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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161427

RESUMO

Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Singapore Med J ; 49(1): 47-53, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18204769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aim to study and elucidate the safety profile of the antiepileptic doses of gabapentin during pregnancy, and to evaluate gabapentin-induced murine fetotoxicity at different dose levels. METHODS: A total of 60 pregnant mice, divided into 12 groups of five mice each, were exposed to gabapentin in four different doses of 0 (control), 113, 226, or 452 mg/kg body weight per day, at three different gestational stages including early gestation (1-6 days), mid-gestation (7-12 days), and late gestation (13-17 days). The pregnant mice were euthanized on day 18 of gestation, and foetuses were examined for teratogenic manifestations. Their brains were dissected and examined for gross changes, malformations, histological changes, and quantitative protein estimation. RESULTS: Foetal resorptions were observed in all treated groups with gabapentin administration at early gestation (1-6 days), and mid-gestation (7-12 days). On the other hand, growth retardation along with stunting in size of live foetuses were observed in all the mid-gestation (7-12 days), and late gestation (13-17 days) treated groups. Various gross malformations were observed with all the three doses (113, 226, and 452 mg/kg body weight per day) when gabapentin was administered at mid-gestation (7-12 days). The same trends were confirmed by gross and microscopic examination of brains along with quantitative protein estimation. CONCLUSION: Gabapentin should not be prescribed during pregnancy, as no therapeutic dose of gabapentin is safe during this period as far as the foetal well-being is concerned.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Aminas/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gabapentina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Químicos , Gravidez , Prenhez/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratógenos
4.
Singapore Med J ; 48(10): 880-3, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17909669

RESUMO

The use of antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy always presents challenges to doctors and their patients as it may have deleterious effects on the developing embryo. Lamotrigine is most commonly-prescribed drug among the newer antiepileptic drugs; hence, it has been selected for the present review. A number of studies pertaining to the safety of lamotrigine use during pregnancy have been reported, with differing results. Contradictory results have been reported in animals regarding lamotrigine teratogenicity, and human studies have also proven inconclusive. In many countries, human pregnancy registries are maintained to establish the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, as all the different suggestions favour some over others, with specific antiepileptic combinations still being questioned. It is our hope that the present work may integrate the available disparate relevant facts into a directed effort towards minimising the risk of foetal compromise.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Triazinas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Lamotrigina , Gravidez , Teratógenos/farmacocinética , Teratógenos/farmacologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico
7.
Br J Clin Pract ; 48(1): 19-21, 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8179975

RESUMO

Serum potassium was measured within 24 hours in 156 patients (48 male, 108 female) with an average age of 81.9 years admitted to the unit with acute illness. Of the 156 patients, 88 (56.4%) were taking diuretics (none was on ACE inhibitors); 20 patients (12.8%) were also on digoxin therapy. In all, 24 patients (16%) had hypokalaemia and 3 (2%) hyperkalaemia. Hypokalaemia was seen in patients associated with acute illness. There was no significant difference between the diuretic and non-diuretic groups. Monitoring of serum potassium is not routinely indicated to detect hypokalaemia in patients on diuretic therapy except in those with severe hepatic or renal impairment or those on digoxin.


Assuntos
Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Hipopotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/sangue , Masculino , Potássio/sangue
8.
Acta Cardiol ; 49(3): 251-65, 1994.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7941918

RESUMO

The therapeutic efficacy of long acting diltiazem 300 mg od (Tildiem LA) was compared with sustained release nifedipine 20 mg bd and bendrofluazide 5 mg od in a multicentre study with 230 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate essential hypertension, with 77, 77 and 76 randomized to the diltiazem, nifedipine SR and bendrofluazide groups respectively. Patients were entered into this randomised, single (investigator) blind, parallel-group multicentre study if the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were > or = 145 mm Hg and/or 95 mm Hg respectively at the admission visit. Twenty-one general practitioners and two hospital physicians monitored patients at baseline and at four and eight weeks of continuous dosing. After eight weeks of therapy, clinically acceptable control of blood pressure was seen in all groups: reductions were 19.2/13.5 mm Hg, 20.4/14 mm Hg and 18.5/10.8 mm Hg for the Tildiem, nifedipine and bendrofluazide groups respectively. Significant differences were shown between bendrofluazide and the other two groups on diastolic pressures (p = 0.01). The non-significant trend was for systolic pressures to mirror these effects. Significantly higher withdrawals caused by adverse events were seen with nifedipine. These were as follows: 14 patients receiving nifedipine (18%), 5 patients receiving diltiazem (6%) and 4 patients receiving bendrofluazide (5%). The difference in this withdrawal rate between treatments was statistically significant (p = 0.01). Post hoc tests revealed that both diltiazem and bendrofluazide had statistically significant lower withdrawals for adverse events than the nifedipine group (p = 0.047). Nifedipine was associated with a marginal increase in standing apex pulse rate and only diltiazem LA significantly maintained serum potassium levels. These results indicate that diltiazem 300 mg is an effective antihypertensive agent and is equivalent in efficacy to nifedipine SR 20 mg and both are superior to bendrofluazide. Nifedipine SR was however the worst tolerated and had the highest withdrawal rate (p = 0.013).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Bendroflumetiazida/administração & dosagem , Diltiazem/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bendroflumetiazida/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diltiazem/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eletrólitos/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nifedipino/efeitos adversos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento
9.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 10(4): 251-5, 1986.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3780289

RESUMO

Fifty-one patients aged over 65 years with chronic pain entered an open study to assess the efficacy and tolerance of low-dose (0.1 mg) sub-lingual buprenorphine administered 3 to 4-times a day over a 14-day period. There was significant improvement in symptoms during the treatment period and the drug was well tolerated, with good compliance. Patients aged over 80 years responded comparatively better than those aged between 65 and 80 years. The incidence of unwanted effects was low and constipation was only reported by 1 patient.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Administração Cutânea , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Soalho Bucal
12.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) ; 283(6297): 985, 1981 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-6793200
14.
Lancet ; 1(8119): 780, 1979 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-86020
16.
Br Med J ; 1(6127): 1624-5, 1978 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-656853
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