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2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15681, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies that used short message service (SMS) programs as an intervention to promote health care have shown beneficial results in the control of risk factors for ischemic heart disease in patients of high-income countries, but evidence is lacking in low or middle-income countries. AIMS: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of SMS increases risk factor control within 6 months after discharge by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a middle-income country. METHODS: It will be a 2-arm, parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of 160 patients discharged after an ACS from a single center with 6 months of follow-up. The intervention group will receive 4 SMS per week offering advice, motivation and information about medication adherence, increase of regular physical activity, adoption of healthy dietary measures, and smoking cessation (if appropriate). The primary outcome is achieving 4 or 5 points in a risk factor control score, which combines the cluster effect of 5 main modifiable risk factors for ACS [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C <70 mg/dL, blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg, regular exercise (≥5 days/week × 30 minutes of moderate exercise per session), nonsmoker status, and body mass index, BMI <25 kg/m]. Secondary outcomes are plasma LDL-C level, level of physical activity, blood pressure, medication adherence, proportion of nonsmokers, BMI, rehospitalization, cardiovascular death, and death from any cause. This study, as a randomized clinical trial protocol, followed the recommendations of the Standard Protocol Items (SPIRIT). EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study aims to provide evidence of whether SMS interventions are effective in improving cardiovascular disease risk factors control in post-ACS patients in a middle-income country. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT03414190 (First posted on January 29, 2018; last update on May 14, 2018) - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Mensagem de Texto , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Motivação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to access the prevalence of 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE), as defined by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) in 1999, by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant publications. METHODS: A literature search from April 1999 to March 2018 identified studies investigating neuropsychiatric syndromes in cSLE patients, applying 1999 ACR Case Definitions, with a sample of at least 20 patients. Case reports, small case series, reviews, articles that did not use 1999 ACR case definitions, and those with adult SLE patients were excluded. The methodological quality of the studies was determined through the Loney quality assessment. Prevalence estimates with a 95% confidence interval were combined using random-effect (DerSimonian-Laird) models. RESULTS: A total of 143 articles were identified and 9 were included. In a population of 1463 cSLE patients, 351 (29.9%) presented 869 neuropsychiatric cSLE events (2.48 events/patient). The results for each syndrome were headache (52.2%), seizure disorders (48.6%), cognitive dysfunction (32.9%), mood disorder (28.3%), psychosis (22.7%), cerebrovascular disease (19.5%), acute confusional state (15.7%), movement disorder (9.4%), anxiety disorder (7.2%), aseptic meningitis (5.1%), mononeuropathy single/multiplex (4.9%), myelopathy (4.2%), demyelinating syndrome (3.2%), cranial neuropathy (2.7%), polyneuropathy (2.6%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (2.5%), autonomic disorder (1.9%), plexopathy (1.3%), and myasthenia gravis (1.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychiatric syndromes are prevalent among cSLE patients. The most prevalent were headaches, seizures, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, and psychosis. Determining the prevalence of each neuropsychiatric syndrome in cSLE may improve clinical awareness of these potentially fatal and disabling conditions.

6.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 93(1): 156-163, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional hemodynamic parameters may not accurately predict symptomatic improvement after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV). Changes in left heart chamber compliance following adequate relief o0066 mitral stenosis (MS) may be useful in determining functional capacity after PMV. This study aims to determine the acute effects of PMV on compliance of the left heart and whether its changes relate to the patient's functional capacity. METHODS: One-hundred thirty-seven patients with severe MS undergoing PMV were enrolled. Left atrial (Ca ) and left ventricular (Cv ) compliance were invasively estimated and net atrioventricular compliance (Cav ) was calculated before and immediately after the procedure. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were obtained before and 24 hr after the procedure. The primary endpoint was functional status at 6-month follow-up, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of death, mitral valve (MV) replacement, repeat PMV, new onset of atrial fibrillation, or stroke in patients in whom PMV was successful. RESULTS: The mean age was 43 ± 12 years, and 119 patients were female (87%). After PMV, Ca and Cav improved significantly from 5.3 [IQR 3.2-8.2] mL/mmHg to 8.7 [5.3-19.2] mL/mmHg (P < 0.001) and 2.2 [1.6-3.4] to 2.8 [2.1-4.1] mL/mmHg (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas Cv did not change (4.6 [3.2-6.8] to 4.4 [3.1-5.6]; P = 0.637). Plasma BNP levels significantly decreased after PMV, with no correlation between its variation and changes in left chamber compliance. At 6-month follow-up, NYHA functional class remained unchanged in 32 patients (23%). By multivariable analyses, changes in Ca immediately after PMV (adjusted OR 1.42; 95% CI 95% 1.02 to 1.97; P = 0.037) and younger age (adjusted OR 0.95; CI 95% 0.92-0.98; P = 0.004), predicted improvement in functional capacity at 6-month follow-up, independent of postprocedural data. The secondary endpoint were predicted by post-PMV mean gradient (adjusted HR 1.363; 95% CI 95% 1.027-1.809; P = 0.032), and lack of functional improvement at 6-month follow-up (adjusted HR 4.959; 95% 1.708-14.403; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Ca and Cav increase significantly after PMV with no change in Cv . The improvement of Ca is an important predictor of functional status at 6-month follow up, independently of other hemodynamic data. Postprocedural mean gradient and lack of short-term symptomatic improvement were predictors of adverse outcome.

8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(6): 500-511, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) share the influence of the Portuguese culture but have socioeconomic development patterns that differ from that of Portugal. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the PSC between 1990 and 2016, stratified by sex, and their association with the respective sociodemographic indexes (SDI). METHODS: This study used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 data and methodology. Data collection followed international standards for death certification, through information systems on vital statistics and mortality surveillance, surveys, and hospital registries. Techniques were used to standardize causes of death by the direct method, as were corrections for underreporting of deaths and garbage codes. To determine the number of deaths due to each cause, the CODEm (Cause of Death Ensemble Model) algorithm was applied. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and SDI (income per capita, educational attainment and total fertility rate) were estimated for each country. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: There are large differences, mainly related to socioeconomic conditions, in the relative impact of CVD burden in PSC. Among CVD, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in all PSC in 2016, except for Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe, where cerebrovascular diseases have supplanted it. The most relevant attributable risk factors for CVD among all PSC are hypertension and dietary factors. CONCLUSION: Collaboration among PSC may allow successful experiences in combating CVD to be shared between those countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Angola/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Morbidade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Timor-Leste/epidemiologia
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 500-511, June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950178

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) share the influence of the Portuguese culture but have socioeconomic development patterns that differ from that of Portugal. Objective: To describe trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the PSC between 1990 and 2016, stratified by sex, and their association with the respective sociodemographic indexes (SDI). Methods: This study used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 data and methodology. Data collection followed international standards for death certification, through information systems on vital statistics and mortality surveillance, surveys, and hospital registries. Techniques were used to standardize causes of death by the direct method, as were corrections for underreporting of deaths and garbage codes. To determine the number of deaths due to each cause, the CODEm (Cause of Death Ensemble Model) algorithm was applied. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and SDI (income per capita, educational attainment and total fertility rate) were estimated for each country. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There are large differences, mainly related to socioeconomic conditions, in the relative impact of CVD burden in PSC. Among CVD, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in all PSC in 2016, except for Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe, where cerebrovascular diseases have supplanted it. The most relevant attributable risk factors for CVD among all PSC are hypertension and dietary factors. Conclusion: Collaboration among PSC may allow successful experiences in combating CVD to be shared between those countries.


Resumo Fundamento: Os países de língua portuguesa (PLP) partilham a influência da cultura portuguesa com desenvolvimento socioeconômico diverso de Portugal. Objetivo: Descrever as tendências de morbidade e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) nos PLP, entre 1990 e 2016, estratificadas por sexo, e sua associação com os respectivos índices sociodemográficos (SDI). Métodos: O estudo utilizou dados e metodologia do Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016. As informações seguiram padrões internacionais de certificação de óbito, através de sistemas de informação sobre estatísticas vitais e vigilância da mortalidade, pesquisas e registros hospitalares. Empregaram-se técnicas para padronização das causas de morte pelo método direto, e correções para sub-registro dos óbitos e garbage codes. Para determinar o número de mortes por cada causa, aplicou-se o algoritmo CODEm (Modelagem Agrupada de Causas de Morte). Estimaram-se os anos saudáveis de vida perdidos (DALYs) e o SDI (renda per capita, nível de escolaridade e taxa de fertilidade total) para cada país. Resultados: Existem grandes diferenças na importância relativa da carga de DCV nos PLP relacionadas principalmente às condições socioeconômicas. Entre as DCV, a doença isquêmica do coração foi a principal causa de morte nos PLP em 2016, com exceção de Moçambique e São Tomé e Príncipe, onde as doenças cerebrovasculares a suplantaram. Os fatores de risco atribuíveis mais relevantes para as DCV entre os PLP foram a hipertensão arterial e os fatores dietéticos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Conclusão: A colaboração entre os PLP poderá permitir que experiências exitosas no combate às DCV sejam compartilhadas entre esses países.

10.
Am Heart J ; 198: 129-134, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggests that acute treatment with statins reduce atherosclerotic complications, including periprocedural myocardial infarction, but currently, there are no large, adequately powered studies to define the effects of early, high-dose statins in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of Statins Evaluation in Coronary procedUres and REvascularization (SECURE-PCI) Trial is to determine whether the early use of a loading dose of 80 mg of atorvastatin before an intended percutaneous coronary intervention followed by an additional dose of 80 mg 24 hours after the procedure will be able to reduce the rates of major cardiovascular events at 30 days in patients with an ACS. DESIGN: The SECURE-PCI study is a pragmatic, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial planned to enroll around 4,200 patients in 58 different sites in Brazil. The primary outcome is the rate of major cardiovascular events at 30 days defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and coronary revascularization. SUMMARY: The SECURE PCI is a large randomized trial testing a strategy of early, high-dose statin in patients with ACS and will provide important information about the acute treatment of this patient population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JAMA ; 319(13): 1331-1340, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525821

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Results: Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use of loading doses of atorvastatin among unselected patients with ACS and intended invasive management. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
12.
Heart ; 103(23): 1891-1898, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is a progressive disease, and risk of death may persist despite relief of the obstruction. Net atrioventricular compliance (Cn) modulates the overall haemodynamic burden of the MS and may be useful in predicting cardiovascular death after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty (PMV). METHODS: A total of 427 patients (mean age 50±16 years, 84% female) with severe MS undergoing PMV were enrolled. Doppler-derived Cn was estimated at baseline using a previously validated equation. The primary endpoint was late cardiovascular death, and the secondary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, mitral valve (MV) replacement or repeat PMV over a median follow-up of 31 months (IQR: 7.8-49.2 months). RESULTS: At baseline, 209 patients (49%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV. During follow-up, 49 patients died (41 cardiovascular deaths), 50 underwent MV replacement and 12 required repeat PMV, with an overall incidence of cardiac mortality and adverse events of 4.1 deaths and 11.1 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Low baseline Cn was a strong predictor of both cardiac death (adjusted HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.86) and composite endpoint (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) after adjusting for clinical factors, baseline pulmonary artery pressure, tricuspid regurgitation severity, right ventricular function and immediate procedural haemodynamic data. The inclusion of Cn in a model with conventional parameters resulted in improvement in 5-year cardiovascular mortality risk prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline Cn is a strong predictor of cardiovascular death in patients with MS undergoing PMV, independent of other prognostic markers of decreased survival in MS, including baseline patient characteristics and postprocedural data. Cn assessment therefore has potential value in evaluation of cardiovascular mortality risk in the setting of MS.


Assuntos
Função Atrial , Hemodinâmica , Estenose da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valvuloplastia com Balão , Boston , Brasil , Causas de Morte , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/terapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20Suppl 01(Suppl 01): 116-128, 2017 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658377

RESUMO

Objective:: To analyze variations and particularities in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Brazil and in Brazilian states, in 1990 and 2015. Methods:: We used data compiled from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, obtained from the database of the Mortality Information System (SIM) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Correction of the sub-registry of deaths and reclassification of the garbage codes were performed using specific algorithms. The cardiovascular causes were subdivided into 10 specific causes. Age-standardized CVD mortality rates - in 1990 and 2015 - were analyzed according to sex and Brazilian state. Results:: Age-standardized CVD mortality rate decreased from 429.5 (1990) to 256.0 (2015) per 100,000 inhabitants (40.4%). The proportional decrease was similar in both sexes, but death rates in males were substantially higher. The reduction of age-standardized mortality rate was more significant for rheumatic heart disease (44.5%), ischemic cardiopathy (43.9%), and cerebrovascular disease (46.0%). The decline in mortality was markedly different across states, being more pronounced in those of the southeastern and southern regions and the Federal District, and more modest in most states in the north and northeast regions. Conclusion:: Age-standardized CVD mortality has declined in Brazil in recent decades, but in a heterogeneous way across states and for different specific causes. Considering the burden magnitude and the Brazilian population aging, policies to prevent and manage CVD should continue to be prioritized.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(supl.1): 116-128, Mai. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843758

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as variações e os diferenciais da mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) no Brasil e em seus estados, em 1990 e 2015. Métodos: Foram utilizados os dados de mortalidade compilados pelo Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, obtidos da base de dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Foram realizadas a correção do sub-registro de óbitos e a reclassificação dos códigos garbage por meio de algoritmos específicos. As causas cardiovasculares foram subdivididas em 10 causas específicas. As taxas de mortalidade - dos anos 1990 e 2015 - foram padronizadas pela idade, de acordo com o sexo e o estado brasileiro. Resultados: A taxa de mortalidade por DCV padronizada por idade caiu de 429,5 (1990) para 256,0 (2015) a cada 100 mil habitantes (40,4%). A redução proporcional foi semelhante em ambos os sexos, mas as taxas em homens são substancialmente mais altas do que nas mulheres. A redução da taxa padronizada por idade foi mais acentuada para a doença cardíaca reumática (44,5%), cardiopatia isquêmica (43,9%) e doença cerebrovascular (46,0%). A queda na mortalidade diferiu marcadamente entre os estados, sendo mais acentuada nos estados das regiões Sudeste e Sul do país e no Distrito Federal, e atenuada nos estados do Norte e Nordeste. Conclusão: A mortalidade por DCV padronizada por idade reduziu no Brasil nas últimas décadas, porém de forma heterogênea entre os estados e para diferentes causas específicas. Considerando a magnitude da carga de doença e o envelhecimento da população brasileira, as políticas de enfrentamento das DCV devem ser priorizadas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze variations and particularities in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Brazil and in Brazilian states, in 1990 and 2015. Methods: We used data compiled from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, obtained from the database of the Mortality Information System (SIM) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Correction of the sub-registry of deaths and reclassification of the garbage codes were performed using specific algorithms. The cardiovascular causes were subdivided into 10 specific causes. Age-standardized CVD mortality rates - in 1990 and 2015 - were analyzed according to sex and Brazilian state. Results: Age-standardized CVD mortality rate decreased from 429.5 (1990) to 256.0 (2015) per 100,000 inhabitants (40.4%). The proportional decrease was similar in both sexes, but death rates in males were substantially higher. The reduction of age-standardized mortality rate was more significant for rheumatic heart disease (44.5%), ischemic cardiopathy (43.9%), and cerebrovascular disease (46.0%). The decline in mortality was markedly different across states, being more pronounced in those of the southeastern and southern regions and the Federal District, and more modest in most states in the north and northeast regions. Conclusion: Age-standardized CVD mortality has declined in Brazil in recent decades, but in a heterogeneous way across states and for different specific causes. Considering the burden magnitude and the Brazilian population aging, policies to prevent and manage CVD should continue to be prioritized.

16.
Heart ; 102(7): 500-7, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26743926

RESUMO

Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC) is the first-line therapy for managing rheumatic mitral stenosis. Over the past two decades, the indications of the procedure have expanded to include patients with unfavourable valve anatomy as a consequence of epidemiological changes in patient population. The procedure is increasingly being performed in patients with increased age, more deformed valves and associated comorbidities. Echocardiography plays a crucial role in patient selection and to guide a more efficient procedure. The main echocardiographic predictors of immediate results after PMC are mitral valve area, subvalvular thickening and valve calcification, especially at the commissural level. However, procedural success rate is not only dependent on valve anatomy, but a number of other factors including patient characteristics, interventional management strategies and operator expertise. Severe mitral regurgitation continues to be the most common immediate procedural complication with unchanged incidence rates over time. The long-term outcome after PMC is mainly determined by the immediate procedural results. Postprocedural parameters associated with late adverse events include mitral valve area, mitral regurgitation severity, mean gradient and pulmonary artery pressure. Mitral restenosis is an important predictor of event-free survival rates after successful PMC, and repeat procedure can be considered in cases with commissural refusion. PMC can be performed in special situations, which include high-risk patients, during pregnancy and in the presence of left atrial thrombus, especially in centres with specialised expertise. Therefore, procedural decision-making should take into account the several determinant factors of PMC outcomes. This paper provides an overview and update of PMC techniques, complications, immediate and long-term results over time, and assessment of suitability for the procedure.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração , Estenose da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/diagnóstico , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação
17.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(5 Suppl 1): 1-26, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26039716
18.
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 22(3): 293-299, Jul-Sep/2014. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-732792

RESUMO

As estratégias de revascularização percutânea evoluíram significativamente nas últimas décadas. No entanto, toda nova tecnologia apresenta um benefício sobre a anterior, mas traz consigo também novos riscos. A hiperplasia neointimal, associada aos stents não farmacológicos, e a endotelização tardia das hastes e reação inflamatória vascular ao polímero, associada aos stents farmacológicos, são exemplos dessa premissa. Os balões farmacológicos foram desenvolvidos com o racional de modular a hiperplasia neointimal após a intervenção e de não suscitar os problemas tardios relacionados aos stents com eluição de fármacos antiproliferativos. No entanto, as evidências e as recomendações para sua utilização ainda não foram adequadamente definidas. Esta revisão objetiva apresentar e caracterizar os tipos de balão farmacológico disponíveis no mercado mundial, fazendo uma revisão dos estudos mais relevantes presentes na literatura sobre seu uso nos diversos cenários clínicos e descrever as principais indicações e atuais recomendações para seu uso.


Percutaneous revascularization strategies have evolved significantly in the past decades. However, every new technology has advantages over the previous ones, but also carries new risks. Neointimal hyperplasia, associated with bare metal stents, and delayed strut endothelialization and vascular inflammatory reaction to the polymer, associated with drug-eluting stents, are examples of this premise. Drug-eluting balloons were developed with the aim to modulate neointimal hyperplasia after intervention, avoiding the late risks associated with drug-eluting stents. However, the evidence and recommendations for their use have not been adequately defined. This review aims to present and characterize the different types of drug-eluting balloons commercially available worldwide, reviewing the most relevant studies in the literature in different clinical scenarios and describe the main indications and recommendations for their use.

19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(3): 201-208, 09/2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723820

RESUMO

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD) are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18) or control group (CG, N = 19). The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP): 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418) to 2794 (1617 - 4452) ms, p = 0.02) and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565) to 815 (610 - 1425) ms, p = 0.047) increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre) HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17) vs. 1 (21 - 9) ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130) vs. 1780 (921 - 2743) Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP) 1.0 (150 - 197) vs. 60 (111 - 146) Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92) vs. 79 (61 - 328) Hz. p = 0.08). Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD. .


Fundamento: A variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) é marcador de gravidade da disfunção autonômica. Os efeitos do treinamento físico sobre índices de VFC na miocardiopatia chagásica (MPC) não são bem estabelecidos. Objetivo: Avaliar as mudanças nestes índices em resposta ao treinamento físico na MPC. Métodos: Pacientes com MPC e disfunção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), fisicamente inativos, foram aleatorizados para os grupos intervenção (GI, N = 18) e controle (GC, N = 19). O GI participou de um programa de exercícios de 12 semanas, três sessões/semana. Resultados: A idade média foi de 49,5 ± 8 anos, 59% homens, FEVE de 36,3 ± 7,8%. Índices basais de VFC foram similares. Do basal ao seguimento, observamos no GI aumento da potência total (TP): 1.653 (IQ 625 - 3.418) para 2.794 (1.617 - 4.452) ms, p = 0,02) e potência de frequência muito baixa: 586 (290 - 1.565) para 815 (610 - 1.425) ms, p = 0,047), mas não no GC. A variação (pós/pré) dos índices de VFC foi similar: SDNN 11,5 ± 30,0 vs. 3,7 ± 25, 1 ms, p = 0,10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17) vs. 1 (21 - 9) ms, p = 0,43; TP 943 (731 - 3.130) vs. 1.780 (921 - 2.743) Hz, p = 0,46 e potência de frequência baixa (LFP) 1,0 (150 - 197) vs. 60 (111 - 146) Hz, p = 0,85, exceto pela potência de alta frequência, que teve tendência a aumento no GI: 42 (133 - 92) vs. 79 (61 - 328) Hz, p = 0,08). Conclusão: Na população estudada, a variação dos índices de VFC foi similar entre os grupos ativo e inativo. A melhora clínica com o treinamento físico parece ser independente de marcadores de disfunção autonômica na MPC. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Chagas/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 103(3): 201-8, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD) are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. METHODS: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18) or control group (CG, N = 19). The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. RESULTS: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP): 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418) to 2794 (1617 - 4452) ms, p = 0.02) and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565) to 815 (610 - 1425) ms, p = 0.047) increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre) HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17) vs. 1 (21 - 9) ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130) vs. 1780 (921 - 2743) Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP) 1.0 (150 - 197) vs. 60 (111 - 146) Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92) vs. 79 (61 - 328) Hz. p = 0.08). CONCLUSION: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Adulto , Doença de Chagas/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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