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1.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practice patterns and bleeding complications of percutaneous native kidney biopsy (PNKB) have not recently been investigated and the Japanese Society of Nephrology performed a nationwide questionnaire survey in 2018. METHODS: The survey consisted of nine sections about PNKB: (1) general indications; (2) indications for high-risk patients; (3) informed consent; (4) pre-biopsy evaluation; (5) procedures; (6) sedation; (7) post-biopsy hemostasis, bed rest, and examinations; (8) bleeding complications; and (9) specimen processing. A supplementary survey examined bleeding requiring transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). RESULTS: Overall, 220 directors of facilities (nephrology facility [NF], 168; pediatric nephrology facility [PF], 52) completed the survey. Indications, procedures, and monitoring protocols varied across facilities. Median lengths of hospital stay were 5 days in NFs and 6 days in PFs. Gauge 14, 16, 18 needles were used in 5%, 56%, 33% in NFs and 0%, 63%, 64% in PFs. Mean limits of needle passes were 5 in NFs and 4 in PFs. The bed rest period was 16-24 h in 60% of NFs and 65% of PFs. Based on 17,342 PNKBs, incidence rates of macroscopic hematuria, erythrocyte transfusion, and TAE were 3.1% (NF, 2.8%; PF, 6.2%), 0.7% (NF, 0.8%; PF, 0%), and 0.2% (NF, 0.2%; PF, 0.06%), respectively. Forty-six percent of facilities processed specimens all for light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 21% processed for light microscopy only. Timing of bleeding requiring TAE varied among PNKB cases. CONCLUSION: Wide variations in practice patterns of PNKB existed among facilities, while PNKBs were performed as safely as previously reported.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases without or prior to the development of albuminuria in many patients with diabetes. Therefore, albuminuria and/or a low GFR in patients with diabetes is referred to as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A certain proportion of patients with diabetes show a rapid progressive decline in renal function in a unidirectional manner and are termed early decliners. This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of DKD and early decliners and clarify their risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This combination cross-sectional and cohort study included 2385 patients with diabetes from 15 hospitals. We defined DKD as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/gCr and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m². We classified patients into four groups based on the presence or absence of albuminuria and a decrease in eGFR to reveal the risk factors for DKD. We also performed a trajectory analysis and specified the prevalence and risk factors of early decliners with sequential eGFR data of 1955 patients in five facilities. RESULTS: Of our cohort, 52% had DKD. Above all, 12% with a low eGFR but no albuminuria had no traditional risk factors, such as elevated glycated hemoglobin, elevated blood pressure, or diabetic retinopathy in contrast to patients with albuminuria but normal eGFR. Additionally, 14% of our patients were early decliners. Older age, higher basal eGFR, higher ACR, and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with early decliners. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DKD in this cohort was larger than ever reported. By testing eGFR yearly and identifying risk factors in the early phase of diabetes, we can identify patients at high risk of developing end-stage renal disease.

3.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifetime risk is an epidemiologic measure that expresses the probability of disease in the remaining lifetime for an index age. It is also an easily understandable statistical measure used to communicate the absolute risk of disease to the lay population. The lifetime risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) has never been reported for the Japanese population. Here, we used data from the Japanese Society of Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) to estimate the lifetime risk of ESKD by sex in Japan. METHODS: The lifetime risk of ESKD was estimated using life-table methods. We defined an incident case of ESKD as a patient with loss of kidney function that resulted in maintenance dialysis therapy. The number of incident cases of ESKD and number of ESKD deaths in 2017 were obtained from data published by the JSDT. The population and total number of deaths in Japan for the same year were obtained from National Vital Statistics. By including all-cause mortality, risks were adjusted for competing causes of death. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of ESKD from birth until age 95 years was 3.14% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.10-3.18] for men and 1.42% (1.39-1.44) for women. These probabilities illustrate that approximately 1 in 32 men and 1 in 71 women in Japan will develop ESKD that results in maintenance dialysis therapy in their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable sex differences were found in the lifetime risk of ESKD in Japan. This easily understandable information could be used to assist in public health education and planning.

4.
J Biol Chem ; 295(12): 4014-4023, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041779

RESUMO

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of orthophosphate units that are linked by phosphoanhydride bonds and is involved in various pathophysiological processes. However, the role of polyP in immune cell dysfunction is not well-understood. In this study, using several biochemical and cell biology approaches, including cytokine assays, immunofluorescence microscopy, receptor-binding assays with quartz crystal microbalance, and dynamic light scanning, we investigated the effect of polyP on in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammatory response. PolyP up-regulated LPS-induced production of the inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6, in macrophages, and the effect was polyP dose- and chain length-dependent. However, orthophosphate did not exhibit this effect. PolyP enhanced the LPS-induced intracellular macrophage inflammatory signals. Affinity analysis revealed that polyP interacts with LPS, inducing formation of small micelles, and the polyP-LPS complex enhanced the binding affinity of LPS to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages. These results suggest that inorganic polyP plays a critical role in promoting inflammatory response by enhancing the interaction between LPS and TLR4 in macrophages.

5.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(2): 157-166, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is a progressive X-linked lysosomal disorder. In this subgroup analysis of the global phase III ATTRACT study, the efficacy and safety of oral migalastat, a pharmacologic chaperone, were investigated in Japanese patients with Fabry disease. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive migalastat (150 mg every other day) or to continue biweekly enzyme replacement therapy infusions (ERT; agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg or agalsidase beta 1.0 mg/kg) for 18 months followed by a 12-month open-label extension during which all patients received migalastat. End points included glomerular filtration rate (estimated and measured), left ventricular mass index (LVMi), composite clinical outcomes, leukocyte alpha-galactosidase A activity, plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3), and safety. RESULTS: Data from 7 Japanese patients (migalastat, 5; ERT, 2), mean age 55 years, with high disease burden, were analyzed. All patients in the migalastat group completed the open-label comparison and extension periods. At 18 months, efficacy in the Japanese patient population was similar to that in the overall ATTRACT population. Migalastat treatment increased leukocyte alpha-galactosidase A activity, stabilized renal function, and decreased LVMi. Plasma lyso-Gb3 levels remained low and stable. Additionally, the long-term extension study showed that efficacy of migalastat was maintained for up to 48 months. Migalastat was safe and well tolerated in the Japanese patients, as in the overall ATTRACT population. CONCLUSION: Migalastat can be used to treat Japanese patients with Fabry disease with GLA mutations amenable to migalastat according to the dosage and administration approved in other countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01218659 and NCT02194985.

6.
Am J Pathol ; 190(2): 333-346, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837290

RESUMO

Ephrin-B1 plays a critical role at slit diaphragm. Partitioning-defective (Par)-6 is down-regulated in podocyte of ephrin-B1 knockout mouse, suggesting that Par-6 is associated with ephrin-B1. Par polarity complex, consisting of Par-6, Par-3, and atypical protein kinase C, is essential for tight junction formation. In this study, the expression of Par-6 was analyzed in the normal and nephrotic syndrome model rats, and the molecular association of Par-6, Par-3, ephrin-B1, and nephrin was assessed with the human embryonic kidney 293 cell expression system. Par-6 was concentrated at slit diaphragm. Par 6 interacted with ephrin-B1 but not with nephrin, and Par-3 interacted with nephrin but not with ephrin-B1. The complexes of Par-6-ephrin-B1 and Par-3-nephrin were linked via extracellular sites of ephrin-B1 and nephrin. The Par-6-ephrin-B1 complex was delinked from the Par-3-nephrin complex, and Par-6 and ephrin-B1 were clearly down-regulated already at early phase of nephrotic model. The alteration of Par-6/ephrin-B1 advanced that of Par-3/nephrin. Stimulation to nephrin phosphorylated not only nephrin but also ephrin-B1, and consequently inhibited the interaction between ephrin-B1 and Par-6. Par-6 appeared at presumptive podocyte of early developmental stage and moved to basal area at capillary loop stage to participate in slit diaphragm formation at the final stage. Par-6-ephrin-B1 interaction is crucial for formation and maintenance of slit diaphragm of podocyte.

7.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 25(2): 172-178, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980581

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to describe secular trends in the incidence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Japan, and to assess the effect of population aging on the incidence of ESKD. METHODS: The national incidence of ESKD requiring RRT was calculated using published data and Japan's population statistics. Age-standardized incidence was calculated by direct standardization using the World Standard Population. The average annual percentage of change (APC) in rates and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed for trends by joinpoint regression analysis. To assess the effect of population aging on the incidence of ESKD requiring RRT, we used the method proposed by Bashir and Estève, which splits the crude incidence into three components: population structure, population size, and age-independent risk. RESULTS: Age-standardized incidence trends (1983-1996) increased significantly in both men (APC 6.33, 95% CI: 5.39-7.29) and women (APC 5.25, 95% CI: 4.26-6.24). With a significant inflection point in 1996, the trend was stable for men (APC -0.16, 95% CI: -0.48 to 0.17) but significantly decreased for women (APC -1.98, 95% CI: -2.38 to -1.59) from 1996 to 2016. The main reason for the increase in those with ESKD requiring RRT has changed; before 1996, the change in age-independent risk was the main contributor, but after 1996, the change in age structure with a higher proportion of older individuals was the main contributor. CONCLUSION: The increase in number of ESKD patients requiring RRT dramatically changed in Japan during the 1983 to 2016 period.

8.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 24(3): 284-285, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875932
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225812, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800605

RESUMO

Several recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, current evidence that describes general demographics in blood pressure and mortality with chronic kidney disease is sparse in Japan. Using a population-based longitudinal cohort that received annual health checkups in Japan in 2008, hypertensive status, self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs, and prognosis were examined through 2012. Chronic kidney disease was defined as positive proteinuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Subjects were 40 to 74 years old (n = 227,204) with median 3.6 years follow-up period, and patients with and without chronic kidney disease were analyzed separately (n = 183,586 and n = 43,618, respectively). Cardiovascular disease mortality, comprising coronary heart diseases and stroke as entered in the national death registry using ICD-10 coding, was examined. Among all subjects, 346 deaths (96 in chronic kidney disease and 250 in non-chronic kidney disease) due to cardiovascular disease occurred. Compared with cardiovascular disease mortality in chronic kidney disease patients with untreated normal blood pressure, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio was 3.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.41) for those with untreated hypertension, 2.30 (1.31-4.03) for those who became normotensive after treatment, and 3.28 (1.91-5.64) for those who remained hypertensive despite treatment. In non-chronic kidney disease subjects, the ratios were 1.90 (1.33-5.41), 1.95 (1.35-2.80), and 1.77 (1.18-2.66), respectively. These results from a nationwide cohort could be one of representative demographics of controlling blood pressure and cardiovascular disease deaths when treating patients with chronic kidney disease in Japan in recent years. Even after development and spread of anti-hypertensive drugs, preventing development of hypertension is preferable, because any hypertension treatment status comparing untreated normal blood pressure was a risk of cardiovascular mortality at baseline year.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1170, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent used to treat a variety of solid tumors. One of the major side effects of cisplatin is dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. We recently demonstrated that the renal uptake of cisplatin and resultant cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity are mediated in part by megalin, an endocytic receptor in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs). We also developed sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure the megalin ectodomain (A-megalin) and full-length megalin (C-megalin) in urine using monoclonal antibodies against the amino- and carboxyl-termini of megalin, respectively. The present study examined the correlation of urinary megalin level with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its utility as a biomarker in patients with thoracic cancer. METHODS: This prospective observational study involved 45 chemotherapy-naïve patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy with ≥60 mg/m2 cisplatin for histologically diagnosed small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or malignant pleural mesothelioma. Before and after the first course of chemotherapy, we measured urinary A- and C-megalin and other markers of PTEC injury, such as N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase, α1-microglobulin, ß2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, and compared the values with the change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical risk factors for renal impairment. RESULTS: A negative correlation was found between baseline urinary A-megalin levels and change in eGFR (r = - 0.458, P = 0.002). According to Kaplan-Meier survival curves, eGFR decline was associated with the baseline urinary A-megalin quartile (P = 0.038). In addition, according to the hazard ratios (HRs) for eGFR decline > 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, the highest quartile had a significantly higher risk of eGFR decline compared with the lowest quartile (HR 7.243; 95% confidence interval 1.545-33.962). Other baseline urinary markers showed no correlation with eGFR decline. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that prechemotherapy urinary A-megalin levels are correlated with the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. This finding has clinical implications for the identification of patients at risk for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and the development of possible prophylactic therapies.

11.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810329

RESUMO

Obesity and related disorders, which are increasing in adults worldwide, are closely linked to childhood diet and are associated with chronic inflammation. Rice endosperm protein (REP) intake during adulthood has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and suppress the progression of diabetic kidney disease in animal models. However, the effects of REP intake during childhood on adulthood health are unclear. Therefore, we used a mouse model to experimentally investigate the preconditioning effects of REP intake during childhood on the development of obesity and related disorders in adulthood. Male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed a normal-fat diet containing casein or REP during the juvenile period and then a high-fat diet (HFD) containing casein or REP during adulthood. Mice fed REP during the juvenile period showed better body weight, blood pressure, serum lipid profiles, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein levels, and glucose tolerance in adulthood than those fed casein during the juvenile period. HFD-induced renal tubulo-glomerular alterations and hepatic microvesicular steatosis were less evident in REP-fed mice than in casein-fed ones. REP intake during the juvenile period improved HFD-induced dysbiosis (i.e., Escherichia genus proliferation and reduced gut microbiota diversity), thereby suppressing endotoxin-related chronic inflammation. Indeed, REP-derived peptides showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, a major producer of LPS. In conclusion, REP supplementation during the juvenile period may regulate the gut microbiota and thus suppress the development of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in mice.

12.
Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839659

RESUMO

Objective The earlobe crease, a wrinkle extending from the tragus to the outer border of the earlobe, is a well-known surrogate marker for a high risk of cardiovascular disease. However, information is lacking about its association with cardiovascular events among hemodialysis patients, who already have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that earlobe creases are independently associated with the risk of cardiovascular events among Japanese hemodialysis patients. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 247 adult hemodialysis patients with no history of cardiovascular disease for 4 years. The presence of earlobe creases was defined by two researchers using photos of patients' earlobes on both sides while blinded to one another's assessments and clinical data. The primary outcome was defined as the first fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or peripheral vascular disease requiring aortic or peripheral vascular bypass surgery or below- or above-the-knee amputation). A Fine-Gray competing risks regression model was used to examine the association between earlobe creases and cardiovascular events. Results During the 4-year follow-up period, 43 patients suffered cardiovascular events. After the competing risk of non-cardiovascular death was accounted for, patients with earlobe creases had an increased cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events compared to those without earlobe creases (subhazard ratio =2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 3.82). This association was no longer significant after adjusting for age. Conclusion Earlobe creases were not independently associated with cardiovascular events among Japanese hemodialysis patients, suggesting that these marks are simply indicative of advanced age.

13.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is widely accepted that the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with large liver cysts have a significant decrement in quality of life (QOL), there is insufficient evidence that clearly demonstrates the relationship between the size of the liver cysts and QOL. Therefore, we started this prospective longitudinal study to investigate the impact of liver cysts on QOL. METHODS: We grouped the 111 included ADPKD patients into 4 groups (control group A; < 25%, group B; 25-49%, group C; 50-75%, group D; > 75%) according to liver cysts-parenchyma ratio (CPR). QOL was measured by FANLTC + FACT-Hep scores. We compared QOL scores and several clinical parameters amongst these groups for 3 years. RESULTS: The number of patients in group A, B, C, and D was 31, 14, 14, and 23, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in AST (p = 0.107), ALT (p = 0.925), and serum albumin (p = 0.212) between the four groups, platelet count was significantly decreased along with the extension of cyst volume (p = 0.030). Overall, the mean FANLTC and FACT-Hep scores were 71.8 ± 12.5, and 32.4 ± 5.8, respectively. FANLTC (p = 0.017) and FACT-Hep scores (p = 0.003) were significantly decreased with increasing cyst volume. From the data collected at the time of registration, multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the CPR had a significant influence on FANLTC and FACT-Hep scores. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal study, we demonstrate the relationship between liver cyst volume and QOL in ADPKD patients. We hope to establish the long-term influence on QOL in this ongoing prospective longitudinal study.

14.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 464, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most cases of tubulointerstitial nephritis in paraproteinemia are monoclonal light chain deposition-mediated, interstitial nephritis as neoplastic interstitial cell infiltration has rarely been described. On the other hand, lympho-plasma-cell-rich tubulointerstitial nephritis, in which the infiltrative cells are usually polytypic, is often evident in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Herein we present a rare case of pSS in a patient who had been diagnosed as having IgA kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and developed tubulointerstitial nephritis with monotypic (IgA kappa) lympho-plasmacytic infiltrates. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old Japanese woman with pSS who had been diagnosed as having IgA kappa-type MGUS developed progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis with abundant plasma cell-rich mononuclear cell infiltrates without atypia. Immunohistochemical staining for immunoglobulins and light chains showed that most infiltrates were positive for IgA and kappa. Most of the infiltrative cells were positive for CD38 and CD138, and cells positive for CD 19 and CD 45 were also widely evident. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies revealed no apparent immunological deposits in the glomeruli and tubules. Bone marrow and whole-body radiological examinations revealed no findings suggestive of multiple myeloma or lymphoma. Renal function improved rapidly with prednisolone 40 mg daily and has been maintained at the same level on low-dose prednisolone and azathioprine for 18 months. CONCLUSION: Tubulointerstitial nephritis with monotypic cell infiltrates, without immunological deposits, is a quite rare histological picture in MGUS, and might be a unique renal manifestation in patients with pSS.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 421, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary acid load has been suggested to mediate the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear what kinds of foods are actually associated with dietary acid load in patients with CKD. The self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ), which semi-quantitatively assesses the dietary habits of Japanese individuals through 150 question items, can estimate average daily intake of various foods and nutrients during the previous month. Using the DHQ, we investigated the association of dietary acid load with CKD progression. We also analyzed the kinds of food that significantly affect dietary acid load. METHODS: Subjects were 96 outpatients with CKD (average estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 53.0 ± 18.1 ml/min/1.73 m2) at Niigata University Hospital, who had completed the DHQ in 2011. We calculated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) from potassium and protein intake evaluated by the DHQ in order to assess dietary acid load. CKD progression was assessed by comparing eGFR between 2008 and 2014. RESULTS: NEAP was not correlated with protein intake (r = 0.088, p = 0.398), but was negatively correlated with potassium intake (r = - 0.748, p < 0.001). Reduction in eGFR from 2008 to 2014 was estimated to be significantly greater in patients with higher NEAP (NEAP > 50.1 mEq/day, n = 45) than in those with lower NEAP (NEAP ≤50.1 mEq/day, n = 50) by 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.1 to 11.6) ml/min/1.73 m2. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, higher NEAP was significantly associated with lower intake of fruits (odds ratio [OR], 6.454; 95%CI, 2.19 to 19.00), green and yellow vegetables (OR, 5.18; 95%CI, 1.83 to14.66), and other vegetables (OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 1.29 to 11.62). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NEAP could be a risk factor for CKD progression. Low intake of fruits and vegetables would increase dietary acid load and might affect the progression of renal dysfunction in Japanese CKD patients.

16.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(10): 1263-1267, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between hearing impairment and cognitive decline and to identify possible risk factors for presbycusis. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey in prospective cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 322 participants aged >60 years, for whom all the below data were available, were enrolled in the study. There were 168 females and 154 males with a median age of 71 years (range: 60-89 yrs). INTERVENTIONS: PROST (Project in Sado for Total Health), a medical database in Sado island Japan, was analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on pure-tone audiometry, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), polymorphism of apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption were extracted. Hearing impairment was defined as an average frequency between 0.25 and 8 kHz that exceeded 30 dB. Multivariate analysis was used to identify which of the above factors could predict the hearing impairment. Hearing threshold of each Hz was compared between the ApoE4 (+/+), (+/-), and (-/-) groups. RESULTS: Among various factors, only low MMSE scores (<24) showed significant association with hearing impairment. There were no differences in the hearing threshold of all frequencies between ApoE status groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing impairment was associated with low MMSE sores, regardless of the ApoE4 status. If ApoE4 status would be a common upstream predictor for both the hearing and cognitive impairment, hearing threshold would be related to ApoE4 status. However, these results may suggest that hearing impairment may be causally related to the cognitive dysfunction, perhaps via the cognitive load mechanisms.

17.
Int J Urol ; 26(12): 1128-1137, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence of systemic de novo thrombotic microangiopathy in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation and risk factors associated with this condition. METHODS: A total of 201 patients who received living-donor kidney transplantation (114 patients with ABO-identical kidney transplantation and 87 patients with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation) were retrospectively analyzed. Systemic de novo thrombotic microangiopathy was diagnosed clinically according to the presence of thrombocytopenia with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and pathological findings of thrombotic microangiopathy. Anti-A and anti-B antibodies were purified from human plasma, and these antibodies' bindings to human kidney were investigated in vitro. RESULTS: ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation was a significant risk factor of systemic de novo thrombotic microangiopathy (odds ratio 55.9, 95% CI 1.8-8.9, P < 0.001) after transplantation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-use of mycophenolate mofetil, pretreatment immunoglobulin G antibody titer ≥64-fold and pretransplant immunoglobulin M antibody titer ≥16-fold were significant risk factors for systemic de novo thrombotic microangiopathy in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. Microvascular inflammation of 1-h post-transplant biopsy could be observed more frequently in thrombotic microangiopathy patients than in non-thrombotic microangiopathy patients. Anti-A and anti-B antibodies purified from human plasma showed a strong in vitro reaction against human kidney when the antibody titer was ≥16-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody titer should be decreased to ≤16-fold until the day of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation by desensitization therapy including mycophenolate mofetil. The 1-h biopsy results might help to diagnose systemic de novo thrombotic microangiopathy.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577820

RESUMO

Recently, changes in urinary albumin and in GFR have been recognized as risk factors for the development of end-stage kidney disease and mortality. Though most clinical epidemiology studies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) used renal function and proteinuria at baseline alone, definitive diagnosis of CKD with multiple measurements intensifies the differences in the risk for mortality between the CKD and non-CKD populations. We hypothesized that a transient diagnosis of proteinuria and reduced renal function each indicate a significantly higher mortality compared to definitive non-CKD as the negative control and lower mortality compared with definitive CKD as the positive control. The present longitudinal study evaluated a general-population cohort of 338,094 persons who received annual health checkups, with a median 4.3-year study period. There were 2,481 deaths, including 510 CVD deaths (20.6%) and 1,328 cancer deaths (53.5%), and mortality risk was evaluated for transient proteinuria and for transiently reduced renal function. The hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and cancer mortality were not significant, but that for cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher for transient proteinuria (HR, 1.94 [95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.96] in men and 2.78 [1.50-5.16] in women). On the other hand, transiently reduced renal function was not significant for either cardiovascular mortality risk or cancer mortality risk. We surmise that this is the first study of the mortality risk of transient dipstick proteinuria in a large general-population cohort with cause-specific death registration. Transiently positive proteinuria appears to be a significant risk specifically for cardiovascular mortality compared with definitely negative for proteinuria.

19.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615317

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with severe infection in RA patients, with a particular focus on the association of the nutritional status.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 74 patients with RA (male, n = 21; female, n = 53; age 74.2 ± 12.4) admitted to our hospital between 2016 and 2017 for infection (infection group). We also recruited control RA patients (n = 222) who were matched for age, gender and disease duration, with a match ratio of 1:3 (non-infection group). The nutritional condition was assessed based on controlling nutrition status (CONUT) score, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI). The data of the infection group were obtained from the most recent visit prior to the present admission, and non-infection group from the last regular visit in 2017.Results: The respiratory tract was the most frequent site of infection. The BMI and PNI were significantly lower and the CONUT score significantly higher in the infection group than in the non-infection group. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the CONUT score, underlying lung disease and use of prednisolone and biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were independent and significant risk factors for serious infection.Conclusion: Poor nutritional status increases the risk of serious infection.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12953, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506478

RESUMO

This longitudinal cohort study aimed to create a novel prediction model for cardiovascular death with lifestyle factors. Subjects aged 40-74 years in the Japanese nationwide Specific Health Checkup Database in 2008 were included. Subjects were randomly assigned to the derivation and validation cohorts by a 2:1 ratio. Points for the prediction model were determined using regression coefficients that were derived from the Cox proportional hazards model in the derivation cohort. Models 1 and 2 were developed using known risk factors and known factors with lifestyle factors, respectively. The models were validated by comparing Kaplan-Meier curves between the derivation and validation cohorts, and by calibration plots in the validation cohort. Among 295,297 subjects, data for 120,823 were available. There were 310 cardiovascular deaths during a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Model 1 included known risk factors. In model 2, weight gain, exercise habit, gait speed, and drinking alcohol were additionally included as protective factors. Kaplan-Meier curves matched better between the derivation and validation cohorts in model 2, and model 2 was better calibrated. In conclusion, our prediction model with lifestyle factors improved the predictive ability for cardiovascular death.

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