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1.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589797

RESUMO

Recently, a high urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio and reduced sleep efficiency, in addition to conventional risk factors (obesity and excess alcohol intake), have been identified as risk factors for hypertension. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for home hypertension due to these risk factors in a general Japanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 1384 participants (393 men and 991 women) to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the presence of any of the conventional risk factors using multivariable logistic regression analyses. The models were adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, and log-transformed average daily steps. We also estimated the OR and 95% CI for the presence of any of the overall risk factors. Furthermore, we calculated the PAF due to these risk factors. The results showed that the prevalence of home hypertension was 39.0% (540/1384). The presence of any of the conventional risk factors, as well as any of the overall risk factors, was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension (OR 2.80, 95% CI 2.15-3.65; OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.93-3.22, respectively). The PAF for hypertension due to the presence of any of the conventional risk factors and the PAF due to the presence of any of the overall risk factors were 30.2% and 39.0%, respectively. In conclusion, the impact of the overall risk factors, including the urinary Na/K ratio and sleep efficiency, on home hypertension was higher than that of conventional risk factors alone. The management of the urinary Na/K ratio and sleep efficiency as well as conventional risk factors might be important in the management of blood pressure.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632354

RESUMO

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.

3.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Hum Genet ; 66(1): 61-65, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782383

RESUMO

Large-scale, sometimes nationwide, prospective genomic cohorts biobanking rich biological specimens such as blood, urine and tissues, have been established and released their vast amount of data in several countries. These genetic and epidemiological resources are expected to allow investigators to disentangle genetic and environmental components conferring common complex diseases. There are, however, two major challenges to statistical genetics for this goal: small sample size-high dimensionality and multilayered-heterogenous endophenotypes. Rather counterintuitively, biobank data generally have small sample size relative to their data dimensionality consisting of genomic variation, lifestyle questionnaire, and sometimes their interaction. This is a widely acknowledged difficulty in data analysis, so-called "p¼n problem" in statistics or "curse of dimensionality" in machine-learning field. On the other hand, we have too many measurements of individual health status, which are endophenotypes, such as health check-up data, images, psychological test scores in addition to metabolomics and proteomics data. These endophenotypes are rich but not so tractable because of their worsen dimensionality, and substantial correlation, sometimes confusing causation among them. We have tried to overcome the problems inherent to biobank data, using statistical machine-learning and deep-learning technologies.

5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region. RESULTS: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10-8. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity. CONCLUSION: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153208

RESUMO

The Great East Japan Earthquake devasted the old community in coastal areas characterized by primary industry. The number of unemployed people increased from 150,000 to 190,000 after the earthquake. All of the adult residents of Shichigahama (18 years old or older), located in the coastal area of the Miyagi prefecture, whose houses were totally or majorly damaged, were recruited for a survey conducted in October 2011. All of the residents who responded with written informed consent were included in this study. Among 904 individuals who had a job before the Great East Japan Earthquake, 19% became unemployed. Concerning gender and age, 9% of young men, 34% of elderly men, 21% of young women, and 49% of elderly women became unemployed. Concerning the type of industry, 38%, 15%, and 16% of people who had belonged to the primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, respectively, before the disaster became unemployed. Those who became unemployed exhibited a significantly higher risk of insomnia compared to those who maintained jobs. The study pointed out the severe impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on populations who had belonged to the primary industry, especially among elderly women, and its effect on sleep conditions.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

9.
Hypertens Res ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801312

RESUMO

Recently, the sodium (Na)/potassium (K) ratio was reported to be associated with blood pressure (BP). A Na/K ratio self-monitoring device using spot urine was established recently. Here, we assessed whether the urinary Na/K ratio change measured using the Na/K device was associated with BP change in a health checkup setting. We targeted 12,890 participants who attended the health checkup in Tome City, Miyagi between 2017 and 2018. Tome City introduced urinary Na/K ratio measurements during health checkups since 2017. For each year, we compared the baseline characteristics according to the urinary Na/K ratio and BP level. We assessed the relationship between change in urinary Na/K ratio and BP change using multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and change in body mass index (BMI) and alcohol intake. The average urinary Na/K ratio was significantly lower in 2018 than in 2017 (5.4 ± 3.0 to 4.9 ± 2.2, P < 0.01). The systolic BP of the participants in 2018 (130.9 ± 17.4 mmHg) was lower than that in 2017 (132.1 ± 17.9 mmHg). Moreover, the change in systolic BP and diastolic BP was positively associated with the change in urinary Na/K ratio. In conclusion, the association of the change in urinary Na/K ratio with hypertension and changes in systolic and diastolic BP can be explained by a change in alcohol intake, BMI, and urinary Na/K ratio. Therefore, measuring the urinary Na/K ratio in community settings is a potential population approach for counteracting hypertension.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 290, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807774

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous characteristics. A simulation study demonstrated that attempts to categorize patients with a complex disease into more homogeneous subgroups could have more power to elucidate hidden heritability. We conducted cluster analyses using the k-means algorithm with a cluster number of 15 based on phenotypic variables from the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). As a preliminary study, we conducted a conventional genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a data set of 597 ASD cases and 370 controls. In the second step, we divided cases based on the clustering results and conducted GWAS in each of the subgroups vs controls (cluster-based GWAS). We also conducted cluster-based GWAS on another SSC data set of 712 probands and 354 controls in the replication stage. In the preliminary study, which was conducted in conventional GWAS design, we observed no significant associations. In the second step of cluster-based GWASs, we identified 65 chromosomal loci, which included 30 intragenic loci located in 21 genes and 35 intergenic loci that satisfied the threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8. Some of these loci were located within or near previously reported candidate genes for ASD: CDH5, CNTN5, CNTNAP5, DNAH17, DPP10, DSCAM, FOXK1, GABBR2, GRIN2A5, ITPR1, NTM, SDK1, SNCA, and SRRM4. Of these 65 significant chromosomal loci, rs11064685 located within the SRRM4 gene had a significantly different distribution in the cases vs controls in the replication cohort. These findings suggest that clustering may successfully identify subgroups with relatively homogeneous disease etiologies. Further cluster validation and replication studies are warranted in larger cohorts.

11.
Sports Med Open ; 6(1): 30, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In communities affected by a disaster, walking can be a feasible form of physical exercise to improve physical and mental health conditions. However, there is limited evidence to support relationships between walking habits and mental health conditions in post-disaster settings. Cross-sectional epidemiological data obtained from a questionnaire survey (conducted in October 2017) of a community affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) was analyzed to evaluate the relationships. METHODS: Participants included individuals over 20 years of age (N = 718) from Shichigahama town in Miyagi prefecture, whose houses were significantly damaged by the GEJE. Their mental health conditions were assessed by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Additionally, the questionnaire asked the participants spent duration walking on average and their walking purpose by the following items: (1) longer than 60 min per day, (2) between 30 and 60 min per day, or (3) less than 30 min per day, and whether they walked to maintain healthy living habits (health-conscious walkers) or merely for transportation without considering health consequences (non-health-conscious walkers). These information and mental health indicators were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Among the three walking duration groups of health-conscious walkers, there were significant differences in CES-D and K6 scores (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04), but not in IES-R scores, considering age, gender, and alcohol drinking habits as covariates. CES-D score was significantly higher among short walkers (p = 0.004). Among the three walking duration groups of non-health-conscious walkers, there were significant differences in avoidance symptoms, the subdomain of IES-R (p = 0.01), but not in CES-D, K6, and total IES-R scores, considering the variants. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that walking durations may positively affect mood, but not PTSR, only when walking is performed with the purpose of maintaining healthy living habits. Walking durations were negatively associated with avoidance symptoms among non-health-conscious walkers in the community affected by the GEJE, indicating that the disaster may have had a long-lasting impact on walking habits.

12.
Hypertens Res ; 43(11): 1277-1283, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404963

RESUMO

We investigated whether the association between a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and hypertension in later life varies by age group and the effect of obesity on the association between a history of HDP and hypertension in later life. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted at the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project in Miyagi and Iwate, Japan. The study subjects were 33,412 parous women of 20 years of age and older. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a history of HDP and hypertension. We constructed a composite variable that combined a history of HDP (±) and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) (±), resulting in four categories, and analyzed the risks of each category by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 1585 (4.7%) women had a history of HDP. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in women with HDP (51.4%) than in those without HDP (36.8%; p < 0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension in women with HDP in their 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s or older were 3.63, 1.84, 2.15, 1.48, and 1.86, respectively. In the interaction analysis, the association between a history of HDP and hypertension was stronger in women in their 30s-50s than in women who were 60 or older (p = 0.057). The adjusted ORs for hypertension were higher in overweight/obese women with HDP than in their nonoverweight/obese counterparts in all age groups (30s: 27.17 vs. 2.22; 70s: 4.75 vs. 1.90). In conclusion, the association between HDP and later hypertension was stronger in younger women and in obese women in the 30-70 age group.

13.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major reasons for long-term care insurance certification in Japan are stroke, dementia and fracture. These diseases are reported to be associated with calcium intake. This study examined the association between calcium intake and impaired activities of daily living (ADL) using the data from NIPPON DATA90, consisting of representative sample of the Japanese population. METHODS: A population-based nested case control study was performed. A baseline survey was conducted in 1990, followed by ADL surveys of individuals ≥65 years old in 2000. Individuals with impaired ADL and selected age- and sex-matched controls were then identified. We obtained 132 pairs. Calcium intake was energy-adjusted using the residual method. The association between calcium intake and impaired ADL was examined using conditional logistic regression models. To assess the accuracy of the estimates, we conducted bootstrap analyses. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for impaired ADL compared with the group with a calcium intake of <476 mg/day were 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 0.37-1.40) for the 476-606 mg/day group and 0.44 (0.21-0.94) for the ≥607 mg/day group in 2000 (P for linear trend = 0.03). After the bootstrap analyses, the inverse relationship unchanged (median OR per 100-mg rise in calcium intake: 0.87 [1,000 resamplings], 95% CI: 0.76-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: After bootstrap analyses, calcium intake was inversely associated with impaired ADL, 10 years after the baseline survey.

14.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932529

RESUMO

BackgroundWe established a community-based cohort study to assess the long-term impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on disaster victims and gene-environmental interactions on the incidence of major diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.MethodsWe asked participants to join our cohort in the health check-up settings and assessment center based settings. Inclusion criteria was aged 20 years or over and living in Miyagi or Iwate Prefecture. We obtained information on lifestyle, effect of disaster, blood, and urine information (Type 1 survey), and some detailed measurements (Type 2 survey), for example, carotid echography, calcaneal ultrasound bone mineral density, and so on. All participants agreed to measure genome information and to distribute their information widely.ResultsAs a result, 87,865 gave their informed consent to join our study. Participation rate at health check-up site was about 70%. The participants with Type 1 survey were more likely to have psychological distress than those of Type 2 survey, and women were more likely to have psychological distress than men. Additionally, coastal residents were more likely to have higher degrees of psychological distress than inland residents regardless of sex.ConclusionThis cohort comprised large sample size and it contains information on disaster, genome information, and metabolome information. This cohort also had several detailed measurements. Using this cohort enabled us to clarify the long-term effect of disaster and also to establish personalized prevention based on genome, metabolome, and other omics information.

15.
Hypertens Res ; 43(1): 62-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562419

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported a positive association between the urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio and hypertension, and multiple measurements of the casual urinary Na/K ratio are more strongly correlated with the 24-h urinary Na/K ratio than a single measurement. Multiple measurements of the urinary Na/K ratio might be more strongly associated with hypertension. We aimed to determine the association between multiple measurements of the casual urinary Na/K ratio and home hypertension compared with a single measurement. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Subjects were over 20 years old and participated in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project Cohort Study. We targeted 3273 subjects who borrowed home blood pressure (HBP) monitors and urinary Na/K ratio monitors for 10 consecutive days. The association between the urinary Na/K ratio and home hypertension (HBP ≥ 135/85 mmHg or under treatment for hypertension) was examined using multiple logistic regression models. To compare the prediction of home hypertension using multiple measurements with that using a single measurement, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Multiple measurements of the urinary Na/K ratio strongly related to home hypertension were better than 1 or 2 days of measurement (adjusted odds ratio of home hypertension per unit increase in urinary Na/K ratio over 6 days: 1.13-1.15). The AUROC of the urinary Na/K ratio measurement for home hypertension was stable after 5 days (AUROC = 0.779). In conclusion, multiple measurements of the urinary Na/K ratio are strongly related to home hypertension. This finding suggests that multiple measurements of the urinary Na/K ratio are useful for evaluating home hypertension.

17.
Hypertens Res ; 43(1): 23-29, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534189

RESUMO

Few studies have reported the relationship between reduced sleep efficiency and the prevalence of hypertension independent of sleep duration in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate whether reduced sleep efficiency, measured using an objective device for >1 week, was related to an increased prevalence of hypertension independent of sleep duration in the general Japanese population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 904 participants aged ≥20 years who lived in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Sleep efficiency was measured using a contactless biomotion sleep sensor for 10 continuous days. The participants were classified into two groups according to their sleep efficiency: reduced (<90%) or not reduced (≥90%). Hypertension was defined as morning home blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg or self-reported treatment for hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the relationship between sleep efficiency and hypertension adjusted for potential confounders. The results showed that two hundred and ninety-four individuals (32.5%) had reduced sleep efficiency, and 331 (36.6%) had hypertension. Individuals with reduced sleep efficiency had a higher body mass index and shorter sleep duration. In the multivariable analysis, reduced sleep efficiency was significantly related to an increased prevalence of hypertension (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15-2.28). In conclusion, reduced sleep efficiency was significantly related to an increased prevalence of hypertension in Japanese adults. Improvements in sleep efficiency may be important to reduce blood pressure in Japanese adults.

18.
J Epidemiol ; 30(2): 98-107, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that chronic inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of several serious diseases and could be modulated by diet. Recently, the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) was developed to assess the inflammatory potential of the overall diet. The DII has been reported as relevant to various diseases but has not been validated in Japanese. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the relationship between DII scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a Japanese population. METHODS: Data of the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged 2010 (NIPPON DATA2010), which contained 2,898 participants aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan (NHNS2010), were analyzed. Nutrient intakes derived from 1-day semi-weighing dietary records were used to calculate DII scores. Energy was adjusted using the residual method. Levels of hs-CRP were evaluated using nephelometric immunoassay. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, BMI, and physical activity, a significant association was observed between DII scores and log(CRP+1) (standard regression coefficient = 0.05, P < 0.01). Although it was not statistically significant, the positive association was consistently observed in almost all age-sex subgroups and the non-smoker subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed that DII score was positively associated with hs-CRP in Japanese.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are enzymes associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence. However, limited information is available regarding the association of liver enzymes and DM consistently present in obese and non-obese individuals. We examined whether the combination of ALT and GGT enzymes is associated with the prevalence of DM regardless of obesity in a general Japanese population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 62,786 participants aged ≥20 years who lived in Miyagi and Iwate, Japan. We divided all the participants into eight groups according to the ALT level (low: <30 IU/L and high: ≥30 IU/L), GGT level (low: <50 IU/L and high: ≥50 IU/L), and the presence of obesity. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, to determine associations of the combination of ALT and GGT levels and obesity with DM prevalence. RESULTS: Overall, 6,008 participants (9.6%) had DM. Compared to non-obese individuals with low ALT and GGT levels, the participants with high ALT and GGT levels had high ORs for DM in both obese (OR 4.06; 95% CI, 3.61-4.56) and non-obese groups (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.89-2.52). The obese group had high ORs for DM, even at low ALT and GGT levels. CONCLUSION: High ALT and GGT levels are associated with DM prevalence in obese and non-obese participants. This finding suggests that correcting ALT and GGT levels and controlling obesity are important for the prevention of DM.

20.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 31(1): 69-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774208

RESUMO

[Purpose] This study aimed to assess the accuracy of a prediction model for dressing independence created with a multilayer perceptron in a small sample at a single facility. [Participants and Methods] This retrospective observational study included 82 first-stroke patients. The prediction models for dressing independence at hospital discharge were created using a multilayer perceptron, logistic regression, and a decision tree, and compared for predictive accuracy. Age, dressing performance, trunk function, visuospatial perception, balance, and cognitive function at admission were used as variables. [Results] The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value, and negative-predictive value for training data were highest with the multilayer perceptron model. Cochran's Q and multiple comparison tests revealed a significant difference between logistic regression and multilayer perceptron models. Testing of data in 10-fold cross-validation yielded the same results, except for sensitivity. [Conclusion] The present study suggested that higher accuracy could be expected with a multilayer perceptron than with logistic regression and a decision tree when creating a prediction model for independence of activities of daily living in a small sample of stroke patients.

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