Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 467
Filtrar
1.
Menopause ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers are advised to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent ovarian cancer. The abrupt hormonal withdrawal associated with early surgical menopause has been shown to increase the risk of depression and anxiety among women in the general population. The impact in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not known. METHODS: We undertook a matched prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on self-reported initiation of antidepressant use. We identified women with no personal history of cancer or depression and prospectively evaluated the frequency of self-reported medication use after surgery. Each exposed participant (oophorectomy) was randomly matched to a control participant (no oophorectomy) according to year of birth (within 3 years), BRCA mutation type (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and country of residence (Canada, United States, Poland). A total of 506 matched sets were included. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of antidepressant use (ever/never) following preventive oophorectomy in the entire study population and stratified by age at oophorectomy and by use of hormone therapy. RESULTS: Oophorectomy was not associated with more frequent antidepressant use among BRCA mutation carriers (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). We observed reductions in the odds of antidepressant medication use among women who underwent oophorectomy before the age of 50 years (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78) and among those who initiated hormone therapy use after oophorectomy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.90). Findings were similar when the analysis was based on self-reported depression (rather than antidepressant use). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small number of women, these findings suggest that oophorectomy does not increase psychological distress among women at an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 270-274, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival experience of women with a BRCA1 mutation who enrolled in an ovarian cancer screening program with that of women who opted for preventive oophorectomy. METHODS: We followed 1964 women with a BRCA1 mutation and two ovaries intact in a prospective study. No women had ovarian cancer or had a bilateral oophorectomy prior to study initiation. There were 1814 women in the cohort who had at least one screening ultrasound. They were followed from the date of first ultrasound until the date of preventive oophorectomy, death or last follow-up. There were 659 women in the cohort who had preventive oophorectomy. They were followed from the date of preventive oophorectomy until death or last follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 1196 women who had one or more ultrasound examinations and no oophorectomy, there were 73 incident cancers detected and 27 deaths from ovarian/fallopian cancer. The ten year cumulative risk of death was 2.0%. Among the 659 women who had a preventive oophorectomy there were 12 incident cancers (9 detected at oophorectomy and 3 in the follow up period) and two deaths from ovarian cancer. The ten year cumulative risk of death was 0.5%. The hazard ratio for oophorectomy versus ultrasound was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.97; p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The survival of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer enrolled in an ultrasound screening program is relatively poor and screening is not a viable alternative to preventive oophorectomy.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469414

RESUMO

Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene in DNA derived from peripheral blood cells is a possible risk factor for breast cancer. It is not clear if this association is restricted to certain types of breast cancer or is a general phenomenon. We evaluated BRCA1 methylation status in peripheral blood cells from 942 breast cancer patients and from 500 controls. We also assessed methylation status in 262 paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Methylation status was assessed using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting and was categorized as positive or negative. BRCA1 methylation in peripheral blood cells was strongly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (odds ratio [OR] 4.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.13-7.07; p < 0.001), but not of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.46-1.42; p = 0.46). Methylation was also overrepresented among patients with high-grade cancers (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 2.91-7.05; p < 0.001) and medullary cancers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.38-6.88; p = 0.006). Moreover, we detected a significant concordance of BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood and paired tumor tissue (p < 0.001). We found that BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood cells is associated with approximately five times greater risk of TNBC. We propose that BRCA1 methylation in blood-derived DNA could be a novel biomarker of increased breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for triple-negative tumors.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e198420, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390031

RESUMO

Importance: Preventive surgery is strongly recommended for individuals with a BRCA mutation at a young age to prevent ovarian cancer and improve overall survival. The overall effect of early surgical menopause on various health outcomes, including bone health, has not been clearly elucidated. Objective: To evaluate the association of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with bone mineral density (BMD) loss among individuals with a BRCA mutation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of participants with a BRCA mutation who underwent oophorectomy through the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, recruited participants from January 2000 to May 2013. Eligibility criteria included having a BRCA mutation, at least 1 ovary intact prior to surgery, and no history of any cancer other than breast cancer. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after surgery. Data analysis began in December 2018 and finished in January 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The annual change in BMD from baseline to follow-up was calculated for the following 3 anatomical locations: (1) lumbar spine, (2) femoral neck, and (3) total hip. Results: A total of 95 women had both a baseline and postsurgery BMD measurement with a mean (SD) follow-up period of 22.0 (12.7) months. The mean (SD) age at oophorectomy was 48.0 (7.4) years. Among women who were premenopausal at time of surgery (50 [53%]), there was a decrease in BMD from baseline to follow-up across the lumbar spine (annual change, -3.45%; 95% CI, -4.61% to -2.29%), femoral neck (annual change, -2.85%; 95% CI, -3.79% to -1.91%), and total hip (annual change, -2.24%; 95% CI, -3.11% to -1.38%). Self-reported hormone therapy use was associated with significantly less bone loss at the lumbar spine (-2.00% vs -4.69%; P = .02) and total hip (-1.38% vs -3.21; P = .04) compared with no hormone therapy use. Among postmenopausal women at time of surgery (45 [47%]), there was also a significant decrease in BMD across the lumbar spine (annual change, -0.82%; 95% CI, -1.42% to -0.23%) and femoral neck (annual change, -0.68%; 95% CI, -1.33% to -0.04%) but not total hip (annual change, -0.18%; 95% CI, -0.82% to 0.46%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that oophorectomy was associated with postoperative bone loss, especially among women who were premenopausal at the time of surgery. Targeted management strategies should include routine BMD assessment and hormone therapy use to improve management of bone health in this population.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(3): 657-663, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: XRCC2 participates in homologous recombination and in DNA repair. XRCC2 has been reported to be a breast cancer susceptibility gene and is now included in several breast cancer susceptibility gene panels. METHODS: We sequenced XRCC2 in 617 Polish women with familial breast cancer and found a founder mutation. We then genotyped 12,617 women with breast cancer and 4599 controls for the XRCC2 founder mutation. RESULTS: We identified a recurrent truncating mutation of XRCC2 (c.96delT, p.Phe32fs) in 3 of 617 patients with familial breast cancer who were sequenced. The c.96delT mutation was then detected in 29 of 12,617 unselected breast cancer cases (0.23%) compared to 11 of 4599 cancer-free women (0.24%) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.48-1.93). The mutation frequency in 1988 women with familial breast cancer was 0.2% (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.27-2.65). Breast cancers in XRCC2 mutation carriers and non-carriers were similar with respect to age of diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Loss of the wild-type XRCC2 allele was observed only in one of the eight breast cancers from patients who carried the XRCC2 mutation. No cancer type was more common in first- or second-degree relatives of XRCC2 mutation carriers than in relatives of the non-carriers. CONCLUSION: XRCC2 c.96delT is a protein-truncating founder variant in Poland. There is no evidence that this mutation predisposes to breast cancer (and other cancers). It is premature to consider XRCC2 as a breast cancer-predisposing gene.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(2): 427-431, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NBN 657del5 founder mutation predisposes to breast and prostate cancer. Recently, it has been reported that the pathogenicity of this mutation with regard to prostate cancer risk is modified by a missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). METHODS: To evaluate the interaction of the 657del5 and E185Q founder alleles of NBN on breast cancer risk in Poland, 4964 women with breast cancer and 6152 controls were genotyped for these two recurrent variants of NBN (657del5 truncating variant and E185Q missense variant). RESULTS: The NBN 657del5 mutation was detected in 57 of 4964 unselected cases and in 35 of 6152 controls (OR = 2.0, p = 0.001). The E185Q GG genotype was detected in 2167 of 4964 unselected cases and in 2617 of 6152 controls (OR = 1.04, p = 0.3). In carriers of the 657del5 deletion, the elevated cancer risk was restricted to women with the GG genotype of the E185Q variant (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-6.6; p < 0.0001). Among women with other E185Q genotypes, the OR associated with 657del5 was 1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8; p = 0.9). The interaction between the two alleles was statistically significant (homogeneity p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In Poland, the pathogenicity of the NBN 657del5 mutation is restricted to women with a homozygous GG genotype of missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). This is the first clear example whereby a moderate penetrance breast cancer gene is impacted by a genetic modifier.

8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(3): 629-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Each year, 17,000 new breast cancer cases are diagnosed in Argentina, and 5400 women die of breast cancer. The contribution of cancer-related mutations to the incidence of breast cancer in Argentina has not yet been explored. METHODS: We sequenced the entire coding regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD51C in 112 unselected Argentinian breast cancer patients. RESULTS: A pathogenic genetic variant was found in 12 of 112 (10.7%) patients; two in BRCA1 (1.8%), five in BRCA2 (4.5%), four in PALB2 (3.6%) and one in RAD51C (0.9%). Three of four (75%) PALB2 mutation carriers carried the same variant (c.1653T > A). CONCLUSIONS: A founder mutation in PALB2 accounts for up to 4% of breast cancer patients in Argentina. BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RAD51C should be included in the genetic testing panel of breast cancer patients in Argentina.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 691-703, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with ER-positive breast cancer may recur as late as 20 years post-diagnosis. The reason for this delayed recurrence is unknown. We studied survival patterns, including time-to-death in 123,705 women with stage I to III invasive breast cancer, enrolled in the SEER database. Among these 76.8% were ER-positive and 23.2% were ER-negative. METHODS: We divided the cohort into ten classes with varying risks of death from breast cancer. The 20-year mortality for women in the highest risk decile 10 was 69% versus 5% for women in the lowest decile 1. The difference in the time-to-death by decile could be explained by a variable α which represents the annual rate of reactivation from tumour dormancy. RESULTS: The duration of tumour dormancy was much longer, on average, for ER-positive breast cancers than for ER-negative breast cancers. Reactivation from tumour dormancy appears to occur at random and may explain the very long time to cancer recurrence in women with small node-negative ER-positive breast cancers. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of women with low-risk ER-positive breast cancer is inherently unpredictable and consequently death is equally as likely to occur at year 3 than at year 20.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348523

RESUMO

Arsenic is recognized as a potent carcinogen at high concentrations, but the relationship between environmental arsenic and breast cancer risk has not well been studied. Most research has focused on the effect of arsenic in populations with high endemic exposure, and not in populations with arsenic levels within normal limits. We sought to determine if blood arsenic levels predict the risk of breast and other cancers risk among women in northern Poland. The cohort consisted of 1,702 healthy women, aged 40 and above, identified between 2010 and 2017. Blood arsenic level was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up (range 0.7-7.3 years), there were 110 incident cases of cancer diagnosed in the cohort, including 68 cases of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of arsenic had a highly significant 13-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer, compared to women in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.02-43.0). Results were similar for arsenic and all incident cancers (HR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 13.3; 95% CI 4.78-37.0). If confirmed, our study suggests that the blood arsenic level may be a useful predictive marker of cancer risk in women.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 631, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. In the general population, mammographic density can be modified by various exposures; whether this is true for women a strong family history is not known. Thus, we evaluated the association between reproductive, hormonal, and lifestyle risk factors and mammographic density among women with a strong family history of breast cancer but no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: We included 97 premenopausal and 59 postmenopausal women (age range: 27-68 years). Risk factor data was extracted from the research questionnaire closest in time to the mammogram performed nearest to enrollment. The Cumulus software was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammogram. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationships between breast cancer risk factors and measures of mammographic density, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Among premenopausal women, those who had two live births had a mean percent density of 28.8% vs. 41.6% among women who had one live birth (P=0.04). Women with a high body weight had a lower mean percent density compared to women with a low body weight among premenopausal (17.6% vs. 33.2%; P=0.0006) and postmenopausal women (8.7% vs. 14.7%; P=0.04). Among premenopausal women, those who smoked for 14 years or longer had a lower mean dense area compared to women who smoked for a shorter duration (25.3cm2 vs. 53.1cm2; P=0.002). Among postmenopausal women, former smokers had a higher mean percent density (19.5% vs. 10.8%; P=0.003) and dense area (26.9% vs. 16.4%; P=0.01) compared to never smokers. After applying the Bonferroni correction, the association between body weight and percent density among premenopausal women remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of women with a strong family history of breast cancer, body weight was associated with mammographic density. These findings suggest that mammographic density may explain the underlying relationship between some of these risk factors and breast cancer risk, and lend support for the inclusion of mammographic density into risk prediction models.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.

13.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2728-2729, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206622
14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3311-3320, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173646

RESUMO

To optimize genetic testing, it is necessary to establish the spectrum of breast cancer-predisposing mutations in particular ethnic groups. We studied 1,018 women with a strong family history for breast cancer (families with hereditary breast cancer; HBC) from genetically homogenous population of Poland, which is populated by ethnic Slavs, for mutations in 14 cancer susceptibility genes. Additionally, we compared the frequency of candidate pathogenic variants in breast cancer cases and controls. Germline mutations were detected in 512 of 1,018 probands with breast cancer (50.3%), including BRCA1/2 mutations detected in 420 families and non-BRCA mutations seen in 92 families. Thirteen BRCA1/2 founder mutations represented 84% of all BRCA1/2-positive cases. Seven founder mutations of CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL represented 73% of all non-BRCA-positive cases. Odds ratios for hereditary breast cancer were 87.6 for BRCA1, 15.4 for PALB2, 7.2 for CHEK2, 2.8 for NBN and 15.8 for RECQL. Odds ratios for XRCC2, BLM and BARD1 were below 1.3. In summary, we found that 20 founder mutations in six genes (BRCA1/2, CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL) are responsible for 82% of Polish hereditary breast cancer families. A simple test for these 20 mutations will facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in Poland. It may also facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in other Slavic populations and women of Slavic descent worldwide.

15.
Br J Cancer ; 121(1): 15-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation face high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. In the current study, we report on uptake of cancer screening and risk-reduction options in a cohort of BRCA mutation carriers from ten countries over two time periods (1995 to 2008 and 2009 to 2017). METHODS: Eligible subjects were identified from an international database of female BRCA mutation carriers and included women from 59 centres from ten countries. Subjects completed a questionnaire at the time of genetic testing, which included past use of cancer prevention options and screening tests. Biennial follow-up questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: Six-thousand two-hundred and twenty-three women were followed for a mean of 7.5 years. The mean age at last follow-up was 52.1 years (27-96 years) and 42.3% of the women had a prior diagnosis of breast cancer. In all, 27.8% had a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and  64.7% had a BSO. Screening with breast MRI increased from 70% before 2009 to 81% at or after 2009. There were significant differences in uptake of all options by country. CONCLUSION: For women who received genetic testing more recently, uptake of prophylactic mastectomy and breast MRI is significantly higher than those who received genetic testing more than 10 years ago. However, uptake of both BSO and breast MRI is not optimal, and interventions to increase uptake are needed.

18.
Br J Cancer ; 120(4): 398-403, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the predictors of mortality, including ER status, in women with a BRCA2 mutation and breast cancer. METHODS: Eligible participants were identified from within two longitudinal cohorts. These patients were selected because they were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1975 and 2015 and carried a BRCA2 mutation. Data were abstracted from the medical record and pathology report. We analysed the effects of ER status and other variables on breast cancer specific survival using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety women with breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 years (range 1-39 years) and 89 subjects died (22.8%). In the multivariate analysis, women with ER-positive tumours were more likely to die than women with ER-negative tumours (HR 2.08, 95% CI 0.99-4.36, p = 0.05), and this was of borderline significance. For the 233 women with ER-positive tumours the 20-year survival rate was 62.2%, compared to 83.7% for 58 women with ER-negative tumours (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women with a BRCA2 mutation present with ER-positive breast cancer, and for these women, prognosis may be worse than for BRCA2 carriers with ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Hum Genet ; 138(3): 291-292, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790050

RESUMO

The author engages in further debate between numerous signatories of a letter who disputes that the author has put forward that the anticipated benefits of a personalised program for cancer prevention and screening are unwarranted. In the event that a cancer screening program is an effective means of mortality reduction, then the best strategy is universality. The benefit of a novel intervention should be evaluated prior to its introduction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Saúde da População , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 443-449, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, BRCA mutation carriers face an increased risk of developing a second (contralateral) cancer in the unaffected breast. It is important to identify predictors of contralateral cancer in order to make informed decisions about bilateral mastectomy. The impact of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (i.e., oophorectomy) on the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer is unclear. Thus, we conducted a prospective study of the relationship between oophorectomy and the risk of contralateral breast cancer in 1781 BRCA1 and 503 BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. METHODS: Women were followed from the date of diagnosis of their first breast cancer until the date of diagnosis of a contralateral breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy, date of death, or date of last follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contralateral breast cancer associated with oophorectomy. Oophorectomy was included as a time-dependent covariate. We performed a left-censored analysis for those women who reported a primary breast cancer prior to study entry (i.e., from completion of baseline questionnaire). RESULTS: After an average of 9.8 years of follow-up, there were 179 (7.8%) contralateral breast cancers diagnosed. Oophorectomy was not associated with the risk of developing a second breast cancer (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.68-1.25). The relationship did not vary by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer. There was some evidence for a decreased risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with an ER-positive primary breast cancer, but this was based on a small number of events (n = 240). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that oophorectomy has little impact on the risk of contralateral breast cancer.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA