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Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634687


Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is considered a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies demonstrated that polyphenols are able to inhibit the growth of TMA-producing bacterial strains, and resveratrol (RSV) reduced TMAO levels in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the TMAO-reducing effect of a novel nutraceutical formulation containing grape pomace extract in humans (Taurisolo®). The Taurisolo® polyphenol content was evaluated by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, and RSV was monitored as an indicative marker. After in vitro GI digestion, intestinal bioaccessibility of RSV was 92.3%. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial was carried out to evaluate the TMAO-reducing effect of Taurisolo®. In acute, the maximum levels of RSV were detected both in serum and whole blood 60 min after the administration of Taurisolo®; in chronic, a significant increase of RSV was detected in serum after the 4-week treatment. After 4 weeks, the levels of TMAO were significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to placebo (63.6% vs. 0.54%, respectively, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, our data show that Taurisolo® may represent a novel and useful natural remedy to reduce prognostic markers for incident cardiovascular events. Undoubtedly, further in vitro and in vivo studies need to be performed in order to elucidate possible mechanisms of action and corroborate our preliminary results.

Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metilaminas/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Adulto , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/análise , Resveratrol/sangue
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413043


The beneficial effects of the tea beverage are well-known and mainly attributed to polyphenols which, however, have poor bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of colon bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of tea polyphenolic extract. An 80% methanolic extract (v/v) of tea polyphenols was obtained from green (GT), white (WT) and black tea (BT). Simulated gastrointestinal (GI) digestion was performed on acid-resistant capsules containing tea polyphenolic extract. The main tea polyphenols were monitored by HPLC-diode-array detector (DAD) method; in addition, Total Phenol Content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were evaluated. After GI digestion, the bioaccessibility in the colon stage was significantly increased compared to the duodenal stage for both tea polyphenols and TPC. Similarly, the antioxidant activity in the colon stage was significantly higher than that in the duodenal stage. Reasonably, these results could be attributable in vivo to the activity of gut microbiota, which is able to metabolize these compounds, generating metabolites with a greater antioxidant activity. Our results may guide the comprehension of the colon digestion of polyphenols, suggesting that, although poorly absorbed in the duodenum, they can exert their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the lower gut, resulting in a novel strategy for the management of gut-related inflammatory diseases.

Viruses ; 10(9)2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177661


The herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human virus affecting many people worldwide. HSV infections manifest with lesions that occur in different parts of the body, including oral, ocular, nasal, and genital skin and mucosa. In rare cases, HSV infections can be serious and lethal. Several anti-HSV drugs have been developed, but the existence of mutant viruses resistant to these drugs led to the individuation of novel antiviral agents. Plant-derived bioactive compounds, and more specifically polyphenols, have been demonstrated to exert marked anti-HSV activity and, among these, resveratrol (RSV) would be considered a good candidate. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the available literature elucidating the efficacy of RSV against HSV and the main demonstrated mechanisms of action.

Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Resveratrol , Resultado do Tratamento
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223482


Doxorubicin is a highly active antineoplastic agent, but its clinical use is limited because of its cardiotoxicity. Although nutraceuticals endowed with anti-inflammatory properties exert cardioprotective activity, their bioavailability and stability are inconsistent. In an attempt to address this issue, we evaluated whether bioavailable nanoemulsions loaded with nutraceuticals (curcumin and fresh and dry tomato extracts rich in lycopene) protect cardiomyoblasts (H9C2 cells) from doxorubicin-induced toxicity. Nanoemulsions were produced with a high-pressure homogenizer. H9C2 cells were incubated with nanoemulsions loaded with different nutraceuticals alone or in combination with doxorubicin. Cell viability was evaluated with a modified MTT method. The levels of the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-butanone (4-HNA), and of the cardiotoxic-related interleukins IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide were analyzed in cardiomyoblasts. The hydrodynamic size of nanoemulsions was around 100 nm. Cell viability enhancement was 35⁻40% higher in cardiomyoblasts treated with nanoemulsion + doxorubicin than in cardiomyoblasts treated with doxorubicin alone. Nanoemulsions also protected against oxidative stress as witnessed by a reduction of MDA and 4-HNA. Notably, nanoemulsions inhibited the release of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, TNF-α and nitric oxide by around 35⁻40% and increased IL-10 production by 25⁻27% versus cells not treated with emulsions. Of the nutraceuticals evaluated, lycopene-rich nanoemulsions had the best cardioprotective profile. In conclusion, nanoemulsions loaded with the nutraceuticals described herein protect against cardiotoxicity, by reducing inflammation and lipid oxidative stress. These results set the stage for studies in preclinical models.