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1.
Radiother Oncol ; 157: 188-196, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This systematic review summarised and critically appraised evidence on the efficacy and safety of interventions for anal cancer to support the panel of experts developing the national evidence-based anal cancer guideline in Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of interventions for the treatment of stage I to III anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). We systematically searched several databases and included any randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the pre-specified patient populations, regardless of the interventions studied. Non-randomised controlled studies of selected, pre-specified interventions were included if RCTs were not available or contained insufficient information. Where possible, we conducted meta-analyses and critically assessed confidence in the effect estimates using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Our searches yielded 10,325 (25 October 2018) and 889 hits (update search on 18 July 2019). Among the 41 studies (47 publications) included, we identified 19 comparisons of interventions for SCCA, and confidence in the effect estimates ranged from very low to high. Most RCTs compared various chemoradiation regimes. For other treatment options, such as local excision in early stages or different radiotherapies, we mostly identified comparative cohort studies. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that, in most clinical situations, primary chemoradiation based on 5-FU and MMC is still the gold standard. However, treatment options for stage I anal cancer, particularly of the anal margin, as well as newer treatment approaches should be investigated in future RCTs. Overall, our findings may help health care professionals and patients make informed decisions about treatment choices.

3.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634583

RESUMO

Anogenital and oropharyngeal infections with human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common. Clinically manifest disease may significantly impact quality of life; the treatment of HPV-associated lesions is associated with a high rate of recurrence and invasive neoplasms, such as cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers, which are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HPV is an effective and safe measure for the primary prevention of HPV-associated lesions, but immunization rates are still low in Germany. The present publication is an abridged version of the German evidence and consensus-based guideline "Vaccination recommendations for the prevention of HPV-associated lesions", which is available on the website of the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). On the basis of a systematic review with meta-analyses, a representative panel developed and agreed upon recommendations for the vaccination of different populations against HPV. In addition, consensus-based recommendations were developed for specific issues relevant to everyday practice. Based on current evidence and a representative expert consensus, these recommendations are intended to provide guidance in a field in which there is often uncertainty and in which both patients and health care providers are sometimes confronted with controversial and emotionally charged points of view.

6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 129: 40-50, 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to generate evidence on patients' values and preferences to inform the development of the German national Evidence-based Anal Cancer Guideline. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We developed a list of health outcomes based on a systematic search. We then asked anal cancer patients and experts of the guideline development group in an online survey to (a) rate the relative importance of the outcomes in different clinical situations using a nine-point, three-category scale, and (b) select seven outcomes they considered most important for decision-making in each situation. RESULTS: Participants rated almost half of the outcomes (45%) as critical for decision-making, and more than half (53%) as important. Only two outcomes (2%) were rated as low in importance. Agreement between expert and patient ratings was low to fair, and we found important discrepancies in how the relative importance of the outcomes was perceived. However, the rankings of outcomes were highly correlated. CONCLUSION: Determining the relative importance placed by anal cancer patients on outcomes provided useful information for developing guideline recommendations. Our approach may be useful for guideline developers who aim to include the patient perspective. Moreover, our findings may help health professionals caring for anal cancer patients in joint decision-making.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760688

RESUMO

Background: Providers of sexual health services play an important role in counseling persons at risk of acquiring HIV. The aim of the present study was to investigate the knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among counselors in non-governmental counseling centers ("NG counseling centers") and in counseling centers of the local health authorities ("local health offices") in Germany and to determine the extent to which PrEP plays a role in their current counseling practice. Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was conducted among counselors from sexual health centers across Germany. All NG counseling centers in Germany offering HIV testing were asked to participate. For each NG counseling center, a local health office in the same city was also invited. A "knowledge score" and an "attitudes score" were calculated from single items on various relevant aspects. The association of these scores with the proportion of PrEP advice provided proactively in sessions with men who have sex with men (MSM) and trans persons who met the German and Austrian guideline criteria for being offered PrEP ('at-risk clients') was quantified. Results: From Oct. to Dec. 2018, 145 counselors completed the survey. Both self-assessed knowledge of PrEP and attitudes toward PrEP were greater or more positive among counselors from NG counseling centers compared with counselors from local health offices [Median knowledge score (range 0-20): 18.0 (IQR = 5.0) vs. 14.0 (IQR = 4.0), p < 0.001; median attitudes score (range 0-20): 18.0 (IQR = 4.0) vs. 14.0 (IQR = 6.8), p < 0.001]. The proportion of PrEP advice provided proactively in sessions with at-risk clients was larger in counseling centers than in local health offices [50.0% (IQR = 60.0) vs. 30.0% (IQR = 70.0); p = 0.003]. The results of the multiple linear regression model indicate that knowledge and attitudes of the individual counselors, but not the type of center in which they worked, were independent predictors of the proportion of proactive advice on PrEP. Conclusions: There is room for improvement in the current PrEP counseling practice of sexual health services in Germany. The findings of the present study suggest opportunities to improve the implementation of PrEP as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy.

11.
GMS Infect Dis ; 8: Doc01, 2020.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373426

RESUMO

This guideline is aimed at registrars and consultants in dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT, pediatrics, neurology, virology as well as infectiology, anaesthesia and generell medicine as well as policymakers and payers and purchasers of care. It was developed by dermatologists, virologists, ophthalmologists, ENT physicians, neurologists, pediatrician and anesthetists using a formal consensus process (S2k).The guideline provides an overview of clinical and molecular diagnostics as well as antigen detection, antibody culture and viral culture. Diagnostic special situations and complicated courses of the disease are also considered. The antiviral therapy of zoster and postzoster neuralgia is presented in general and for special situations. Detailed information on the treatment of pain is mentioned and presented in an overview. Likewise, the local therapeutic measures are discussed.

12.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(1): 55-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951098

RESUMO

The present guidelines are aimed at residents and board-certified specialists in the fields of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT, pediatrics, neurology, virology, infectious diseases, anesthesiology, general medicine and any other medical specialties involved in the management of patients with herpes zoster. They are also intended as a guide for policymakers and health insurance funds. The guidelines were developed by dermatologists, virologists, ophthalmologists, ENT physicians, neurologists, pediatricians and anesthesiologists/pain specialists using a formal consensus process (S2k). Readers are provided with an overview of the clinical and molecular diagnostic workup, including antigen detection, antibody tests and viral culture. Special diagnostic situations and complicated disease courses are discussed. The authors address general and special aspects of antiviral therapy for herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Furthermore, the guidelines provide detailed information on pain management including a schematic overview, and they conclude with a discussion of topical treatment options.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Herpes Zoster/diagnóstico , Herpes Zoster/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/diagnóstico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 26(3): 718-727, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095829

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND AIM: External review is important when developing clinical practice guidelines. Involving pharmaceutical companies may influence guideline recommendations in their favour and is therefore controversial. Our study aimed to measure stakeholder participation in the external review of the 2016 European acne guideline and assess the extent to which comments submitted by pharmaceutical companies suggested changes favouring their own products. METHODS: Retrospective, partially blinded case study using qualitative analysis of comments submitted during external review. RESULTS: Four stakeholder groups participated in the review: pharmaceutical company representatives (five out of five invited), professional association members (2/222), journal reviewers (n = 2), and visitors to the project website (n = 1). Of 78 comments submitted, 48 were from company representatives, 24 from journal reviewers, and six from others. Each comment suggested one change to the guideline. Of the comments submitted by companies, 41.7% related to "writing or formatting," 16.7% to "presentation of results," 12.5% to "background information for main recommendations," and 12.5% to the "strength of treatment recommendation". In 54.2% (26/48) of these comments, a change was suggested that put the companies' own products in a more positive light. Five of these changes were implemented by the guideline authors in the way suggested by the company representatives. CONCLUSION: Participation of professional societies, patients, and the general public in the external review of the 2016 European acne guideline was unacceptably low. This is in concordance with reports of low participation of these groups in other European dermatology guidelines. While involving the pharmaceutical industry in the review substantially increased the number of comments received, many of these sought changes that would have put companies' own products in a more favourable light. Our findings underscore the need to manage reviewer comments in a robust and transparent fashion. Solutions to encourage participation of all relevant stakeholders are needed.

16.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 17(11): 1187-1207, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765083

RESUMO

Epicutaneous patch testing is the diagnostic standard for the detection of allergic contact dermatitis. The present guidelines are aimed at residents and board-certified physicians in the fields of dermatology and allergology as well as other medical specialties involved in establishing the indication for patch testing and its execution in patients with contact dermatitis and other forms of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The target audience also includes other health care providers and insurance funds. Based on a systematic literature search and a formal consensus process (S3), the guidelines were developed by dermatologists in collaboration with pediatricians, occupational medicine physicians, nursing staff as well as patient representatives. The systematic methodological approach and appraisal of evidence upon which the recommendations are based are outlined in a separate method report that also contains evidence tables. The guidelines address general aspects of patch testing as well as medicolegal issues. The recommendations given relate to topics such as the indication for patch testing, informed patient consent, as well as the choice of test substances, test chambers and test site, duration of exposure, reading times and interpretation of test reactions. Furthermore, recommendations are provided with respect to endogenous and exogenous factors, specific patient groups (children, pregnant women, immunosuppressed individuals) as well as possible risks and adverse events associated with patch testing using contact allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Criança , Consenso , Dermatologistas , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Medicina do Trabalho , Testes do Emplastro/efeitos adversos , Pediatras , Gravidez
18.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617856

RESUMO

Importance: Systemic psoriasis treatments vary in efficacy and cost but also in time until onset of action. Patients with no response to a first induction treatment are typically switched to another, and some patients require several treatments before they see an improvement. Objective: To determine the most cost-effective sequence of induction treatment through a comparative time-effectiveness analysis of different systemic treatment sequences currently licensed in Germany for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This time-effectiveness analysis used a decision-analytic model set in the German health care system. The population simulated to receive the treatment sequences consisted of adult men and women with psoriasis vulgaris or plaque type psoriasis eligible for systemic treatment. Systematic reviews were performed to generate model input values. Data were collected from November 1 through December 15, 2017, and analyzed from January through August 2018. Interventions: Five treatment sequences frequently used in Germany, identified through an online expert survey (response rate, 10 of 15 [66.7%]), and 4 theoretical sequences starting with a biological agent. Treatments included methotrexate sodium (MTX), cyclosporine (CSA), fumaric acid esters (FAE), adalimumab (ADA), ixekizumab (IXE), infliximab (INF), and secukinumab (SEC). Main Outcomes and Measures: Two health states were defined: responder (patients achieving a Psoriasis Area Severity Index [PASI] ≥75) and nonresponder (PASI <75). Probability values were defined as response rates of PASI-75. Treatment effects were determined by the mean change in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score. Time until onset of action was assessed as weeks until 25% of patients reach PASI-75. Individual time-effectiveness ratios were calculated per treatment sequence as time until onset of action (in weeks) per minimally important difference (MID) in DLQI and were subsequently ranked. Results: Treatment sequences starting with a biological agent, including IXE-INF-SEC (1.4 weeks per DLQI-MID), INF-IXE-SEC (2.05 weeks per DLQI-MID), SEC-IXE-ADA (2.1 weeks per DLQI-MID), and ADA-IXE-SEC (2.8 weeks per DLQI-MID) were more time-effective than frequently used treatment sequences, including MTX-SEC-ADA (6.8 weeks per DLQI-MID), MTX-ADA-IXE (7.0 weeks per DLQI-MID), MTX-ADA-SEC (7.2 weeks per DLQI-MID), MTX-FAE-ADA (10.05 weeks per DLQI-MID), and FAE-MTX-CSA (11.5 weeks per DLQI-MID). The results were robust to deterministic sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: When allocating monetary resources, policy makers and regulators may want to consider time until patients experience an MID in their quality of life as an additional outcome measure. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42017074218.

19.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 17(10): 1076-1093, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631537

RESUMO

Epicutaneous patch testing is the diagnostic standard for the detection of allergic contact dermatitis. The present guidelines are aimed at residents and board-certified physicians in the fields of dermatology and allergology as well as other medical specialties involved in establishing the indication for patch testing and its execution in patients with contact dermatitis and other forms of delayed-type hypersensitivity. The target audience also includes other health care providers and insurance funds. Based on a systematic literature search and a formal consensus process (S3), the guidelines were developed by dermatologists in collaboration with pediatricians, occupational medicine physicians, nursing staff as well as patient representatives. The systematic methodological approach and appraisal of evidence upon which the recommendations are based are outlined in a separate method report that also contains evidence tables. The guidelines address general aspects of patch testing as well as medicolegal issues. The recommendations given relate to topics such as the indication for patch testing, informed patient consent, as well as the choice of test substances, test chambers and test site, duration of exposure, reading times and interpretation of test reactions. Furthermore, recommendations are provided with respect to endogenous and exogenous factors, specific patient groups (children, pregnant women, immunosuppressed individuals) as well as possible risks and adverse events associated with patch testing using contact allergens. Note: This publication is part 1 of the short version of the S3 guidelines for "Epicutaneous patch testing using contact allergens and drugs" (registry no. 013 - 018; date: March 20, 2019; valid until December 31, 2021). Part 2 of the short version will be published in the next issue. The long version of these guidelines can be accessed at www.awmf.org. The method report is available as online publication (https://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/013-018.html) and contains the evidence tables in its appendix.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Testes do Emplastro/métodos , Criança , Consenso , Dermatologistas , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Medicina do Trabalho , Testes do Emplastro/efeitos adversos , Pediatras , Gravidez
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