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1.
Radiology ; : 202630, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973837

RESUMO

Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a key feature of aortic stenosis, and patients with aortic stenosis often have coronary -artery disease. Therefore, proving the association between the progression of AVC and coronary atherosclerosis could improve follow-up and treatment strategies. Purpose To explore the association between the progression of AVC and the progression of total and plaque volume composition from a large multicenter registry of serial coronary CT angiographic examinations. Materials and Methods A prospective multinational registry (PARADIGM) of consecutive participants who underwent serial coronary CT angiography at intervals of every 2 years or more was performed (January 2003-December 2015). AVC and the total and plaque volume composition at baseline and follow-up angiography were quantitatively analyzed. Plaque volumes were normalized by using the mean total analyzed vessel length of the study population. Multivariable linear mixed-effects models were constructed. Results Overall, 594 participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 62 years ± 10; 330 men) were included (mean interval between baseline and follow-up angiography, 3.9 years ± 1.5). At baseline, the AVC score was 31 Agatston units ± 117, and the normalized total plaque volume at baseline was 122 mm3 ± 219. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical risk factors, and medication use, AVC was independently associated with total plaque volume (standardized ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.32; P < .001) and both calcified (ß = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.34; P < .001) and noncalcified (ß = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.25; P < .001) plaque volumes at baseline. The progression of AVC was associated with the progression of total plaque volume (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = .01), driven solely by calcified plaque volume (ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.34; P < .001) but not noncalcified plaque volumes (ß = -0.06; 95% CI: -0.14, 0.03; P = .17). Conclusion The overall burden of coronary atherosclerosis was associated with aortic valve calcification at baseline. However, the progression of aortic valve calcification was associated with only the progression of calcified plaque volume but not with the -progression of noncalcified plaque volume. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02803411 © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Sinitsyn in this issue.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 46-51, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been suggested as a marker of plasma atherogenicity. This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: A total of 1488 adults (60.9 ± 9.2 years, 58.9% male) who underwent serial CCTA with a median inter-scan period of 3.4 years were included. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rapid plaque progression (RPP) was defined as the change of percentage atheroma volume (PAV) ≥1.0%/year. All participants were divided into three groups based on AIP tertiles. RESULTS: Baseline total PAV (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) (%) (group I [lowest]: 1.91 [0.00, 6.21] vs. group II: 2.82 [0.27, 8.83] vs. group III [highest]: 2.70 [0.41, 7.50]), the annual change of total PAV (median [IQR]) (%/year) (group I: 0.27 [0.00, 0.81] vs. group II: 0.37 [0.04, 1.11] vs. group III: 0.45 [0.06, 1.25]), and the incidence of RPP (group I: 19.7% vs. group II: 27.3% vs. group III: 31.4%) were significantly different among AIP tertiles (all p < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of RPP was increased in group III (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26; p = 0.042) compared to group I after adjusting for clinical factors and baseline total PAV. CONCLUSIONS: Based on serial CCTA findings, AIP is an independent predictive marker for RPP beyond traditional risk factors.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(13): 1612-1615, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795034
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(10): 1341-1343, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706877
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709096

RESUMO

AIMS : To investigate the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and declining renal function, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 891 participants with analysable serial CCTA and available glomerular filtration rate (GFR, derived using Cockcroft-Gault formulae) at baseline (CCTA 1) and follow-up (CCTA 2) were included. CKD was defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Declining renal function was defined as ≥10% drop in GFR from the baseline. Quantitative assessment of plaque volume and composition were performed on both scans. There were 203 participants with CKD and 688 without CKD. CKD was associated with higher baseline total plaque volume, but similar plaque progression, measured by crude (57.5 ± 3.4 vs. 65.9 ± 7.7 mm3/year, P = 0.28) or annualized (17.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.9 ± 2.0 mm3/year, P = 0.25) change in total plaque volume. There were 709 participants with stable GFR and 182 with declining GFR. Declining renal function was independently associated with plaque progression, with higher crude (54.1 ± 3.2 vs. 80.2 ± 9.0 mm3/year, P < 0.01) or annualized (16.4 ± 0.9 vs. 23.9 ± 2.6 mm3/year, P < 0.01) increase in total plaque volume. In CKD, plaque progression was driven by calcified plaques whereas in patients with declining renal function, it was driven by non-calcified plaques. CONCLUSION: Decline in renal function was associated with more rapid plaque progression, whereas the presence of CKD was not.

6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029620986877, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783244

RESUMO

New York City was one of the epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic. The management of peripheral artery disease (PAD) during this time has been a major challenge for health care systems and medical personnel. This document is based on the experiences of experts from various medical fields involved in the treatment of patients with PAD practicing in hospitals across New York City during the outbreak. The recommendations are based on certain aspects including the COVID-19 infection status as well as the clinical PAD presentation of the patient. Our case-based algorithm aims at guiding the treatment of patients with PAD during the pandemic in a safe and efficient way.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Doença Arterial Periférica , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/virologia
8.
Europace ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564873

RESUMO

In the recent decade, deep learning, a subset of artificial intelligence and machine learning, has been used to identify patterns in big healthcare datasets for disease phenotyping, event predictions, and complex decision making. Public datasets for electrocardiograms (ECGs) have existed since the 1980s and have been used for very specific tasks in cardiology, such as arrhythmia, ischemia, and cardiomyopathy detection. Recently, private institutions have begun curating large ECG databases that are orders of magnitude larger than the public databases for ingestion by deep learning models. These efforts have demonstrated not only improved performance and generalizability in these aforementioned tasks but also application to novel clinical scenarios. This review focuses on orienting the clinician towards fundamental tenets of deep learning, state-of-the-art prior to its use for ECG analysis, and current applications of deep learning on ECGs, as well as their limitations and future areas of improvement.

9.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 18, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633929

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in post-industrialized populations. Older age, hypertension, obesity, chronic inflammation, and diabetes are significant atrial fibrillation risk factors, suggesting that modern urban environments may promote atrial fibrillation. Objective: Here we assess atrial fibrillation prevalence and incidence among tropical horticulturalists of the Bolivian Amazon with high levels of physical activity, a lean diet, and minimal coronary atherosclerosis, but also high infectious disease burden and associated inflammation. Methods: Between 2005-2019, 1314 Tsimane aged 40-94 years (52% female) and 534 Moseten Amerindians aged 40-89 years (50% female) underwent resting 12-lead electrocardiograms to assess atrial fibrillation prevalence. For atrial fibrillation incidence assessment, 1059 (81% of original sample) Tsimane and 310 Moseten (58%) underwent additional ECGs (mean time to follow up 7.0, 1.8 years, respectively). Findings: Only one (male) of 1314 Tsimane (0.076%) and one (male) of 534 Moseten (0.187%) demonstrated atrial fibrillation at baseline. There was one new (female) Tsimane case in 7395 risk years for the 1059 participants with >1 ECG (incidence rate = 0.14 per 1,000 risk years). No new cases were detected among Moseten, based on 542 risk years. Conclusion: Tsimane and Moseten show the lowest levels of atrial fibrillation ever reported, 1/20 to ~1/6 of rates in high-income countries. These findings provide additional evidence that a subsistence lifestyle with high levels of physical activity, and a diet low in processed carbohydrates and fat is cardioprotective, despite frequent infection-induced inflammation. Findings suggest that atrial fibrillation is a modifiable lifestyle disease rather than an inevitable feature of cardiovascular aging.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(2): 173-185, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has adversely affected diagnosis and treatment of noncommunicable diseases. Its effects on delivery of diagnostic care for cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death worldwide, have not been quantified. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to assess COVID-19's impact on global cardiovascular diagnostic procedural volumes and safety practices. METHODS: The International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a worldwide survey assessing alterations in cardiovascular procedure volumes and safety practices resulting from COVID-19. Noninvasive and invasive cardiac testing volumes were obtained from participating sites for March and April 2020 and compared with those from March 2019. Availability of personal protective equipment and pandemic-related testing practice changes were ascertained. RESULTS: Surveys were submitted from 909 inpatient and outpatient centers performing cardiac diagnostic procedures, in 108 countries. Procedure volumes decreased 42% from March 2019 to March 2020, and 64% from March 2019 to April 2020. Transthoracic echocardiography decreased by 59%, transesophageal echocardiography 76%, and stress tests 78%, which varied between stress modalities. Coronary angiography (invasive or computed tomography) decreased 55% (p < 0.001 for each procedure). In multivariable regression, significantly greater reduction in procedures occurred for centers in countries with lower gross domestic product. Location in a low-income and lower-middle-income country was associated with an additional 22% reduction in cardiac procedures and less availability of personal protective equipment and telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a significant and abrupt reduction in cardiovascular diagnostic testing across the globe, especially affecting the world's economically challenged. Further study of cardiovascular outcomes and COVID-19-related changes in care delivery is warranted.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Agências Internacionais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome based on the patient similarity network using quantitative coronary plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA can noninvasively assess coronary plaques quantitatively. METHODS: Patients who underwent 2 coronary CTAs at a minimum of 24 months' interval were analyzed (n = 1,264). A similarity Mapper network of patients was built by topological data analysis (TDA) based on the whole-heart quantitative coronary plaque analysis on coronary CTA to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome. RESULTS: Three distinct patient groups were identified by TDA, and the patient similarity network by TDA showed a closed loop, demonstrating a continuous trend of coronary plaque progression. Group A had the least coronary plaque amount (median 12.4 mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.0 to 39.6 mm3]) in the entire coronary tree. Group B had a moderate coronary plaque amount (31.7 mm3 [IQR: 0.0 to 127.4 mm3]) with relative enrichment of fibrofatty and necrotic core (32.6% [IQR: 16.7% to 46.2%] and 2.7% [IQR: 0.1% to 6.9%] of the total plaque, respectively) components. Group C had the largest coronary plaque amount (187.0 mm3 [IQR: 96.7 to 306.4 mm3]) and was enriched for dense calcium component (46.8% [IQR: 32.0% to 63.7%] of the total plaque). At follow-up, total plaque volume, fibrous, and dense calcium volumes increased in all groups, but the proportion of fibrofatty component decreased in groups B and C, whereas the necrotic core portion decreased in only group B (all p < 0.05). Group B showed a higher acute coronary syndrome incidence than other groups (0.3% vs. 2.6% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.009) but both group B and C had a higher revascularization incidence than group A (3.1% vs. 15.5% vs. 17.8%; p < 0.001). Incorporating group information from TDA demonstrated increase of model fitness for predicting acute coronary syndrome or revascularization compared with that incorporating clinical risk factors, percentage diameter stenosis, and high-risk plaque features. CONCLUSIONS: The TDA of quantitative whole-heart coronary plaque characteristics on coronary CTA identified distinct patient groups with different plaque dynamics and clinical outcomes. (Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

12.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(3): 519-522, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476752

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on cardiology training. Novel opportunities have been identified in several domains: patient exposure, procedural experience, didactic education, research and development, advocacy and well-being, and career advancement. Lessons learned from COVID-19 should be used to further improve fellowship training such as, for example, through the development of a competency-based training and evaluation system. Multimodality teaching that incorporates telelearning provides creative solutions for trainee and continuing medical education. Fellow-initiated research should be supported and nurtured. Enhanced attention to trainee well-being and burnout is particularly important. The emerging cardiologists of the future and the way they are trained will be shaped by the COVID-19 challenge of our generation.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Previsões
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the independent prognostic value of whole-heart atherosclerosis progression by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: The multi-center PARADIGM study includes patients undergoing serial CCTA for symptomatic reasons, ≥2 years apart. Whole-heart atherosclerosis was characterized on a segmental level, with co-registration of baseline and follow-up CCTA, and summed to per-patient level. The independent prognostic significance of atherosclerosis progression for MACE (non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], death, unplanned coronary revascularization) was examined. Patients experiencing interval MACE were not omitted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1166 patients (age 60.5 â€‹± â€‹9.5 years, 54.7% male) who experienced 139 MACE events during 8.2 (IQR 6.2, 9.5) years of follow up (15 death, 5 non-fatal MI, 119 unplanned revascularizations). Whole-heart percent atheroma volume (PAV) increased from 2.32% at baseline to 4.04% at follow-up. Adjusted for baseline PAV, the annualized increase in PAV was independently associated with MACE: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08, 1.39) per 1 standard deviation increase, which was consistent in multiple subpopulations. When categorized by composition, only non-calcified plaque progression associated independently with MACE, while calcified plaque did not. Restricting to patients without events before follow-up CCTA, those with future MACE showed an annualized increase in PAV of 0.93% (IQR 0.34, 1.96) vs 0.32% (IQR 0.02, 0.90), P â€‹< â€‹0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-heart atherosclerosis progression examined by serial CCTA is independently associated with MACE, with a prognostic threshold of 1.0% increase in PAV per year.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(3): 282-284, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478651
16.
Eur Heart J ; 42(12): 1132-1135, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326580

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolaemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Both total and LDL cholesterol levels are three-fold higher at the end of the first year of life and about four-fold higher in adulthood compared with the neonatal period. In the USA, only 25% of infants are exclusively breastfed and simple carbohydrate-rich formulas are preferentially consumed. Spikes in fasting glucose and insulin have been reported in formula-fed infants and are associated with higher levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, suggesting a potential link between high simple sugar intake and consequent increase in LDL cholesterol in early childhood.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(25): 2982-3021, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309175

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost all countries outside high-income countries, and alarmingly, the age-standardized rate of CVD has begun to rise in some locations where it was previously declining in high-income countries. There is an urgent need to focus on implementing existing cost-effective policies and interventions if the world is to meet the targets for Sustainable Development Goal 3 and achieve a 30% reduction in premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública
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