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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654755

RESUMO

Solitary bone plasmacytoma is an extremely rare entity and is characterized by localized proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Plasmacytomas are extremely rare in the pediatric population. The median age at diagnosis is usually the fifth or sixth decade, with axial skeleton being more commonly involved than appendicular. We hereby, report the case of a 13-year-old boy with solitary bone plasmacytoma of the right humerus. Though extremely rare in the pediatric age group, plasmacytomas may be considered as one of the remote differentials in children presenting with solitary bone tumors.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476808

RESUMO

High-sensitivity multicolour flow cytometry (MFC)-based B-lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) measurable residual disease (BMRD) assay is increasingly being used in clinical practice. Herein, we describe six consistently present low-level populations immunophenotypically mimicking abnormal B-ALL blasts in 441 BMRD samples from 301 children. These included CD19+ CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentiating from lymphoid precursors, CD10+ transitional B cells with CD10+ /CD38dim-to-negative/CD20bright/CD45bright phenotype, CD19+ natural killer (NK) cells, CD73bright/CD10+ mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, CD73bright/CD34+ endothelial cells, and a CD34+ CD38dim-to-negative/CD10- /CD20bright/CD45bright subset of mature B cells. We provide the proportions, comprehensive immunophenotype, and practical clues for proper identification of these low-level populations. Knowledge regarding the presence and immunophenotype of these mimics is essential for accurate interpretation in high-sensitivity MFC-BMRD analysis.

4.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1531-1538, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare childhood neoplasm (<5% cases), which has been categorized under myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) in the recent classification by the World Health Organization. METHODS: We developed a 51-gene (151.5kB) low-cost targeted myeloid panel based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes to comprehensively evaluate the genomic profile of Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). RESULTS: A total of 50 children with clinical and pathological features of JMML were sequenced at high coverage. Among the 50 patients, 44(88%) harbored mutations in one of the RAS/MAPK-pathway genes, most frequently in NRAS (32%), followed by PTPN11 (28%) and NF1 (22%). One-fifth of children had more than one mutation, with 5 cases harboring two RAS pathway mutations. Monosomy 7 was detected in 32% (16) patients, and five of these did not harbor any RAS pathway mutations. Children with monosomy 7 showed shorter overall survival compared with their wild-type counterparts (P = .02). CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that comprehensive genomic profiling identifies at least one mutation in almost 90% of JMML patients. Performing genomic analysis at baseline might help in triaging children with JMML for allogenic stem cell transplant in resource-constrained settings.

5.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience with COVID-19 in children with cancer at the largest tertiary-cancer care and referral center in India. METHODS: This study is a single tertiary center experience on COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy in them. Children ≤ 15 y on active cancer treatment detected with COVID-19 until September 15th, 2020 were prospectively followed up in the study. Patients were managed in accordance with well-laid guidelines. Treatment was continued for children with COVID-19 who were clinically stable and on intensive treatment for various childhood cancers. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two children (median age 8 y; range 1-15 y, male:female 1.7:1) with cancer were diagnosed with COVID-19. Of 118 children, 99 (83.9%), 60 (50.8%), 43 (36.4%), 26 (22.0%), and 6 (5.1%) had RT-PCR positivity at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d from diagnosis of COVID-19, respectively. Scheduled risk-directed intravenous chemotherapy was delivered in 70 (90.9%) of 77 children on active systemic treatment with a median delay of 14 d (range 0-48 d) and no increased toxicities. All-cause mortality rate was 7.4% (n = 9) and COVID-19 related mortality rate was 4.9% (n = 6). One hundred-fifteen (94.2%) children with COVID-19 did not require any form of respiratory support during the course of infection. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was not a major deterrent for the continuation of active cancer treatment despite persistent RT-PCR positivity. The long-term assessment of treatment adaptations requires further prospective follow-up and real-time addressal.

6.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Families of children with cancer undergoing treatment during COVID-19 pandemic represent a vulnerable population for psychological distress and early identification and remedial measures are imperative for wellbeing of both the children and the caregivers. This article reports the results of assessment of psychological distress in primary caregivers of children with cancer undergoing treatment at a tertiary care center. METHODS: Primary caregivers of children with cancer (≤15 years) taking treatment at our institute during the period of July 2020 to August 2020 were prospectively evaluated for psychological distress using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) tools over a telephonic call. There were 2 cohorts, A and B (50 participants each) depending on whether child was diagnosed with COVID-19 or not respectively during the study period. RESULTS: The assessment tool, PHQ-9 showed a score of ≥10 in 13% (n = 13) participants (95%CI:7.1%-21.2%) in the entire cohort and in 16% (n = 8, 95%CI:5.8%-26.2%) and 10% (n = 5, 95%CI:1.7%-18.3%) participants in cohort A and cohort B respectively. GAD-7 showed a score of ≥8 in 18% (n = 18) participants (95%CI:11.0%-27.0%) in the entire cohort and in 20% (n = 10, 95%CI:8.9%-31.1%) and 16% (n = 8, 95%CI:5.8%-26.2%) participants in cohort A and cohort B respectively. All participants were assessed, and supportive psychotherapeutic interventions administered over telephonic call. CONCLUSIONS: Primary caregivers should be assessed and followed up for psychological distress irrespective of other co-existing factors. Robust support systems built over time could help withstand the exceptional strain of a major surge during a pandemic.

7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29197, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse influence of undernutrition in children with cancer may be remediated by early nutritional intervention. This study assessed the efficacy of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) in improving nutritional status and reducing treatment-related toxicities (TRTs) in such children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled phase-3 open-label trial, severely and moderately undernourished children with cancer were randomized 1:1 to receive standard nutritional therapy (SNT) or SNT+RUTF for 6 weeks. The primary outcome (weight gain >10%) and secondary outcomes (improved/maintained nutritional status, improved body composition) were assessed after 6 weeks. TRTs were assessed over 6 months. RESULTS: Between July 2015 and March 2018, 260 subjects were enrolled, 126 were analyzable in both arms at 6 weeks. More children on RUTF had weight gain (98 [77.8%] vs. 81 [64.2%], p = .025) with a greater increase in fat mass as a percentage of body mass (median 2% [IQR -0.12 to 4.9] vs. 0.5% [IQR -1.45 to 2.27, p = .005]) but a greater loss of lean mass (median -1.86% [IQR -4.4 to 0.50] vs. -0.4% [IQR -2.4 to 1.4, p = .007]) compared to the SNT arm. Fewer subjects on the RUTF arm had episodes of severe infection (10.6% vs. 31%, p < .0001), treatment delays (17.7% vs. 39%, p < .0001), and severe mucositis (11% vs. 23.8%, p = .006) compared to the SNT arm. The odds of developing TRTs on the RUTF arm were lower even after adjusting for improvement in nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: RUTF is efficacious in improving weight gain and nutritional status in undernourished children with cancer and decreases TRTs. Incorporating RUTF into a healthy, balanced diet should be considered in undernourished children with cancer.

8.
Cancer Genet ; 256-257: 17-20, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823403

RESUMO

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with respect to morphology, immunophenotype, chromosomal abnormalities and genetic lesions. While a majority of AML cases harbour recurrent chromosomal abnormalities, several rare, apparently unique or novel aberrations may be identified by conventional cytogenetics. In fact, with the prognostic relevance of chromosomal abnormalities, and with the advent of new-age, target-specific therapy, identifying such aberrations becomes vital. In this study, we present a case of pediatric AML with ins(19;X)(q13.1;p11.2q28) and t(1;11)(q10;p10), both, novel, previously unreported chromosomal abnormalities in AML. Post induction, both these clonal cytogenetic abnormalities persisted. The documentation of this case will help determine the significance of these cytogenetic abnormalities. Also, this case exemplifies the importance of cytogenetics in the complete characterization and risk stratification of AML patients.


Assuntos
Inversão Cromossômica , Análise Citogenética , Translocação Genética , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cariótipo
9.
Cancer Genet ; 254-255: 65-69, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647813

RESUMO

Intrachromosomal amplification of RUNX1 gene on chromosome 21 (iAMP21) is a rare occurrence in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we describe a case of AML with amplification of RUNX1 and its insertion on chromosome 2 detected by conventional karyotyping and confirmed by metaphase FISH. A six-year-old female was diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation. The patient's bone marrow revealed 74% blasts which were MPO negative. Conventional karyotyping revealed a complex karyotype, with rearrangements in chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 8 and hsr(21). FISH on interphase cells with LSI RUNX1-RUNX1T1 dual colour dual fusion translocation probe showed 6-7 copies of RUNX1 signal. Metaphase FISH with LSI RUNX1-RUNX1T1 probe confirmed amplification of RUNX1 and insertion of amplified RUNX1 sequences on long arm of chromosome 2. Induction chemotherapy was initiated, however, the patient died within one month of diagnosis suggesting poor outcome associated with this novel finding. Insertion of amplified RUNX1 on another chromosome has not yet been reported so far.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Medula Óssea/patologia , Criança , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Interfase , Cariótipo
10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(5): 846-858, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632869

RESUMO

Recent studies have described the remarkable clinical outcome of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in treating B-cell malignancies. However, over 50% of patients develop life-threatening toxicities associated with cytokine release syndrome which may limit its utilization in low-resource settings. To mitigate the toxicity, we designed a novel humanized anti-CD19 CAR T cells by humanizing the framework region of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a murine FMC63 mAb and combining it with CD8α transmembrane domain, 4-1BB costimulatory domain, and CD3ζ signaling domain (h1CAR19-8BBζ). Docking studies followed by molecular dynamics simulation revealed that the humanized anti-CD19 scFv (h1CAR19) establishes higher binding affinity and has a flexible molecular structure with CD19 antigen compared with murine scFv (mCAR19). Ex vivo studies with CAR T cells generated from healthy donors and patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) expressing either h1CAR19 or mCAR19 showed comparable antitumor activity and proliferation. More importantly, h1CAR19-8BBζ T cells produced lower levels of cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) upon antigen encounter and reduced the induction of IL6 cytokine from monocytes than mCAR19-8BBζ T cells. There was a comparable proliferation of h1CAR19-8BBζ T cells and mCAR19-8BBζ T cells upon repeated antigen encounter. Finally, h1CAR19-8BBζ T cells efficiently eliminated NALM6 tumor cells in a preclinical model. In conclusion, the distinct structural modification in CAR design confers the novel humanized anti-CD19 CAR with a favorable balance of efficacy to toxicity providing a rationale to test this construct in a phase I trial.

11.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(4): 434-445, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896101

RESUMO

Accurate knowledge of expression patterns/levels of commonly used MRD markers in regenerative normal-B-cell-precursors (BCP) is highly desirable to distinguish leukemic-blasts from regenerative-BCP for multicolor flow cytometry (MFC)-based measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, the data highlighting therapy-related immunophenotypic-shift in regenerative-BCPs is scarce and limited to small cohort. Herein, we report the in-depth evaluation of immunophenotypic shift in regenerative-BCPs from a large cohort of BALL-MRD samples. Ten-color MFC-MRD analysis was performed in pediatric-BALL at the end-of-induction (EOI), end-of-consolidation (EOC), and subsequent-follow-up (SFU) time-points. We studied normalized-mean fluorescent intensity (nMFI) and coefficient-of-variation of immunofluorescence (CVIF) of CD10, CD19, CD20, CD34, CD38, and CD45 expression in regenerative-BCP (early, BCP1 and late, BCP2) from 200 BALL-MRD samples, and compared them with BCP from 15 regenerating control (RC) TALL-MRD samples and 20 treatment-naïve bone-marrow control (TNSC) samples. Regenerative-BCP1 showed downregulation in CD10 and CD34 expression with increased CVIF and reduced nMFI (p < 0.001), upregulation of CD20 with increased nMFI (p = 0.014) and heterogeneous CD45 expression with increased CVIF (p < 0.001). Immunophenotypic shift was less pronounced in the BCP2 compared to BCP1 compartment with increased CVIF in all but CD45 (p < 0.05) and reduced nMFI only in CD45 expression (p = 0.005). Downregulation of CD10/CD34 and upregulation of CD20 was higher at EOI than EOC and SFU time-points (p < 0.001). Regenerative-BCPs are characterized by the significant immunophenotypic shift in commonly used B-ALL-MRD markers, especially CD10 and CD34 expression, as compared to treatment-naïve BCPs. Therefore, the templates/database for BMRD analysis must be developed using regenerative-BCP.

12.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(4): 421-433, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812702

RESUMO

Measurable/minimal residual disease (MRD) status has been suggested as a powerful indicator of clinical-outcome in T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Multicolor flow cytometric (MFC)-based T-ALL MRD reports are limited and traditionally based on the utilization of markers-of-immaturity like TdT and CD99. Moreover, studies demonstrating the multicolor flow cytometric (MFC) approach for the assessment of T-ALL MRD are sparse. Herein, we describe an 11-marker, 10-color MFC-based T-ALL MRD method using an "approach of exclusion." METHODS: The study included 269 childhood T-ALL patients treated with a modified-MCP841 protocol. An 11-marker, 10-color MFC-based MRD was performed in bone marrow (BM) samples at the end-of-induction (EOI) and end-of-consolidation (EOC) time-points using Kaluza-version-1.3 software. RESULTS: We studied EOI-MRD in 269 and EOC-MRD in 105 childhood T-ALL patients. EOI-MRD was detectable in 125 (46.5%) samples (median, 0.3%; range, 0.0007-66.3%), and EOC-MRD was detectable in 34/105 (32.4%) samples (median, 0.055%; range, 0.0008-27.6%). Leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) found useful for MRD assessment were dual-negative CD4/CD8 (40.9%), dual-positive CD4/CD8 (23.3%) and only CD4 or CD8 expression (35.8%); dim/subset/dim-negative surface-CD3 (39%), dim/subset/dim-negative/negative CD5 (28.3%), dim/dim-negative/negative/heterogeneous CD45 (44.7%) and co-expression of CD5/CD56 (7.5%). EOI-MRD-positive status was found to be the most-relevant independent factor in the prediction of inferior relapse-free and overall survival. CONCLUSION: We described an 11-marker 10-color MFC-based highly sensitive MRD assay in T-ALL using an approach of exclusion. The addition of CD4 and CD8 to the pan-T-cell markers in a 10-color assay is highly useful in T-ALL MRD assessment and extends its applicability to almost all T-ALL patients.

15.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(2): 206-217, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865882

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2016, Children Oncology Group (COG) described a new high-risk subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a distinct immunophenotypic-signature, RAM-phenotype (RAM-AML). Data on clinical and laboratory features of RAM-AML are still limited to COG report only. Herein, we report the clinicopathological characteristics and detailed immunophenotypic features of RAM-AML patients. In COG report, 38% of RAM-AML belonged to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL)-subtype. Hence, we further compared the immunophenotypic features RAM-AML with non-RAM-AMKL diagnosed during the same study period. METHODS: We included RAM-AML and non-RAM AMKL patients diagnosed between January 2017 and December 2019. We studied their morphological, cytochemical, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics. Mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) and expression-pattern of immunophenotypic markers of RAM-AML were compared with non-RAM AMKLs patients. RESULTS: We identified 11 RAM-AML (1%) and 21 non-RAM AMKL (1.9%) patients in 1102 pediatric-AML patients. Seven of 11 (63.64%) patients belonged to FAB-M7-subtype. CD56, CD117, and CD33 demonstrated overexpression, whereas CD45 and CD38 showed under-expression in RAM-AML patients. CD36 was consistently negative in RAM-AML, whereas moderate-bright positive in non-RAM AMKLs patients (p < 0.0001). On principle component analysis, addition of CD36 enhanced the visual-separation between RAM-AML and non-RAM AMKL clusters. Cytogenetic and molecular studies did not show any recurrent abnormality; however, RNA-sequencing study revealed CBFA2T3-GLIS2-fusion in three of seven (42.8%) RAM-AML patients. CONCLUSION: We report the clinicopathological characteristics and the detailed immunophenotypic profile in the world's second series of RAM-AML patients. We further report a novel finding of CD36-negative expression as an additional parameter to the multidimensional immunophenotypic signature of this entity.

16.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 100(3): 345-351, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconclusive knowledge persists regarding the course of chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase (CML-CP) patients with detectable abnormal blasts by flow-cytometry at diagnosis. The 2016 WHO classification is not specific regarding sub-classification of CML with <10% abnormal B-lymphoid blasts (ABLB), and suggests these patients often show rapid progression. We report the clinical course of pediatric CML-CP patients who had detectable abnormal blasts by flow-cytometry at baseline. METHODS: Retrospective audit of all pediatric CML patients between January 2013 and December 2017 were included. Their clinical presentation, demographic profile, and treatment outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Some of these patients got flow-cytometry done by default, though it was not a routine part of diagnostic CML marrow studies. RESULTS: Amongst 65 pediatric CML patients, flow-cytometry at initial diagnosis was available in 15 (CP-12; AP-3). Of the 12 CML-CP patients, 10 (83%) had abnormal flow-cytometric findings-5 (50%) with mixed lineage blasts (4-B/Myeloid, 1-B/T/Myeloid), and myeloid lineage blasts in the remaining 5 (50%). At a median follow-up of 26 months (range: 9-34 months), 3/5 patients with ABLB at diagnosis progressed to frank blast crisis (2 B-cell; 1 Mixed lineage). None among the five patients with diagnostic myeloid-alone aberrant blasts progressed to blast crisis. Imatinib resistant mutation was also found in 3/5 (60%) CML-CP patients with these ABLB at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although a retrospective study with limited sample size, presence of ABLB detected on flow-cytometry in CML-CP patients, had a noticeable early conversion to CML-BC in our cohort. Incorporation of flow-cytometry in diagnostic work-up can provide useful insight regarding the behavior of pediatric CML-CP patients and guide therapy.

17.
Cancer Med ; 9(23): 8747-8753, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on outcomes in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from lower middle-income countries (LMICs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an observational study, conducted between 12 April and 10 June 2020 at Tata Memorial centre, Mumbai, in cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. The objectives were to evaluate cumulative 30-day all-cause mortality, COVID-19 attributable mortality, factors predicting mortality, and time to viral negativity after initial diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 24 660 footfalls and 7043 patients evaluated, 230 patients on active systemic therapy with a median age of 42 (1-75) years were included. COVID-19 infection severity, as per WHO criteria, was mild, moderate, and severe in 195 (85%), 11 (5%), and 24 (11%) patients, respectively. Twenty-three patients (10%) expired during follow-up, with COVID-19 attributable mortality seen in 15 patients (6.5%). There were no mortalities in the pediatric cohort of 31 (14%) patients. Advanced stage cancer being treated with palliative intent vs others [30-day mortality 24%% vs 5%, odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% CI 2.28-13.78, P < .001], uncontrolled cancer status vs controlled cancer (30-day mortality37.5%% vs 4%%, OR 14, 95% CI 4.46-44.16, P < .001) and severe COVID-19 vs mild COVID-19 (30-day mortality 71% vs 3%, OR 92.29, 95% CI 26.43-322.21, P < .001) were significantly associated with mortality. The median time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity was 17 days [interquartile range (IQR)17-28) in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rates in cancer patients with COVID-19 who are receiving systemic anti-cancer therapy in LMICSs are marginally higher than that reported in unselected COVID-19 cohorts with prolonged time to viral negativity in a substantial number of patients. The pediatric cancer patients tended to have favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 42(7): 415-419, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) accounts for 1.2% to 5% of acute leukemia across age groups with intermediate prognosis. We evaluated clinicoepidemiologic profiles and outcomes of MPAL. METHODS: Records of children younger than 15 years of age with acute leukemia from January 2010 to December 2016 were reviewed on the basis of the MPAL WHO 2008 criteria. Treatment was uniform with a modified MCP-841 protocol. Descriptive analysis tools were used. Outcomes were measured by the Kaplan-Meier method on MedCalc, version 14.8.1. RESULTS: Among 3830 children with acute leukemia in the study period, 2892 received treatment from our center, of whom 24 (0.83%) had MPAL, median age 9 years, with a male:female ratio of 3:1, and median white blood cell of 13.4×10/L. Common immunophenotypes were B/myeloid-12 (50%), T/myeloid-9 (37.5%), and B/T-lymphoid-3 (12.5%). Some B/myeloid cases had abnormal cytogenetics. Seventeen patients were evaluable for outcome. Sixteen patients underwent postinduction bone marrow and 13 (81%) achieved morphologic remission. Thirteen patients underwent flow cytometry-based minimal residual disease evaluation; 9 (69%) were <0.01% (4 postinduction, 5 postconsolidation), and 67% of these had sustained remission till the last follow-up. None underwent bone marrow transplant. The projected 3-year event-free and overall survival rates were 40% and 48%, respectively (median follow-up: 22 mo). CONCLUSION: MPAL represented <1% of childhood acute leukemia. acute lymphoblastic leukemia-type chemotherapy that incorporated high-dose cytarabine was effective in achieving an minimal residual disease-negativity rate of 69% in evaluated patients, which was also predictive of better outcome.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasia Residual/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mitoxantrona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28682, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though rituximab has emerged as standard of care for the management of high-risk pediatric Burkitt lymphoma (BL), its safety in children from the low-middle-income countries (LMICs) remains to be proven. We herein report our experience of using rituximab in children with BL. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with BL between January 2015 and December 2017 were treated in a risk-stratified manner with either the modified MCP-842 or modified LMB protocol. Patients with poor response to MCP-842 were switched to the LMB-salvage regimen. In addition, rituximab was given to selected high-risk patients. RESULT: Forty-two (49.4%) of 85 patients with BL received rituximab. The incidence of febrile neutropenia (90.5% vs 67.4%; P = 0.02), pneumonia (38.1% vs 11.6%; P = 0.005), intensive care unit admissions (54.5% vs 17.6%; P = 0.002), and toxic deaths (26.2% vs 9.3%; P = 0.04) was higher among BL patients who received rituximab. Pneumonia was fatal in 11 of 16 (69%) patients who received rituximab. On multivariate analysis, rituximab continued to be significantly associated with toxic deaths ( OR: 11.45 [95% CI: 1.87-70.07; P = 0.008]). The addition of rituximab to intensive chemotherapy resulted in an inferior one-year event-free survival (49.4% ± 8.1% vs 79.3% ± 6.5%; P = 0.025) and one-year overall survival (63.1% ± 8.5% vs 91.8% ± 4.5%; P = 0.007) with no improvement in one-year relapse-free survival (78.3% ± 7.3% vs 83.9% ± 6.0%; P = 0.817). CONCLUSION: Rituximab was associated with increased toxicities and toxic deaths in our patients. The potential immunomodulatory effect of rituximab and increased susceptibility to infections in patients from LMICs have to be carefully considered while choosing this drug in the treatment of BL in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Linfoma de Burkitt/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(13): 3154-3160, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757686

RESUMO

Panel based next generation sequencing was performed on a discovery cohort of AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Supervised machine learning identified NRAS mutation and absence of mutations in ASXL2, RAD21, KIT and FLT3 genes as well as a low mutation to be associated with favorable outcome. Based on this data patients were classified into favorable and poor genetic risk classes. Patients classified as poor genetic risk had a significantly lower overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS). We could validate these findings independently on a validation cohort (n = 61). Patients in the poor genetic risk group were more likely to harbor measurable residual disease. Poor genetic risk emerged as an independent risk factor predictive of inferior outcome. Using an unbiased computational approach based we provide evidence for gene panel-based testing in AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and a framework for integration of genomic markers toward clinical decision making in this heterogeneous disease entity.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética
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