Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of <10 minutes protects against disability risks or if only 10 minutes bouts of MVPA is critical. Additionally, it is unclear whether light physical activity (LPA) or its accumulation patterns is associated with functional disability. METHODS: A total of 1,678 adults aged ≥65 years and without functional disability at baseline were followed up for 6 years. Functional disability was identified using the database of Japan's Long-term Care Insurance System. Physical activity was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer secured to the waist. RESULTS: Functional disability was identified in 274 participants (16.3%). When examined as quartiles, higher levels of all MVPA measures were dose-dependently associated with lower risk of functional disability. Associations of MVPA in ≥10 and <10 minutes bouts remained significant in a mutually adjusted model. Neither total LPA nor LPA in bout of ≥10 minutes, but LPA in bouts of <10 minutes was associated with functional disability. Analyses using restricted cubic spline functions showed that associations of all MVPA measures and LPA in bouts of <10 minutes with functional disability were linear (p for nonlinear >.05). The hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for functional disability per 10 minutes increment of total MVPA and LPA in bout of <10 minutes were 0.86 (0.81-0.92) and 0.96 (0.93-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MVPA, regardless accumulation patterns, or LPA in bouts of <10 minutes was associated with lower risk of functional disability in a linear dose-response manner in older adults.

2.
Sports Med ; 50(2): 403-413, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides physical activity as a target for dementia prevention, sedentary behaviour is hypothesized to be a potential target in its own right. The rising number of persons with dementia and lack of any effective treatment highlight the urgency to better understand these modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with reduced global cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline in older persons without dementia. METHODS: We used five population cohorts from Greece, Australia, USA, Japan, and Singapore (HELIAD, PATH, SALSA, SGS, and SLAS2) from the Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium. In a coordinated analysis, we assessed the relationship between sedentary behaviour and global cognitive function with the use of linear mixed growth model analysis (mean follow-up range of 2.0-8.1 years). RESULTS: Baseline datasets combined 10,450 older adults without dementia with a mean age range between cohorts of 66.7-75.1 years. After adjusting for multiple covariates, no cross-sectional association between sedentary behaviour and cognition was found in four studies. One association was detected where more sedentary behaviour was cross-sectionally linked to higher cognition levels (SLAS2, B = 0.118 (0.075; 0.160), P < 0.001). Longitudinally, there were no associations between baseline sedentary behaviour and cognitive decline (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results do not suggest an association between total sedentary time and lower global cognition in older persons without dementia at baseline or over time. We hypothesize that specific types of sedentary behaviour may differentially influence cognition which should be investigated further. For now, it is, however, too early to establish undifferentiated sedentary time as a potential effective target for minimizing cognitive decline in older adults without dementia.

3.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
4.
PLoS Med ; 14(3): e1002261, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54-105 y (42% male), including 3.3% with dementia at baseline. The studies began between 1989 and 2011, with all but three ongoing, and each had 2-16 assessment waves (median = 3) and a follow-up duration of 2-15 y. We analyzed standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and memory, processing speed, language, and executive functioning test scores using linear mixed models, adjusted for sex and education, and meta-analytic techniques. Performance on all cognitive measures declined with age, with the most rapid rate of change pooled across cohorts a moderate -0.26 standard deviations per decade (SD/decade) (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.35, -0.16], p < 0.001) for processing speed. Rates of decline accelerated slightly with age, with executive functioning showing the largest additional rate of decline with every further decade of age (-0.07 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.03], p = 0.002). There was a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the associations across cohorts, including a slightly faster decline (p = 0.021) on the MMSE for Asians (-0.20 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.12], p < 0.001) than for whites (-0.09 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.16, -0.02], p = 0.009). Males declined on the MMSE at a slightly slower rate than females (difference = 0.023 SD/decade, 95% CI [0.011, 0.035], p < 0.001), and every additional year of education was associated with a rate of decline slightly slower for the MMSE (0.004 SD/decade less, 95% CI [0.002, 0.006], p = 0.001), but slightly faster for language (-0.007 SD/decade more, 95% CI [-0.011, -0.003], p = 0.001). APOE*4 carriers declined slightly more rapidly than non-carriers on most cognitive measures, with processing speed showing the greatest difference (-0.08 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], p = 0.019). The same overall pattern of results was found when analyses were repeated with baseline dementia cases excluded. We used only one test to represent cognitive domains, and though a prototypical one, we nevertheless urge caution in generalizing the results to domains rather than viewing them as test-specific associations. This study lacked cohorts from Africa, India, and mainland China. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive performance declined with age, and more rapidly with increasing age, across samples from diverse ethnocultural groups and geographical regions. Associations varied across cohorts, suggesting that different rates of cognitive decline might contribute to the global variation in dementia prevalence. However, the many similarities and consistent associations with education and APOE genotype indicate a need to explore how international differences in associations with other risk factors such as genetics, cardiovascular health, and lifestyle are involved. Future studies should attempt to use multiple tests for each cognitive domain and feature populations from ethnocultural groups and geographical regions for which we lacked data.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Genótipo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
5.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 888, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min) was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.


Assuntos
Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 63(12): 727-737, 2016.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100892

RESUMO

Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão , Masculino , Força Muscular , Classe Social
7.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(3): 303-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26181652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00-1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Atividade Motora , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Acelerometria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Características de Residência
8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 16(6): 729-36, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26082148

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations of global cognitive performance with frailty and pre-frailty in non-demented community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out using data from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study in 2011. The study sample consisted of 1565 older adults with complete data and no evidence of dementia. Global cognitive performance was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Frailty state was defined using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria, based on five components: unintentional weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, low gait speed and low physical activity. RESULTS: Total MoCA and MMSE scores, and their domain-specific scores decreased across the non-frail, pre-frail and frail groups. Poorer total MoCA and MMSE scores, as well as their domain-specific scores, were associated with the greater likelihood of being frail, but not with pre-frailty after full adjustment. The strength of the association with frailty was greater for total MoCA score than for total MMSE score. Domain-specific scores for visuospatial abilities and attention domains in both of the MoCA and MMSE were consistently associated with the likelihood of pre-frailty and frailty, even after being mutually adjusted for all domains. CONCLUSIONS: The MoCA performance is more strongly associated with the odds of frailty than the MMSE performance in the relatively functional and non-demented older adult population. The present findings could contribute to further exploration of possible common pathways that can be targeted in the prevention and management for both of these two conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Sports Sci Med ; 14(3): 507-14, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336336

RESUMO

Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key pointsAccelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving understanding of daily PA in older adults.This study first demonstrated that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older people.Women were more active compared with men, in terms of more minutes of MVPA.

10.
BMC Geriatr ; 15: 36, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25887474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low physical activity domain of the frailty phenotype has been assessed with various self-reported questionnaires, which are prone to possible recall bias and a lack of diagnostic accuracy. The primary purpose of this study was to define the low physical activity domain of the frailty phenotype using accelerometer-based measurement and to evaluate the internal construct validity among older community-dwellers. Secondly, we examined potential correlates of frailty in this population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,527 community-dwelling older men and women aged 65 and over. Data were drawn from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, a cohort study carried out in a west Japanese suburban community. Frailty phenotypes were defined by the following five components: unintentional weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed, and low physical activity. Of these criteria, physical activity was objectively measured with a tri-axial accelerometer. To confirm our measure's internal validity, we performed a latent class analysis (LCA) to assess whether the five components could aggregate statistically into a syndrome. We examined the correlates of frailty using multiple stepwise logistic regression models. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of frailty was 9.3% (95% confidence intervals, CI, 8.4-11.2); 43.9% were pre-frail (95% CI, 41.5-46.4). The percentage of low physical activity was 19.5%. Objectively-assessed physical activity and other components aggregated statistically into a syndrome. Overall, increased age, poorer self-perceived health, depressive and anxiety symptoms, not consuming alcohol, no engagement in social activities, and cognitive impairment were associated with increased odds of frailty status, independent of co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the internal construct validity of the frailty phenotype that defined the low energy expenditure domain with the objective measurement of physical activity. Accelerometry may potentially standardize the measurement of low physical activity and improve the diagnostic accuracy of the frailty phenotype criteria in primary care setting. The potential role of factors associated with frailty merits further studies to explore their clinical application.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Autorrelato , População Suburbana , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Prevalência
11.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1307, 2014 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior has been reported to be associated with metabolic and vascular health independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In order to select appropriate options to measure sedentary behavior in practice and research settings, it is worthwhile to characterize the extent to which objective and subjective measures of sedentary behavior quantify adverse health risks in the same population. This cross-sectional analysis compared accelerometer-derived and self-reported sedentary time to identify their association with cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from 661 Japanese workers (145 women) aged 20-64 years. Participants wore a tri-axial accelerometer device for 10 consecutive days and completed the Japan Atherosclerosis Longitudinal Study Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on body mass index, waist circumference, resting blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total:HDL cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained from annual health examinations. RESULTS: Both accelerometer-derived and self-reported sedentary time were deleteriously associated with triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, total:HDL ratio, and HbA1c after adjustment for potential confounders including MVPA. There were no significant differences in regression coefficients between the two measures. Thus, the magnitude of the associations of both measures with cardio-metabolic risk factors was similar, despite poor agreement between them. Occupational sedentary time was correlated with both measures of total sedentary time, and more consistently associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors than sedentary leisure time. CONCLUSIONS: Both accelerometer and self-report measurements are similarly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in a Japanese working adult population. Subjective and objective measures of sedentary behaviors appear to capture different aspects of behaviors. Further efforts to establish data processing methods integrating objective and subjective measures are needed to more effectively assess sedentary time's relationship to health outcomes.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adulto , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Emprego , Exercício , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Japão/epidemiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sports Sci Med ; 13(3): 590-6, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25177186

RESUMO

Detecting signs of cognitive impairment as early as possible is one of the most urgent challenges in preventive care of dementia. It has still been unclear whether physical fitness measures can serve as markers of low cognitive function, a sign of cognitive impairment, in older people free from dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine an association between each of five physical fitness measures and global cognition in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without apparent cognitive problems. The baseline research of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study was conducted from May to August 2011 in Sasaguri town, Fukuoka, Japan. Of the 2,629 baseline subjects who were aged 65 years or older and not certified as individuals requiring nursing care by the town, 1,552 participants without apparent cognitive problems (Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) were involved in the present study (59.0% of the baseline subjects, median age: 72 years, men: 40.1%). Global cognitive function was measured by the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Handgrip strength, leg strength, sit-to-stand rate, gait speed, and one-leg stand time were examined as physical fitness measures. In multiple linear regression analyses, each of the five physical fitness measures was positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score after adjusting for age and sex (p < 0.001). These associations were preserved after additional adjustment for years of formal education, body mass index, and other confounding factors (p < 0.001). The present study first demonstrated the associations between multiple aspects of physical fitness and global cognitive function in Japanese community-dwelling older people without apparent cognitive problems. These results suggest that each of the physical fitness measures has a potential as a single marker of low cognitive function in older populations free from dementia and thereby can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia. Key pointsThere is a great need for identifying lifestyle-related markers which help detect subtle cognitive impairment in the preclinical or earlier phase of dementia.In the present study, each of the five physical fitness measures employed was linearly and positively associated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score in the present older adults without apparent cognitive problems, after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, and other confounding factors.The results suggest the potential of each physical fitness measure as a single lifestyle-related marker of low cognitive function in the population, which can be useful in community-based preventive care of dementia.

13.
Neuroepidemiology ; 40(1): 23-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23075757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is acknowledged as a promising neuropsychological tool, its normative data for older populations have not been established yet. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data for the MoCA in Japanese community-dwelling older people. METHODS: In a Japanese town, 1,977 participants aged 65 years or older (mean age 73.6 years; male 41.3%) completed MoCA tests. After descriptive and regression analyses, normative data were developed for MoCA scores in the population. RESULTS: The mean MoCA score observed (21.8 points) was lower than that for normal controls (27.4 points) in the original validation study of the MoCA. Additionally, 82.6% of MoCA scores fell below the standard cutoff of 26 points for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The regression analysis showed that higher age and fewer years of formal education were associated with lower MoCA scores (p < 0.001). Normative data for MoCA scores were presented with respect to age and education. CONCLUSION: This study provided normative data for the MoCA in a Japanese community-dwelling older population. This research also suggests that conventional use of the MoCA as a screening tool for MCI might be problematic in cultures different from that in which the cutoff was developed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etnologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Características de Residência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 17(1): 47-52, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17362179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Development of objective criteria and optimum training protocols are priorities for robotic laparoscopy. However, studies that have attempted to objectify learning have been limited due to lack of task complexity and absence of comparisons between experts and novices. Our aim was to address these limitations and assess proficiency in robotic laparoscopy using bimanual inanimate tasks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six experts and 18 novice users of the da Vinci surgical system (Innovative Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) performed three bimanual surgical manipulations, two of them in opposite directions, for a total of five different test tasks. During each task, elapsed time and kinematics with respect to the instrument tips were measured and a bimanual coordination analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between the simultaneous movements of both arms. Specifically, task completion time, total traveling distance of the instrument tips, and mean absolute relative phase-a variable for the assessment of bimanual coordination-were calculated for each task and compared between groups. RESULTS: The experts showed significantly shorter task completion times for all tasks (P < 0.05). Significantly higher mean absolute relative phase values were observed for the experts in two tasks (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences regarding total travel distance. CONCLUSION: Expert users of the da Vinci surgical system performed the designed surgical tasks faster and with higher bimanual dexterity than novices. Bimanual coordination analysis and the tasks used in this study show promise for becoming important components of the objective criteria needed to quantify proficiency in robotic laparoscopy.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Robótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Competência Clínica , Movimento , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA