins, first/second-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and narrow-spectrum penicillins. Antibiotic use data were collected as inpatient i.v. antibiotic days of therapy per 1000 patient days (DOT/1000-PD). Interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression was used to compare outcomes. There was no significant change in the use of broad MDR agents (slope change, +0.54 DOT/1000-PD per month, 95% confidence interval -1.78 to 2.87) or other antibiotic classes. Whilst the implementation of selective antibiotic susceptibility reporting across seven hospitals had no impact on overall broad-spectrum i.v. antibiotic use, further study is needed to determine the long-term impact of this intervention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , New Jersey , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Vaccine ; 37(30): 4111-4117, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine is recommended for United States (US) travelers to endemic regions, vaccination rates are lower among non-US-born adults and some racial minority groups. PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the relationship between birthplace, race and their interaction as predictors of self-reported HAV vaccination among adult travelers to high-risk countries (HRCs) through analysis of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 2012-2015. METHODS: The study included 36,872 US adult participants in the 2012-2015 NHIS who traveled to countries where HAV is endemic. The main outcome was self-reported HAV vaccination (≥2 doses). Complex survey methods were applied to all models to provide statistical estimates that were representative of US adults. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, medical, and access-to-care characteristics were fitted to examine the association between birthplace, race, race-by-birthplace (for interaction) and vaccination status. RESULTS: For adult travelers to HRCs, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of HAV vaccination was lower for non-US-born compared to US-born adults, AOR 0.86 (95% CI; 0.76, 0.98). For Hispanics, the AOR of HAV vaccination was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.70, 0.91) as compared to non-Hispanic-Whites. Furthermore, a significant qualitative interaction between birthplace and race was found (P-value 0.0005). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, the adjusted odds of HAV vaccination for non-US-born adults were 1.35 (95% CI; 1.06, 1.72) times the odds for US-born adults. In contrast, the AORs of HAV vaccination of non-US-born versus US-born adults were 36% (95% CI; 17%, 51%) and 30% (95% CI; 12%, 44%), lower for Asians and Hispanics, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The association between birthplace and HAV vaccination status differs by race among travelers to HRCs, with US-born non-Hispanic Black and non-US-born Asian and Hispanic adults having lower odds of vaccination. Health care resources should be focused on these target populations to improve travel vaccination compliance.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/patogenicidade , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Autorrelato , Medicina de Viagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 877-891, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114267

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of infection in both the hospital and community setting. Obesity is a risk factor for infection, and the prevalence of this disease has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Treatment of infections in this special population is a challenge given the lack of data on the optimal antibiotic choice and dosing strategies, particularly for treatment of MRSA infections. Obesity is associated with various physiological changes that may lead to altered pharmacokinetic parameters. These changes include altered drug biodistribution, elimination, and absorption. This review provides clinicians with a summary of the literature pertaining to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations when selecting antibiotic therapy for the treatment of MRSA infections in obese patients.

16.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 6: 2049936119828964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792858

RESUMO

Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia (VRE-B) is a common nosocomial infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Daptomycin and linezolid are primary treatment options although definitive clinical data to assess comparative therapeutic effectiveness are lacking. This study assessed the outcomes of patients with VRE-B treated with linezolid or daptomycin. This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study evaluating adult patients with VRE-B treated with either daptomycin or linezolid admitted between January 2012 and August 2016 at a tertiary care, academic medical center. The primary outcome was clinical failure, a composite outcome defined as 14-day in-hospital mortality, microbiologic failure, or relapse of VRE-B. Secondary outcomes included 14-day in-hospital mortality, microbiologic failure, relapse of VRE-B, duration of VRE-B, and antibiotic failure. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to adjust for potential confounding variables. A total of 93 patients were included (n = 62 for linezolid and n = 31 for daptomycin). All blood isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Overall clinical failure was 55.9% and 14-day in-hospital mortality was 21.5%. There was a significantly higher rate of clinical failure in the daptomycin group as compared with the linezolid-treated patients (74.2% versus 46.8%; p = 0.01; respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was a significantly higher odds of clinical failure for patients treated with daptomycin as compared with linezolid (adjusted odds ratio 2.89; 95% confidence interval 1.08-7.75) after adjusting for confounders. Secondary outcomes were not statistically significantly different between study groups. Standard-dose (6 mg/kg) daptomycin treatment was associated with a higher rate of clinical failure as compared with linezolid treatment.

17.
J Community Health ; 44(4): 796-804, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560311

RESUMO

Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a problem in the United States as reactivation leads to active TB disease particularly in persons with risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and health behaviors related to testing and treatment of LTBI among non-US-born South Asians (SA) in New Jersey (NJ). A cross-sectional, community-based survey was the primary tool for gathering data. Eligibility criteria included being at least 18 years of age, self-identifying as SA, verbal consent for participation, and birth in a high TB endemic country. A hardcopy survey was distributed at local South Asian health fairs. The survey included questions about demographics, knowledge, beliefs on TB, and health behaviors (testing and treatment). Descriptive statistics were performed for all survey responses. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association of characteristics/beliefs and study outcomes. The survey sample size included 387 respondents. A total of 197 (54%) of respondents reported ever been tested for TB. Those who were tested for TB were generally younger, had higher educational levels, higher household incomes, and were more likely to have health insurance than those not ever tested for TB. Significantly more respondents who self-reported ever been tested for TB believed that TB was very or extremely serious (71.1% vs. 56.2%, p = 0.004). Also, significantly more respondents who self-reported ever been tested for TB believed that it was important to get tested (91.2% vs. 63.3%, p < 0.001). The survey analysis concluded that high-risk SA residents in NJ demonstrated a low rate of testing for TB.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Tuberculose Latente , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/etnologia , Tuberculose Latente/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 11: 1975-1981, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464539

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the use of aztreonam as an active empiric therapy against subsequent culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted among patients who received either aztreonam or an antipseudomonal beta-lactam (BL) as an empiric therapy with subsequent culture with P. aeruginosa. All patients with at least one positive culture for P. aeruginosa between January 2014 and August 2016 were included in this analysis. The primary composite outcome was empiric therapy failure, defined as inappropriate empiric therapy, alteration of empiric antibiotic following culture results, or 30-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included appropriate empiric therapy, alteration of empiric therapy, 30-day-in-hospital mortality, and post-culture hospital length of stay. Results: The primary outcome of empiric therapy failure was significantly higher in the aztreonam group than in the BL group (77.8% vs 41.9%; P=0.004). The aztreonam group had a lower rate of appropriate empiric therapy compared with the BL group (44.4% vs 66.1%; P=0.074) and higher alteration of empiric therapy once susceptibilities were known than when compared with the BL group (61.1%vs 28.2%; P=0.005). Although numerically higher, 30-day-in-hospital mortality and median hospital length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Empiric therapy failure occurred more often when initially using aztreonam vs a BL in a patient who subsequently had a P. aeruginosa infection. Only a third of patients within the aztreonam group had a documented BL allergy, demonstrating an inclination for clinicians to utilize this drug as an empiric therapy when there were more appropriate therapies available.

19.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 92(3): 214-219, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of Gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) in positive blood cultures (pBC) may limit exposure to unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotics. METHODS: Inpatients with pBC showing GPCC between October 2013 and December 2017 were included. In the baseline period (BL), final ID and susceptibility results were reported in the electronic medical record (EMR) within 48 h of telephoned Gram stain report. The laboratory introduced rapid phenotypic identification and direct susceptibility testing (INT1), later replaced by PCR (INT2). In the last Intervention (INT3), Antimicrobial Stewardship Response Team (ASRT) contacted providers with PCR results and recommendations. RESULTS: Time to directed therapy (TDT) for MSSA and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) decreased from BL to INT3 (48.5-17.9 h, 50.3-16.4 h, respectively). Time to ID from BL to INT3 for MSSA and CoNS also decreased (23.2-1.9 h, 44.7-2.8, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TDT can be improved by modification of reporting methods with utilization of an ASRT.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Coagulase/genética , Humanos , Resistência a Meticilina , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 5(4): ofy065, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657956

RESUMO

Background: Persons born between 1945 and 1965 account for an estimated 81% of those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States. However, up to 60% remain undiagnosed. Prior studies have reported HCV screening results from large urban emergency departments. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients in the 1945-1965 birth cohort tested for HCV in a large emergency department (ED) in New Jersey from June 1, 2016, through December 31, 2016. The purpose was to report HCV antibody and viral load results of this testing program located in a small urban/suburban area and to analyze specific characteristics associated with positive results, such as race/ethnicity and insurance status. Descriptive statistics were performed, and, using a multivariate logistic regression model, adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: A total of 3046 patients were screened: 55.8% were white, and 17.9% were black; 52.1% had private insurance, 33.4% Medicare, 3.9% Medicaid. One hundred ninety-two were antibody positive (6.3%). Of 167 with HCV viral load testing results, 43% had a positive viral load. On multivariate analysis, black race and Medicaid were independently associated with a positive HCV viral load. Conclusions: HCV antibody seropositivity was above 6% and twice as high as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated prevalence in this birth cohort. These results indicate that EDs outside of large urban cities are also important sites for routine HCV screening. Other findings of interest include 43% with chronic HCV infection and the persistent association between black race and positive HCV viral load even when adjusted for insurance status.

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