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1.
EMBO J ; 38(10)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979779

RESUMO

TP53INP2 positively regulates autophagy by binding to Atg8 proteins. Here, we uncover a novel role of TP53INP2 in death-receptor signaling. TP53INP2 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by death receptor ligands. In keeping with this, TP53INP2 deficiency in cultured cells or mouse livers protects against death receptor-induced apoptosis. TP53INP2 binds caspase-8 and the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, thereby promoting the ubiquitination and activation of caspase-8 by TRAF6. We have defined a TRAF6-interacting motif (TIM) and a ubiquitin-interacting motif in TP53INP2, enabling it to function as a scaffold bridging already ubiquitinated caspase-8 to TRAF6 for further polyubiquitination of caspase-8. Mutations of key TIM residues in TP53INP2 abrogate its interaction with TRAF6 and caspase-8, and subsequently reduce levels of death receptor-induced apoptosis. A screen of cancer cell lines showed that those with higher protein levels of TP53INP2 are more prone to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, making TP53INP2 a potential predictive marker of cancer cell responsiveness to TRAIL treatment. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for the regulation of caspase-8 ubiquitination and reveal TP53INP2 as an important regulator of the death receptor pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores de Morte Celular/genética , Receptores de Morte Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/uso terapêutico , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação/genética
2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 174(21): 3795-3810, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thyroid hormones induce several changes in whole body metabolism that are known to improve metabolic homeostasis. However, adverse side effects have prevented its use in the clinic. In view of the promising effects of thyroid hormones, we investigated the effects of levothyroxine supplementation on glucose homeostasis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: C57BL/6 mice were treated with levothyroxine from birth to 24 weeks of age, when mice were killed. The effects of levothyroxine supplementation on metabolic health were determined. C57BL/6 mice treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and then challenged with streptozotocin to monitor survival. Mechanistic experiments were conducted in the pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle. RIP-B7.1 mice were treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and were subsequently immunized to trigger experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD). Metabolic tests were performed. Mice were killed and metabolic tissues were extracted for immunohistological analyses. KEY RESULTS: Long-term levothyroxine supplementation enhanced glucose clearance and reduced circulating glucose in C57BL/6 mice. Levothyroxine increased simultaneously the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells, promoting the maintenance of a highly insulin-expressing beta cell population. Levothyroxine increased circulating insulin levels, inducing sustained activation of IRS1-AKT signalling in insulin-target tissues. Levothyroxine-treated C57BL/6 mice challenged with streptozotocin exhibited extended survival. Levothyroxine blunted the onset of EAD in RIP-B7.1 mice by inducing beta cell proliferation and preservation of insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Interventions based on the use of thyroid hormones or thyromimetics could be explored to provide therapeutic benefit in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Tiroxina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem
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