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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226853, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of circulating tumor nucleic acids in plasma of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients is the most widespread and documented form of "liquid biopsy" and provides real-time information on the molecular profile of the tumor without an invasive tissue biopsy. METHODS: Liquid biopsy analysis was requested by the referral physician in 121 NSCLC patients at diagnosis and was performed using a sensitive Next Generation Sequencing assay. Additionally, a comparative analysis of NSCLC patients at relapse following EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKIs) treatment was performed in 50 patients by both the cobas and NGS platforms. RESULTS: At least one mutation was identified in almost 49% of the cases by the NGS approach in NSCLC patients analyzed at diagnosis. In 36 cases with paired tissue available a high concordance of 86.11% was observed for clinically relevant mutations, with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 88.89%. Furthermore, a concordance rate of 82% between cobas and the NGS approach for the EGFR sensitizing mutations (in exons 18, 19, 21) was observed in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, while this concordance was 94% for the p.T790M mutation, with NGS being able to detect this mutation in three 3 additional patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the feasibility of circulating tumor nucleic acids (ctNA) analysis as a tumor biopsy surrogate in clinical practice for NSCLC personalized treatment decision making. The use of new sensitive NGS techniques can reliably detect tumor-derived mutations in liquid biopsy and provide clinically relevant information both before and after targeted treatment in patients with NSCLC. Thus, it could aid physicians in treatment decision making in clinical practice.

2.
ESMO Open ; 4(5): e000561, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749991

RESUMO

Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is recognised as a particularly heterogeneous disease, encompassing a wide spectrum of distinct molecular subtypes. With increased understanding of disease biology and mechanisms of progression, treatment of NSCLC has made remarkable progress in the past two decades. Molecular testing is considered the hallmark for the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC, with liquid biopsies being more and more often applied in the clinical setting during the recent years. Rearrangement of the ALK gene which results in the generation of fusion oncogenes is a common molecular event in NSCLCs. Among ALK fusion transcripts, EML4-ALK fusion is frequently observed and can be targeted with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, acquired resistance and disease progression in many cases are inevitable. Method: Here, we present the case of a patient with NSCLC treated with TKIs, in which molecular profiling of the tumour was performed with different methods of tissue and plasma testing at each disease progression. A review of the literature was further conducted to offer insights into the resistance mechanisms of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Conclusions: Based on the results, the EML4-ALK fusion initially detected in tumour tissue was preserved throughout the course of the disease. Two additional ALK mutations were later detected in the tissue and plasma and are likely to have caused resistance to the administered TKIs. Continued research into the mechanisms of acquired resistance is required in order to increase the benefit of the patients treated with targeted ALK TKIs.

3.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; : 1078155219865597, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382864

RESUMO

Fluoropyrimidine-based regimens are among the most commonly used chemotherapy combinations for the treatment of solid tumors. Several genetic polymorphisms that are implicated with fluoropyrimidine anabolism and catabolism have been associated with the development of life-threatening toxicities. Uridine triacetate is an FDA-approved antidote for 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine overdose and early-onset, life-threatening toxicity within 96 h of last chemotherapy dose. To date, it is not accessible for Greek patients as per the current summary of product characteristic's time restrictions. We report and discuss the course and outcome of capecitabine toxicity in a 66-year-old female colorectal cancer patient with heterozygous dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. This paper highlights the difficulty in timely access of this lifesaving medication for Greek and possibly other European patients.

4.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 131, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CHEK2 is involved in the DNA damage repair response Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway. An increased risk for breast and other cancers has been documented in individuals who carry a single pathogenic CHEK2 variant. As for other genes involved in cancer predisposition, different types of pathogenic variants have been observed, including single nucleotide variations, short insertions/deletions, large genomic rearrangements and splicing variants. Splicing variants occurring in the splicing acceptor or donor site result in alternative mature mRNA produced and can cause intron retention, exon skipping, or creation of alternative 3' and 5' splice site. Thus, the pathogenicity of this type of alterations should always be explored experimentally and their effect in the mRNA and consequently the protein produced, should be defined. The aim of this study was the delineation of the effect of a splicing variant in the CHEK2 gene. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy 28-year-old woman with a family history of breast and ovarian cancer was referred for genetic testing. The variant c.793-1G > A (rs730881687) was identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using a solution-based capture method, targeting 33 cancer predisposition genes (SeqCap EZ Probe library, Roche NimbleGen). Experimental analysis in patient-derived leukocytes using RT-PCR of mRNA followed by cDNA sequencing revealed the deletion of one base from the alternative transcript created (r.793del). This resulted in a frameshift leading to premature termination codon within exon 7 (p.(Asp265Thrfs*10)). CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that the CHEK2 splicing variant c.793-1G > A is a deleterious variant. Our case shows that RNA analysis is a valuable tool for uncharacterized splice site variants in individuals referred for testing and facilitates their personalized management.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Processamento de RNA , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Éxons , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Íntrons , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
ESMO Open ; 4(2): e000474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231557

RESUMO

Background: The clinical relevance of mismatch repair (MMR) status in patients with nonmetastatic cancer across tumour types remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the prognostic role of MMR deficiency in patients with stage I-III colorectal and endometrial cancer. Methods: Patients with nonmetastatic colorectal and endometrial cancer with tumour tissue available for analysis were identified through the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)'s tumour repository. Patients had been referred to Departments of Medical Oncology affiliated with HeCOG. MMR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). Results: From May 1990 to September 2012, 1158 patients with nonmetastatic colorectal (N = 991) and endometrial cancer (N = 167) were identified (median age: 64 years, men: 544). All patients with colorectal and 109 (65%) with endometrial cancer had received adjuvant treatment. MMR deficiency was observed in 114 (11.5%) of colorectal and 80 (47.9%) of endometrial tumours. More commonly deficient proteins were PMS2 (69 patients, 7%) and MLH1 (63 patients, 6.5%) in colorectal cancer and MSH2 (58 patients, 34.7%) in endometrial cancer. Colorectal MMR-deficient (dMMR) tumours were more likely to be right sided (65 % dMMR vs 27 % proficient MMR, pMMR; p < 0.001), high grade (31% vs 15%, χ2, p < 0.001) and with a mucinous component (64% vs 42%, p < 0.001). Endometrial dMMR tumours were more often of endometrioid histology (51.4 % endometrioid vs 20 % serous/clear cell, p = 0.020). Compared with MMR proficiency, MMR deficiency was associated with improved OS in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.76, p = 0.006), but not in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.09, p = 0.130). After adjusting for age, stage and grade, MMR deficiency maintained its favourable prognostic significance in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.88, p = 0.021). Conclusions: DMMR was associated with improved outcomes in patients with nonmetastatic endometrial cancer, but not in patients with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 535, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes are responsible for approximately 5-10% of all diagnosed cancer cases. In the past, single-gene analysis of specific high risk genes was used for the determination of the genetic cause of cancer heritability in certain families. The application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has facilitated multigene panel analysis and is widely used in clinical practice, for the identification of individuals with cancer predisposing gene variants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of variants in genes implicated in hereditary cancer predisposition in individuals referred for testing in our laboratory. METHODS: In total, 1197 individuals from Greece, Romania and Turkey were referred to our laboratory for genetic testing in the past 4 years. The majority of referrals included individuals with personal of family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. The analysis of genes involved in hereditary cancer predisposition was performed using a NGS approach. Genomic DNA was enriched for targeted regions of 36 genes and sequencing was carried out using the Illumina NGS technology. The presence of large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) was investigated by computational analysis and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: A pathogenic variant was identified in 264 of 1197 individuals (22.1%) analyzed while a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) was identified in 34.8% of cases. Clinically significant variants were identified in 29 of the 36 genes analyzed. Concerning the mutation distribution among individuals with positive findings, 43.6% were located in the BRCA1/2 genes whereas 21.6, 19.9, and 15.0% in other high, moderate and low risk genes respectively. Notably, 25 of the 264 positive individuals (9.5%) carried clinically significant variants in two different genes and 6.1% had a LGR. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, analysis of all the genes in the panel allowed the identification of 4.3 and 8.1% additional pathogenic variants in other high or moderate/low risk genes, respectively, enabling personalized management decisions for these individuals and supporting the clinical significance of multigene panel analysis in hereditary cancer predisposition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Grécia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Romênia , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Transl Oncol ; 13(2): 346-354, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High grade glioma molecular profiling is of particular interest in neurooncology. The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) varies dependent upon other molecular parameters. We explored the role of TERT in 101 high-grade gliomas. METHODS: A total of 101 patients (pts) with grade III-IV gliomas treated with standard of care and informative tumor genotypes were included in the present study. Of 55 genes targeted with the next-generation sequencing panel, mutations (muts) were found in 37; these were included in the analysis. TERT mut were tested with Sanger sequencing. MGMT promoter methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR. RESULTS: 270 mut were detected in 92/101 tumors (91.1%). TERT was the most frequently mutated gene (74.3%). IDH1/2 mut were mutually exclusive with mut in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. Mutated TERT was associated with wild-type (wt) IDH1/2 (p = 0.025). The 12-month overall survival (OS) rate was 74.3% (median OS: 22 months). Pts with TERT and NF1 wt had a median OS of 40.8 months, while among pts with NF1 wt/TERT mutant, the median OS was 18.5 months. NF1 and TERT mut univariately conferred shorter OS (HR = 3.19; p = 0.004 and HR = 2.28; p = 0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, mutated TERT showed marginal unfavorable prognostic significance for OS (p = 0.049), while NF1 lost its unfavorable significance (p = 0.151). CONCLUSIONS: TERT is herein proven to confer poor prognosis in high grade gliomas, independent of IDH and MGMT. NF1 seems to also confer poor prognosis although our small numbers do not allow for firm conclusions.

8.
ESMO Open ; 3(4): e000329, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942663

RESUMO

Background: Metastatic colorectal cancer represents a striking example of clonal heterogeneity and tumour evolution, which generates acquired resistance to therapy. Once hard to perform, the study of clonal heterogeneity is now significantly aided by the use of liquid biopsies. Method: We herein report a case of a patient with colorectal cancer and serial development of multiple metastases which were all resected and genotyped. A rare point mutation was identified in the primary tumour (but not in any of the organ metastatic sites), as well as in the first and the last out of three consecutive liquid biopsies. The review of the literature offered some insight in the evolution of the patient's tumour and general directions on how to interpret liquid biopsy results. Conclusions: This patient case emphasises the need for large prospective studies designed to bridge liquid biopsy data with useful clinical endpoints, in order to optimally integrate this revolutionary tool in everyday practice.

9.
ESMO Open ; 3(3): e000335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636989

RESUMO

Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are mesenchymal neoplasms that usually carry an activating mutation in KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) genes with predictive and prognostic significance. We investigated the extended mutational status of GIST in a patient population of north-western Greece in order to look at geopraphic/genotypic distinctive traits. Patient and methods: Clinicopathological and molecular data of 38 patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2016 with GIST in the region of Epirus in Greece were retrospectively assessed. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumours were successfully analysed for mutations in 54 genes with oncogenic potential. Next generation sequencing was conducted by using the Ion AmpliSeqCancer Hotspot Panel V.2 for DNA analysis (Thermofisher Scientific). Results: Among 38 tumours, 24 (63.16%) and seven (18.42%) of the tumours harboured mutations in the KIT and PDGFRA genes, respectively, while seven (18.42%) tumours were negative for either KIT or PDGFRA mutation. No mutations were detected in five (13.16%) cases. Concomitant mutations of BRAF and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes were observed in two patients with KIT gene mutation. Two patients with KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST had mutations in either KRAS or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) genes. There was no significant survival difference regarding the exonic site of mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA gene. The presence of a mutation in pathway effectors downstream of KIT or PDGFRA, such as BRAF, KRAS or PIK3CA, was associated with poor prognosis. Adverse prognosticators were also high mitotic index and the advanced disease status at diagnosis. Conclusions: We report comparable incidence of KIT and PDGFRA mutation in patients with GIST from north-western Greece as compared with cohorts from other regions. Interestingly, we identified rare mutations on RAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes in patients with poor prognosis.

10.
In Vivo ; 32(2): 313-318, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Certain microRNAs (miRs) present in human plasma are candidate biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined the expression of two cardiac-specific miRs (miR-208b and miR-499) in a Greek pathological population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples from AMI patients and healthy subjects (controls) were analyzed using TaqMan® MicroRNA assays. RESULTS: The concentration of both miRs was significantly elevated in AMI patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that miR-208b and miR-499 displayed similar properties with the established AMI biomarker cardiac troponin T (cTnT). CONCLUSION: We showed, for the first time, that these miRs could be used as AMI biomarkers in our population as well. Our data are in agreement with those of studies based on different population groups and further strengthen the observation that plasma levels of circulating miR-208b and miR-499 could serve as potential AMI biomarkers.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Grécia , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Genet ; 220: 1-12, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310832

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with hereditary predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Sensitive and accurate detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is crucial for personalized clinical management of individuals affected by breast or ovarian cancer, and for the identification of at-risk healthy relatives. We performed molecular analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 898 Greek families, using Sanger sequencing or Next Generation Sequencing for the detection of small insertion/deletion frameshift, nonsynonymous, truncating and splice-site alterations and MLPA for the detection of large genomic rearrangements. In total, a pathogenic mutation was identified in 12.9% of 898 families analyzed. Of the 116 mutations identified in total 9% were novel and 14.7% were large genomic rearrangements. Our results indicate that different types of mutational events in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for the hereditary component of breast/ovarian cancer in the Greek population. Therefore the methodology used in the analysis of Greek patients must be able to detect both point and small frameshift mutations in addition to large genomic rearrangements across the entire coding region of the two genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grécia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação
12.
Oncol Rep ; 38(6): 3419-3429, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130105

RESUMO

Non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and a tumor with a broad spectrum of targeted therapies already available or in clinical trials. Thus, molecular characterization of the tumor using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, has become a key tool for facilitating treatment decisions and the clinical management of NSCLC patients. The performance of a custom 23 gene multiplex amplification hot spot panel, based on Ion AmpliSeq™ technology, was evaluated for the analysis of tumor DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Furthermore, the Ion AmpliSeq™ RNA Fusion Lung Cancer Research Panel was used for fusion RNA transcript analysis. The mutation spectrum of the tumors was determined in a cohort of 502 patients with NSCLC using the aforementioned targeted gene panels. The panel used for tumor DNA analysis in this study exhibited high rates (100%) of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility at a mutation allelic frequency of 3%. At least one DNA mutation was detected in 374 patients (74.5%) and an RNA fusion was identified in 16 patients, (3.2%). In total, alterations in a cancer-driver gene were identified (including point mutations, gene rearrangements and MET amplifications) in 77.6% of the tumors tested. Among the NSCLC patients, 23% presented a mutation in a gene associated with approved or emerging targeted therapy. More specifically, 13.5% (68/502) presented a mutation in a gene with approved targeted therapy (EGFR, ALK, ROS1) and 9.4% (47/502) had an alteration in a gene related to emerging targeted therapies (ERBB2, BRAF, MET and RET). Furthermore, 51.6% of the patients had a mutation in a gene that could be related to an off label therapy or indicative for access to a clinical trial. Thus, the targeted NGS panel used in this study is a reliable approach for tumor molecular profiling and can be applied in personalized treatment decision making for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
13.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 8(11): 772-785, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895815

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal malignancies are among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Like all human malignancies they are characterized by accumulation of mutations which lead to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes or activation of oncogenes. Advances in Molecular Biology techniques have allowed for more accurate analysis of tumors' genetic profiling using new breakthrough technologies such as next generation sequencing (NGS), leading to the development of targeted therapeutical approaches based upon biomarker-selection. During the last 10 years tremendous advances in the development of targeted therapies for patients with advanced cancer have been made, thus various targeted agents, associated with predictive biomarkers, have been developed or are in development for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal cancer patients. This review summarizes the advances in the field of molecular biomarkers in tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, with focus on the available NGS platforms that enable comprehensive tumor molecular profile analysis.

14.
Oncol Lett ; 10(4): 2176-2184, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26622815

RESUMO

It has been reported that certain patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbor activating somatic mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene may be effectively treated using targeted therapy. The use of EGFR inhibitors in patient therapy has been demonstrated to improve response and survival rates; therefore, it was suggested that clinical screening for EGFR mutations should be performed for all patients. Numerous clinicopathological factors have been associated with EGFR and Kirsten-rat sarcoma oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutational status including gender, smoking history and histology. In addition, it was reported that EGFR mutation frequency in NSCLC patients was ethnicity-dependent, with an incidence rate of ~30% in Asian populations and ~15% in Caucasian populations. However, limited data has been reported on intra-ethnic differences throughout Europe. The present study aimed to investigate the frequency and spectrum of EGFR mutations in 1,472 Greek NSCLC patients. In addition, KRAS mutation analysis was performed in patients with known smoking history in order to determine the correlation of type and mutation frequency with smoking. High-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis followed by Sanger sequencing was used to identify mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene and in exon 2 of the KRAS gene. A sensitive next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology was also employed to classify samples with equivocal results. The use of sensitive mutation detection techniques in a large study population of Greek NSCLC patients in routine diagnostic practice revealed an overall EGFR mutation frequency of 15.83%. This mutation frequency was comparable to that previously reported in other European populations. Of note, there was a 99.8% concordance between the HRM method and Sanger sequencing. NGS was found to be the most sensitive method. In addition, female non-smokers demonstrated a high prevalence of EGFR mutations. Furthermore, KRAS mutation analysis in patients with a known smoking history revealed no difference in mutation frequency according to smoking status; however, a different mutation spectrum was observed.

15.
BMJ Open ; 4(5): e004652, 2014 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24859998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Treatment decision-making in colorectal cancer is often guided by tumour tissue molecular analysis. The aim of this study was the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the detection of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations in Greek and Romanian patients with colorectal cancer and determination of the frequency of these mutations in the respective populations. SETTING: Diagnostic molecular laboratory located in Athens, Greece. PARTICIPANTS: 2425 patients with colorectal cancer participated in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: 2071 patients with colorectal cancer (1699 of Greek and 372 of Romanian origin) were analysed for KRAS exon 2 mutations. In addition, 354 tumours from consecutive patients (196 Greek and 161 Romanian) were subjected to full KRAS (exons 2, 3 and 4), NRAS (exons 2, 3 and 4) and BRAF (exon 15) analysis. KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutation detection was performed by a newly designed HRM analysis protocol, followed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: KRAS exon 2 mutations (codons 12/13) were detected in 702 of the 1699 Greek patients with colorectal carcinoma analysed (41.3%) and in 39.2% (146/372) of the Romanian patients. Among the 354 patients who were subjected to full KRAS, NRAS and BRAF analysis, 40.96% had KRAS exon 2 mutations (codons 12/13). Among the KRAS exon 2 wild-type patients 15.31% harboured additional RAS mutations and 12.44% BRAF mutations. The newly designed HRM method used showed a higher sensitivity compared with the sequencing method. CONCLUSIONS: The HRM method developed was shown to be a reliable method for KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutation detection. Furthermore, no difference in the mutation frequency of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF was observed between Greek and Romanian patients with colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grécia , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Romênia
16.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 13(7): 458-66, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22406997

RESUMO

The objective of the ONCODEATH consortium [EU Research Consortium "ONCODEATH" (2006-2010)] was to achieve sensitization of solid tumor cells to death receptor related therapies using rational mechanism-based drug combinations of targeted therapies. In this collaborative effort, during a period of 42 mo, cell and animal model systems of defined oncogenes were generated. Exploitation of generated knowledge and tools enabled the consortium to achieve the following research objectives: (1) elucidation of tumor components which confer sensitivity or resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death; (2) providing detailed knowledge on how small molecule Hsp90, Aurora, Choline kinase, BRAF inhibitors, DNA damaging agents, HDAC and DNMT inhibitors affect the intrinsic apoptotic amplification and execution machineries; (3) optimization of combined action of TRAIL with these therapeutics for optimum effects with minimum concentrations and toxicity in vivo. These findings provide mechanistic basis for a pharmacogenomic approach, which could be exploited further therapeutically, in order to reach novel personalized therapies for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Receptores de Morte Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Receptores de Morte Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 10: 544, 2010 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20937110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes predispose to Lynch syndrome, thus conferring a high relative risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. The MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutational spectrum reported so far involves minor alterations scattered throughout their coding regions as well as large genomic rearrangements. Therefore, a combination of complete sequencing and a specialized technique for the detection of genomic rearrangements should be conducted during a proper DNA-testing procedure. Our main goal was to successfully identify Lynch syndrome families and determine the spectrum of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 mutations in Greek Lynch families in order to develop an efficient screening protocol for the Greek colorectal cancer patients' cohort. METHODS: Forty-two samples from twenty-four families, out of which twenty two of Greek, one of Cypriot and one of Serbian origin, were screened for the presence of germline mutations in the major mismatch repair genes through direct sequencing and MLPA. Families were selected upon Amsterdam criteria or revised Bethesda guidelines. RESULTS: Ten deleterious alterations were detected in twelve out of the twenty-four families subjected to genetic testing, thus our detection rate is 50%. Four of the pathogenic point mutations, namely two nonsense, one missense and one splice site change, are novel, whereas the detected genomic deletion encompassing exon 6 of the MLH1 gene has been described repeatedly in the LOVD database. The average age of onset for the development of both colorectal and endometrial cancer among mutation positive families is 43.2 years. CONCLUSION: The mutational spectrum of the MMR genes investigated as it has been shaped by our analysis is quite heterogeneous without any strong indication for the presence of a founder effect.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/biossíntese , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/biossíntese , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 35(4): 491-4, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18973068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is believed to be an autoimmune disease occurring in genetically predisposed individuals after an appropriate environmental exposure such as viral infections. Recent studies suggest a significant association between MS and the functional 5'-(GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region of the NRAMP1 gene. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the contribution of the allelic variation in the NRAMPI promoter to MS susceptibility and to study the role of viral infection in relation to specific NRAMP1 genotypes, in a Sardinian cohort. METHODS: Sixty MS patients and 66 healthy individuals were genotyped, and screened for the presence of Epstein-bar virus (EBV) and JC virus (JCV) sequences. RESULTS: Consistent with previous autoimmune disease studies, allele 3 at the functional 5'(GT)n promoter region repeat polymorphism, was significantly overrepresented among MS patients when compared to controls (p=0.02). The EBV and JCV sequences were detected in 8/60 (13.33%) and in 4/60 (6.66%) of MS patients respectively and in 5/66 (7.57%) and in 0/66 of controls. CONCLUSION: The allelic variation in the NRAMP1 promoter may contribute to MS susceptibility in the Sardinian population. The viral sequences were not confined to a specific NRAMP1 genotype.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Itália , Vírus JC/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/virologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 14(10): 1323-30, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18454481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by chronic activation of macrophages. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene exerts many pleiotropic effects on macrophage functions. Hence, NRAMP1 may be also involved in the resistance to intracellular pathogens, and this effector of the innate immunity might be involved in CD pathogenesis. Polymorphic alleles at the NRAMP1 locus have been previously associated with susceptibility both to the putative infectious agents and to autoimmune disorders. Based on these indications, in the present study we investigate its candidacy as a genetic determinant for CD in a Greek population in an association-based study, comparing frequencies of 274 CD patients to these of 200 healthy control subjects. METHODS: The 5'(GT)n promoter polymorphism and 9 either single nucleotide (SNPs) or insertion/deletion type polymorphisms were genotyped across the NRAMP1 gene. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to investigate the NRAMP1 mRNA levels in RNA isolated from biopsies of CD patients as well as protein expression in tissues. RESULTS: Three NRAMP1 polymorphisms [5'(GT)n, D543N, and INT4G/C] were significantly associated with CD. Consistent with previous autoimmune disease studies, allele 3 at the functional 5'(GT)n promoter region repeat polymorphism, was significantly associated with CD when compared to healthy controls (odds ratio 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.95; P = 0.002). Interestingly, we observed that CD patients homozygous for allele 3 expressed higher NRAMP1 mRNA levels compared to carriers of allele 2. Furthermore, the protein levels of allele 3 carriers in tissues were also elevated compared to those of allele 2 carriers. Based on these data we can speculate that overrepresentation of allele 3 in CD patients could lead to hyperactivation of bowel-wall macrophages that are chronically exposed to lipopolysaccharide and this could subsequently cause the autoimmune-like phenotype characteristic of CD. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data indicate that genetic polymorphisms of NRAMP1 might be associated with susceptibility to CD.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Frequência do Gene , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
20.
Anticancer Res ; 28(2B): 1341-7, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18505076

RESUMO

Hereditary cancer syndromes comprise approximately 5-10% of diagnosed carcinomas. They are caused by mutations in specific genes. Carriers of mutations in these genes are at an increased risk of developing cancer at a young age. When there is a suspicion of a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome a detailed family tree of the patient requesting screening is constructed. DNA is isolated from all available members of the family. Mutation detection is carried out on DNA from an affected family member. If a mutation is found the remaining family is screened. The genetic basis of a large number of inherited cancer predisposition syndromes is known. In this paper the focus is on mutations in genes responsible for colorectal cancer, meaning adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), which is involved in familial adenomatous polyposis and homo sapiens mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) and homo sapiens mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), involved in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. In addition, the genes responsible for inherited breast and/or ovarian cancer, breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2), and the rearranged during transfection protooncogene RET which is responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 are discussed. In all cases emphasis is given to the data available on the Greek population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grécia , Humanos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Linhagem
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