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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3337, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620756

RESUMO

The tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) moiety is a privileged substructure of many bioactive natural products and semi-synthetic analogs. Plants manufacture more than 3,000 THIQ alkaloids, including the opioids morphine and codeine. While microbial species have been engineered to synthesize a few compounds from the benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA) family of THIQs, low product titers impede industrial viability and limit access to the full chemical space. Here we report a yeast THIQ platform by increasing production of the central BIA intermediate (S)-reticuline to 4.6 g L-1, a 57,000-fold improvement over our first-generation strain. We show that gains in BIA output coincide with the formation of several substituted THIQs derived from amino acid catabolism. We use these insights to repurpose the Ehrlich pathway and synthesize an array of THIQ structures. This work provides a blueprint for building diverse alkaloid scaffolds and enables the targeted overproduction of thousands of THIQ products, including natural and semi-synthetic opioids.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(17)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934332

RESUMO

Muconic acid (MA) is a chemical building block and precursor to adipic and terephthalic acids used in the production of nylon and polyethylene terephthalate polymer families. Global demand for these important materials, coupled to their dependence on petrochemical resources, provides substantial motivation for the microbial synthesis of MA and its derivatives. In this context, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast shikimate pathway can be sourced as a precursor for the formation of MA. Here we report a novel strategy to balance MA pathway performance with aromatic amino acid prototrophy by destabilizing Aro1 through C-terminal degron tagging. Coupling of a composite MA production pathway to degron-tagged Aro1 in an aro3Δ aro4Δ mutant background led to the accumulation of 5.6 g/liter protocatechuic acid (PCA). However, metabolites downstream of PCA were not detected, despite the inclusion of genes mediating their biosynthesis. Because CEN.PK family strains of S. cerevisiae lack the activity of Pad1, a key enzyme supporting PCA decarboxylase activity, chromosomal expression of intact PAD1 alleviated this bottleneck, resulting in nearly stoichiometric conversion (95%) of PCA to downstream products. In a fed-batch bioreactor, the resulting strain produced 1.2 g/liter MA under prototrophic conditions and 5.1 g/liter MA when supplemented with amino acids, corresponding to a yield of 58 mg/g sugar.IMPORTANCE Previous efforts to engineer a heterologous MA pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been hindered by a bottleneck at the PCA decarboxylation step and the creation of aromatic amino acid auxotrophy through deleterious manipulation of the pentafunctional Aro1 protein. In light of these studies, this work was undertaken with the central objective of preserving amino acid prototrophy, which we achieved by employing an Aro1 degradation strategy. Moreover, resolution of the key PCA decarboxylase bottleneck, as detailed herein, advances our understanding of yeast MA biosynthesis and will guide future strain engineering efforts. These strategies resulted in the highest titer reported to date for muconic acid produced in yeast. Overall, our study showcases the effectiveness of careful tuning of yeast Aro1 activity and the importance of host-pathway dynamics.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Adipatos/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/genética , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Proteólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Ácido Sórbico/metabolismo
4.
ACS Synth Biol ; 5(12): 1505-1518, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442619

RESUMO

The ever-increasing quantity of data deposited to GenBank is a valuable resource for mining new enzyme activities. Falling costs of DNA synthesis enables metabolic engineers to take advantage of this resource for identifying superior or novel enzymes for pathway optimization. Previously, we reported synthesis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloid dihydrosanguinarine in yeast from norlaudanosoline at a molar conversion of 1.5%. Molar conversion could be improved by reduction of the side-product N-methylcheilanthifoline, a key bottleneck in dihydrosanguinarine biosynthesis. Two pathway enzymes, an N-methyltransferase and a cytochrome P450 of the CYP719A subfamily, were implicated in the synthesis of the side-product. Here, we conducted an extensive screen to identify enzyme homologues whose coexpression reduces side-product synthesis. Phylogenetic trees were generated from multiple sources of sequence data to identify a library of candidate enzymes that were purchased codon-optimized and precloned into expression vectors designed to facilitate high-throughput analysis of gene expression as well as activity assay. Simple in vivo assays were sufficient to guide the selection of superior enzyme homologues that ablated the synthesis of the side-product, and improved molar conversion of norlaudanosoline to dihydrosanguinarine to 10%.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Berberina , Enzimas/metabolismo , Biblioteca Gênica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Benzofenantridinas/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Berberina/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , DNA/biossíntese , Enzimas/genética , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tetra-Hidropapaverolina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Trends Biotechnol ; 34(3): 228-241, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26775900

RESUMO

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a family of ∼2500 alkaloids with both potential and realized pharmaceutical value, including most notably the opiates such as codeine and morphine. Only a few BIAs accumulate readily in plants, which limits the pharmaceutical potential of the family. Shifting BIA production to microbial sources could provide a scalable and flexible source of these compounds in the future. This review details the current status of microbial BIA synthesis and derivatization, including rapid developments in the past 6 months culminating in the synthesis of opioids from glucose in a microbial host.


Assuntos
Benzilisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
6.
Nat Chem Biol ; 11(7): 465-71, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25984720

RESUMO

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse family of plant-specialized metabolites that include the pharmaceuticals codeine and morphine and their derivatives. Microbial synthesis of BIAs holds promise as an alternative to traditional crop-based manufacturing. Here we demonstrate the production of the key BIA intermediate (S)-reticuline from glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To aid in this effort, we developed an enzyme-coupled biosensor for the upstream intermediate L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). Using this sensor, we identified an active tyrosine hydroxylase and improved its L-DOPA yields by 2.8-fold via PCR mutagenesis. Coexpression of DOPA decarboxylase enabled what is to our knowledge the first demonstration of dopamine production from glucose in yeast, with a 7.4-fold improvement in titer obtained for our best mutant enzyme. We extended this pathway to fully reconstitute the seven-enzyme pathway from L-tyrosine to (S)-reticuline. Future work to improve titers and connect these steps with downstream pathway branches, already demonstrated in S. cerevisiae, will enable low-cost production of many high-value BIAs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/biossíntese , Benzilisoquinolinas/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/metabolismo , Dopa Descarboxilase/genética , Dopa Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Dopamina/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Entorpecentes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0124459, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25905794

RESUMO

Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes.


Assuntos
Morfinanos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Fourier , Espectrometria de Massas , Morfinanos/química , Estereoisomerismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3283, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24513861

RESUMO

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) represent a large class of plant secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals such as morphine, codeine and their derivatives. Large-scale production of BIA-based pharmaceuticals is limited to extraction and derivatization of alkaloids that accumulate in planta. Synthesis of BIAs in microbial hosts could bypass such limitations and transform both industrial production of BIAs with recognized value and research into uncharacterized BIAs. Here we reconstitute a 10-gene plant pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows for the production of dihydrosanguinarine and its oxidized derivative sanguinarine from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. Synthesis of dihydrosanguinarine also yields the side-products N-methylscoulerine and N-methylcheilanthifoline, the latter of which has not been detected in plants. This work represents the longest reconstituted alkaloid pathway ever assembled in yeast and demonstrates the feasibility of the production of high-value alkaloids in microbial systems.


Assuntos
Benzofenantridinas/biossíntese , Genes de Plantas , Papaver/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Tetra-Hidropapaverolina/metabolismo , Transformação Genética/genética , Alcaloides/biossíntese , Vetores Genéticos , Isoquinolinas , Papaver/metabolismo , Plasmídeos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
9.
Metab Eng ; 13(6): 733-44, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21986057

RESUMO

In this work, Escherichia coli was engineered to produce a medically valuable cofactor, coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)), by removing the endogenous octaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene and functionally replacing it with a decaprenyl diphosphate synthase gene from Sphingomonas baekryungensis. In addition, by over-expressing genes coding for rate-limiting enzymes of the aromatic pathway, biosynthesis of the CoQ(10) precursor para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) was increased. The production of isoprenoid precursors of CoQ(10) was also improved by the heterologous expression of a synthetic mevalonate operon, which permits the conversion of exogenously supplied mevalonate to farnesyl diphosphate. The over-expression of these precursors in the CoQ(10)-producing E. coli strain resulted in an increase in CoQ(10) content, as well as in the accumulation of an intermediate of the ubiquinone pathway, decaprenylphenol (10P-Ph). In addition, the over-expression of a PHB decaprenyl transferase (UbiA) encoded by a gene from Erythrobacter sp. NAP1 was introduced to direct the flux of DPP and PHB towards the ubiquinone pathway. This further increased CoQ(10) content in engineered E. coli, but decreased the accumulation of 10P-Ph. Finally, we report that the combined over-production of isoprenoid precursors and over-expression of UbiA results in the decaprenylation of para-aminobenzoate, a biosynthetic precursor of folate, which is structurally similar to PHB.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ácido 4-Aminobenzoico/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/biossíntese , Escherichia coli/genética , Deleção de Genes , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Parabenos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/biossíntese , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sesquiterpenos , Sphingomonadaceae/enzimologia , Sphingomonadaceae/genética , Sphingomonas/genética , Sphingomonas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
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