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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392662

RESUMO

Humanity is sporadically subjected to leaders with deviant behavior, ego problems, or psychiatric disorders, potentially leading to social instability. Bipolar disorder is not common in all populations, but coincidentally, studies suggest that it affected two sovereigns that were contemporaries, King George III of England, who died 201 years ago, and Queen Maria I of Portugal, who died 205 years ago. They lived during a time of European turmoil with the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, coinciding with the rise of psychiatry. Both monarchs were forced to have prince regents to rule in their place, due to their emotional decline, and they shared the same medical consultant, Francis Willis.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 245, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903587

RESUMO

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is recognized as an etiological risk factor for various psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and autism. Prenatal immune challenge may serve as a "disease primer" for alteration of the trajectory of fetal brain development that, in combination with other genetic and environmental factors, may ultimately result in the emergence of different psychiatric conditions. However, the association between MIA and an offspring's chance of developing anxiety disorders is less clear. To evaluate the effect of MIA on offspring anxiety, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the preclinical literature was conducted. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library electronic databases using the PRISMA and World Health Organization (WHO) methodologies for systematic reviews. Studies that investigated whether MIA during pregnancy could cause anxiety symptoms in rodent offspring were included. Overall, the meta-analysis showed that MIA induced anxiety behavior in offspring. The studies provide strong evidence that prenatal immune activation impacts specific molecular targets and synapse formation and function and induces an imbalance in neurotransmission that could be related to the generation of anxiety in offspring. Future research should further explore the role of MIA in anxiety endophenotypes. According to this meta-analysis, MIA plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of anxiety disorders and is a promising therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Gravidez
9.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710250

RESUMO

Several stressors associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are expected to affect the mental health of global populations: the effects of physical distancing, quarantine, and social isolation; the emotional suffering of health and other frontline workers; neuropsychiatric sequelae in those affected by the virus; the impact to families of lives lost to the disease; differential effects for those with severe mental disorders; and the consequences of social and economic deterioration. In this context, we sought: to form a panel of Brazilian experts on child and adolescent health, neurodevelopment, health services, and adult and elderly mental health; and to compile evidence-based interventions to support suggested policy changes in Brazil to mitigate the expected increase in mental health disorders during the pandemic and its mental health consequences. The following actions are recommended: 1) invest in prevention programs for the safe return of students to schools; 2) adopt evidence-based psychosocial interventions to maintain an adequate environment for child and adolescent development; 3) target socially vulnerable populations and those experiencing discrimination; 4) train primary care teams to solve common mental health problems, provide needs-based assessments, and manage long-term, at-home care for older patients; 5) invest in technological advancements (e.g., telemedicine, e-Health, and web-based algorithms) to promote coordinated care; 6) increase access to and literacy in the use of computers and mobile phones, especially among older adults; 7) expand protocols for remote, brief psychotherapy interventions and psychoeducation to manage common mental health problems.

11.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Decades of research have highlighted the involvement of the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, and limbic areas (amygdala) in panic disorder (PD). However, little attention has been given specifically to the inferior frontal gyrus. The current study aimed to investigate the neural substrates, including the inferior frontal gyrus, of both panic-related and negative conditions among individuals with PD and healthy controls. METHODS: We examined 13 medication-free PD patients and 14 healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during exposure to negative and neutral pictures and a set of specific panic-related pictures. RESULTS: Subtraction between the conditions indicated activation of the left amygdala region and the right inferior frontal gyrus in PD patients during the specific panic-related condition, whereas the left amygdalar region and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated during the negative condition in controls. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in patients with PD, a prominent bottom-up process is involved in specific panic-related conditions, which might be associated with weak modulation of the left frontal area. These data add to our current understanding of the neural correlates of PD and can contribute to future clinical interventions targeting the functional reestablishment of these regions.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) have evolved, although there is still a strong unmet need for more effective and tolerable options. The present study summarizes and discusses recent evidence regarding the non-transcranial magnetic stimulation (non-TMS) neurostimulation treatment for MDD. METHODS: The authors reviewed non-TMS neurostimulation clinical trials for MDD between 2010 and 2020. Electroconvulsive therapy was not included in this review. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE database through PubMed, the Cochrane Collaboration's Clinical Trials Register (CENTRAL), PsycINFO and Thomson Reuters's Web of Science. RESULTS: Only 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Randomized controlled trials demonstrated efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in five of seven trials. tDCS augmented with sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram and escitalopram was superior to placebo and to tDCS only. A comparative trial demonstrated that the duration of tDCS sessions can modulate the effectiveness of this treatment. Open trials indicated that deep brain stimulation, epidural cortical stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy and vagus nerve stimulation may be effective in treatment-resistant depression. CONCLUSION: This review confirmed the efficacy of tDCS in MDD. Despite new evidence showing effectiveness for other non-TMS neurostimulation, their effectiveness is still unclear. Non-TMS neurostimulation RCTs with large samples and head-to-head studies comparing non-TMS neurostimulation and gold standard pharmacological treatments are still lacking.

17.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(2): 656-663, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253419

RESUMO

The goal of the current study was to investigate the socio-demographic, psychiatric, and criminological characteristics of female violent offenders with mental disorders involuntarily committed to a forensic psychiatric hospital. The present study was a population-based retrospective case series including all female offenders with mental disorders found not guilty by reason of insanity by the criminal courts in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and involuntarily committed to a forensic psychiatric facility (n = 27). Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We found that most offenders were Afro-Brazilian, uneducated unmarried women. Schizophrenia with active psychotic symptoms was the most common clinical condition. Relatives were the frequent victims of aggressive behavior. Most patients had already been diagnosed with a mental disorder and placed under psychiatric treatment, but poor adherence and treatment dropout were common. Violent behavior in psychiatrically ill female patients is associated with a specific socio-demographic and clinical profile and is thus potentially amenable to prevention particularly if the mental health and social services are to provide the much-needed support for economically, socially, and psychologically vulnerable women.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Defesa por Insanidade , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(3): 125-127, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040746

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We propose that discussions of benzodiazepines in the current psychiatric literature have become negatively biased and have strayed from the scientific evidence base. We advocate returning to the evidence in discussing benzodiazepines and adhering to clear definitions and conceptual rigour in commentary about them.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the body sway response in specific phobia (SP) patients and healthy controls while viewing neutral, phobic, and disgusting images. METHODS: The participants' heart rate (HR) and skin conductance were also recorded during the procedure. Nineteen patients with arachnophobia and 19 healthy volunteers matched by age, gender, and years of education underwent a postural control test on a stabilometric platform. RESULTS: The platform recorded increased body sway in the SP group when exposed to spider images (SPI). The SP group presented increases in most parameters (SD, velocity, frequency, area, p ≤ 0.05) when viewing pictures of the SPI category. Psychometric measures of subjective anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI) and physiological states (HR; skin conductance responses; spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance) showed increased anxiety (p ≤ 0.05) in the SP group compared to healthy volunteers. High anxiety levels were observed throughout the assessment, including the task of exposure to SPI (p ≤ 0.05). No significant effect or correlation was found between skin conductance and body sway measures (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the postural control test suggest the occurrence of a defensive escape response in SP, in agreement with previous evidence.

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