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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous epicardial access (EA) was first described more than two decades ago. Since its initial introduction, indications for its utilization in the field of electrophysiology have expanded dramatically. DISCUSSION: Epicardial mapping and ablation in patients with ventricular tachycardia is routinely performed in tertiary electrophysiology centers around the world. Although limited by lack of randomized controlled trials, epicardial ablation for atrial fibrillation has been suggested as a conjunctive strategy in patients who have failed an initial endocardial catheter ablation attempt, and it is necessary for placement of some left atrial appendage occlusion devices as well. An accurate understanding of the cardiac anatomy is crucial to avoid complications such as inadvertent right ventricular puncture, injury to the coronary arteries, abdominal viscera, phrenic nerves, and esophagus during both EA and catheter ablation. CONCLUSION: The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the cardiac anatomy, technical aspects to optimize the safety of epicardial puncture, recognize and avoid potential complications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033130

RESUMO

We describe a case of pacemaker implant guided by intracardiac echocardiography and three-dimensional anatomical mapping in a pregnant patient, with no peri-procedural use of radiation.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e020563, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998277

RESUMO

Background We evaluated long-term outcome of isolation of pulmonary veins, left atrial posterior wall, and superior vena cava, including time to recurrence and prevalent triggering foci at repeat ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with or without cardiovascular comorbidities. Methods and Results A total of 1633 consecutive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation that were arrhythmia-free for 2 years following the index ablation were classified into: group 1 (without comorbidities); n=692 and group 2 (with comorbidities); n=941. We excluded patients with documented ablation of areas other than pulmonary veins, the left atrial posterior wall, and the superior vena cava at the index procedure. At 10 years after an average of 1.2 procedures, 215 (31%) and 480 (51%) patients had recurrence with median time to recurrence being 7.4 (interquartile interval [IQI] 4.3-8.5) and 5.6 (IQI 3.8-8.3) years in group 1 and 2, respectively. A total of 201 (93.5%) and 456 (95%) patients from group 1 and 2 underwent redo ablation; 147/201 and 414/456 received left atrial appendage and coronary sinus isolation and 54/201 and 42/456 had left atrial lines and flutter ablation. At 2 years after the redo, 134 (91.1%) and 391 (94.4%) patients from group 1 and 2 receiving left atrial appendage/coronary sinus isolation remained arrhythmia-free whereas sinus rhythm was maintained in 4 (7.4%) and 3 (7.1%) patients in respective groups undergoing empirical lines and flutter ablation (P<0.001). Conclusions Very late recurrence of atrial fibrillation after successful isolation of pulmonary veins, regardless of the comorbidity profile, was majorly driven by non-pulmonary vein triggers and ablation of these foci resulted in high success rate. However, presence of comorbidities was associated with significantly earlier recurrence.

6.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 13(2): 303-311, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990269

RESUMO

Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a valuable tool and should be standard of care in any modern electrophysiology laboratory. Through real-time imaging of cardiac anatomy, ICE is used to guide electrophysiology procedures and monitor for complications. This article is a short overview of the application of real-time ICE imaging during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures.

7.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 13(2): 419-426, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990280

RESUMO

With real-time three-dimensional ultrasound, live volumetric images with adequate spatial and temporal resolution are obtained to accurately display structures with complex anatomy and guide interventional procedures. In this review, we will provide an overview of current ultrasound technologies that allow for real-time three-dimensional imaging, with a focus on their application for three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography.

8.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 13(2): xiii, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990281
9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(6): 1772-1777, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969588

RESUMO

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most common sustained supraventricular arrhythmias. An understanding of gender-related differences in AVNRT epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and complications can help guide a more effective diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The study aimed to perform a review of the available literature regarding all aspects of gender-related differences of AVNRT. We focused on all aspects of gender-related differences regarding AVNRT between men and women. A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, PubMed, Springer, Ovid, and Science Direct. Many investigations have demonstrated that the prevalence of AVNRT exhibited a twofold women-to-men predominance. The potential mechanism behind this difference due to sex hormones and autonomic tone. Despite being more common in women, there is a delay in offering and performing the first-line therapy (catheter ablation) compared to men. There were no significant gender-related discrepancies in patients who underwent ablation therapy for AVNRT, regarding the acute success rate of the procedure, long-term success rate, and recurrence of AVNRT. AVNRT is more common in women due to physiological factors such as sex hormones and autonomic tone. Catheter ablation is equally safe and efficacious in men and women; however, the time between the onset of symptoms and ablation is significantly prolonged in women. It is important for the medical community to be aware of this discrepancy and to strive to eliminate such disparities that are not related to patients' choices.

10.
J Electrocardiol ; 67: 13-18, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of cardioneuroablation (CNA) on ventricular repolarization by using corrected QT interval (QTc) measurements has been recently demonstrated. The effects of cardiac pacing (CP) on ventricular repolarization have not been studied in patients with vasovagal syncope (VVS). We sought to compare ventricular repolarization effects of CNA (group 1) with CP (group 2) in patients with VVS. METHODS: We enrolled 69 patients with age 38 ± 13 years (53.6% male), n = 47 in group 1 and n = 22 in group 2. Clinical diagnosis of cardioinhibitory type was supported by cardiac monitoring or tilt testing. QTc was calculated at baseline (time-1), at 24 h after ablation (time-2), and at 9-12 months (time-3) in the follow-up. RESULTS: In the group 1, from time-1 to time-2, a significant shortening in QTcFredericia (from 403 ± 27 to 382 ± 27 ms, p < 0.0001), QTcFramingham (from 402 ± 27 to 384 ± 27 ms, p < 0.0001), and QTcHodges (from 405 ± 26 to 388 ± 24 ms, p < 0.0001) was observed which remained lower than baseline in time-3 (373 ± 29, 376 ± 27, and 378 ± 27 ms, respectively). Although the difference between measurements in time-1 and time-2 was not statistically significant for QTcBazett, a significant shortening was detected between time-1 and time-3 (from 408 ± 30 to 394 ± 33, p = 0.005). In the group 2, there was no time-based changes on QTc measurements. In the linear mixed model analysis, the longitudinal reduction tendency in the QTcFredericia and QTcFramingham was more pronounced in group 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that CNA reduces QTc levels through neuromodulation effect whereas CP has no effect on ventricular repolarization in patients with VVS.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of a novel immunosuppressive regimen-combination Methotrexate/Prednisone (cMtx/P)-in the management of severe refractory rPPP. METHODS: In this multicenter, nonrandomized, retrospective, observational study, 408 consecutive patients diagnosed with persistent rPPP between 2017 and 19 were included. Patients with refractory symptoms despite 3 months of conventional therapy were initiated on a 4-week regimen of oral steroids. Persistence of symptoms at this point, that is, rPPP (n = 25; catheter based = 18, open surgical = 7) prompted therapy with Methotrexate (7.5-15 mg weekly) with folate supplementation along with low dose prednisone (5 mg PO) for a further 3 months. Patients were followed for a total of 11.3 ± 1.8 months. RESULTS: Treatment refractory rPPP occurred in 6.1% of the study population prompting immunosuppressive therapy with cMtx/P. All patients demonstrated complete symptom resolution following 3 months of treatment with an 85% decline in clinically significant pericardial effusions. One patient developed recurrent pericarditis during the 11-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated with no significant drug related adverse effects. CONCLUSION: cMtx/P therapy is a safe and effective adjunct in the management of rPPP refractory to standard therapy.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of minimally fluoroscopic approach (MFA) compared with conventional fluoroscopic ablation (ConvA) in terms of recurrences of arrhythmia and long-term complications. BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation (CA) of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with an MFA, under the guidance of electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems, results in a significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiations without impairing acute procedural success and complication rate. However, data regarding long-term outcomes of MFA compared with ConvA are lacking. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. All patients undergoing MFA CA of SVT (atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia and atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia) between 2010 and 2015 were enrolled and were compared with matched subjects (1 MFA: 2 ConvA) undergoing ConvA during the same period. The 2 co-primary outcomes were recurrence of arrhythmias and long-term complications. RESULTS: Six-hundred eighteen patients (mean age 38 ± 15 years, 60% female) were enrolled. MFA included 206 patients, whereas 412 were treated with ConvA. Acute success (99% vs. 97%; p = 0.10) and acute complications (2.4% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.14) were similar in the 2 groups. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 5.9% of patients experienced recurrence of arrhythmias. At multivariate analysis, ConvA (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.03) and procedural success (HR: 0.10) were independently associated with recurrence of arrhythmias. Late complications (i.e., advance atrioventricular block and need for pacemaker implantation) occurred more frequently in ConvA (3.4% vs. 0.5%; p = 0.03) compared with MFA. CONCLUSIONS: CA guided by EAM systems with MFA provided better long-term results and reduced risk of complications compared with ConvA.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e019664, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870705

RESUMO

Background We compared the cognitive status and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) or remaining on oral anticoagulation (OAC) after atrial fibrillation ablation. Methods and Results Cognition was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) survey at baseline and follow-up. Consecutive patients receiving LAAO or OAC after atrial fibrillation ablation were screened, and patients with a score of ≤17 were excluded from the study. Quality of life was measured at baseline and 1 year using the Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality of Life survey. A total of 50 patients (CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category] score: 3.30±1.43) in the LAAO group and 48 (CHA2DS2-VASc score 2.73±1.25) in the OAC group were included in this prospective study. Mean baseline MoCA score was 26.18 and 26.08 in the LAAO and OAC groups, respectively (P=0.846). At 1 year, scores were 26.94 and 23.38 in the respective groups. MoCA score decreased by an estimated -2.74 (95% CI, -3.61 to -1.87; P<0.0001) points in the OAC group, whereas the change in the LAAO group was nonsignificant (0.79; (95% CI, -0.06 to 1.64; P=0.07). After adjusting for baseline clinical characteristics, remaining on OAC was an independent predictor of MoCA change at 1 year (regression coefficient, -3.38; 95% CI, -4.75 to -2.02; P<0.0001). Change in Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality of Life score did not differ significantly in achieving a clinically important difference between groups. Conclusions In this series, a significant difference in the postprocedure MoCA score was observed in postablation patients with atrial fibrillation receiving LAAO versus remaining on OAC with a substantial decline in the score in the OAC group. However, quality of life improved similarly across groups. Registration https://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01816308.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909223

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the most common cause of death in the world. This manuscript highlights the various challenges in prevention and early management of SCA and also discusses the current state of SCA awareness. The manuscript also outlines the various national and international initiatives in improving SCA awareness and their impact on improving outcomes in SCA. Various campaigns have strived for widespread dissemination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and advocated for broader public access defibrillator availability. Finally, the manuscript describes future directions including harnessing technology with voice command and artificial intelligence to allow lay person deliver effective CPR, to improve EMS response times, and to allow wider CPR knowledge dissemination in schools and places of employment. Future research should be focused on optimizing SCA outcomes among vulnerable populations and minorities. Advancements in resuscitation science and use of big data for improvement of EMS services will improve outcomes in SCA.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empirical pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) remains the cornerstone for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Various ablation strategies and modalities are continually tested with the aim of improving ablation outcomes. Although focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM)-guided ablation is currently used as an adjunct to PVI, evidence supporting this strategy is conflicting. We sought to examine whether the utilization of FIRM-guided ablation with or without PVI is associated with a decrease in all-atrial arrhythmia recurrence as compared to PVI alone. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase was performed for head-to-head study designs comparing outcomes of patients who underwent FIRM-guided ablation with or without PVI to those who underwent PVI alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was all-atrial arrhythmia recurrence. The secondary endpoints were complications rates and procedural characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, six studies comprising 674 patients undergoing either FIRM-guided ablation ± PVI versus PVI were included (mean age 63.4 ± 9.2, male 74%, 9% paroxysmal AF, 91% nonparoxysmal AF). After a mean follow-up of 18.8 months, FIRM-guided ablation with or without PVI was not associated with improvement in all-atrial arrhythmia recurrence rate compared to PVI alone (43.4% vs. 45.9%, risk ratio [RR]: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-1.47; p = .70). No statistically significant difference was noted in complication rates between the two groups (RR: 1.66; 95% CI: 0.08-34.54; p = .74). CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of head-to-head comparison studies, FIRM-guided ablation with or without PVI did not provide any benefit in improving all-atrial arrhythmia recurrence at follow-up when compared to PVI alone.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warfarin is traditionally the drug of choice for stroke prophylaxis or treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis as data on apixaban use is scarce. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of Apixaban in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis when compared with warfarin. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases from inception until Nov 25, 2019, was performed. Studies reporting clinical outcomes comparing Apixaban (2.5 mg BID or 5 mg BID) versus Warfarin in ESRD patients on hemodialysis were included. Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) random-effects model was used to summarize data. RESULTS: Four studies (three retrospective and one randomized) with a total of 9862 patients (apixaban = 2,547, warfarin = 7315) met inclusion criteria. The overall mean age was 66.6 ± 3.9 years and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.56 ± 0.58. Apixaban was associated with lower rates of major bleeding (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.45-0.64, p < 0.0001], gastrointestinal (GI) bleed (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76, p < 0.0001), intracranial bleed (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.89, p = 0.01), and stroke/systemic embolism [RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83, p = 0.0004] compared with warfarin in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. There was no significant increased risk of all-cause mortality with the apixaban vs. warfarin (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.41-1.96, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: Apixaban had an overall favorable risk-benefit profile, with significant reductions in ischemic stroke, major bleeding, and intracranial bleeding compared to Warfarin in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with non-valvular AF and/or venous thromboembolism.

17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(3): 308-318, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of the post-ablation scar with stroke risk in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement-cardiac magnetic resonance studies have reported a direct association between pre-ablation left atrial scar and thromboembolic events in patients with AF. METHODS: Consecutive patients with AF were classified into 2 groups based on the type of ablation performed at the first procedure. Group 1 involved limited ablation (isolation of pulmonary veins, left atrial posterior wall, and superior vena cava); and group 2 involved extensive ablation (limited ablation + ablation of nonpulmonary vein triggers from all sites except left atrial appendage). During the repeat procedure, post-ablation scar (region with bipolar voltage amplitude <0.5 mV) was identified by using 3-dimensional voltage mapping. RESULTS: A total of 6,297 patients were included: group 1, n = 1,713; group 2, n = 4,584. Group 2 patients were significantly older and had more nonparoxysmal AF. Nineteen (0.3%) thromboembolic events were reported after the first ablation procedure: 9 (1.02%) in group 1 and 10 (0.61%) in group 2 (p = 0.26). At the time of the event, all 19 patients were experiencing arrhythmia. Median time to stroke was 14 (interquartile range: 9 to 20) months in group 1 and 14.5 (interquartile range: 8 to 18) months in group 2. Post-ablation scar data were derived from 2,414 patients undergoing repeat ablation. Mean scar area was detected as 67.1 ± 4.6% in group 2 and 34.9 ± 8.8% in group 1 at the redo procedure (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differently from the cardiac magnetic resonance-detected pre-ablation scar, scar resulting from extensive ablation was not associated with increased risk of stroke compared with that from the limited ablation.

18.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(6): 1764-1771, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772939

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Though current guidelines currently recommend using warfarin, there is also a growing interest in the utilization of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) to treat left ventricular (LV) thrombus. METHODS: We performed a systematic search using PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to September 30, 2020, for studies that had reported outcomes in patients with left ventricular thrombus treated with DOACs (PROSPERO registration number CRD42020219761). RESULTS: Twelve studies (n = 867 patients) were included in the analysis. The pooled incidence of the systemic embolic events (SEE) with DOACs was 2.7%, whereas the thrombus resolution rate was 86.6%. The pooled incidence of overall bleeding (composite of major and minor bleeding) and major bleeding with DOACs were 5.6% and 1.1%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in terms of SEE (OR 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.52, p = .54), major bleeding (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07-1.26, p = .24), and failure of LV thrombus resolution (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.28-2.58, p = .68); whereas overall bleeding was significantly low in patients with LV thrombus treated with DOACs compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.81, p = .02). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates no significant difference in SEE, major bleeding, or failure of LV thrombus resolution between the two groups, thus demonstrating that DOACs are an efficacious and safe alternative for the treatment of LV thrombus compared to VKAs. However, further well-designed prospective trials are needed to answer important clinical questions-optimal dosing/duration of DOACs and its safety in the background of antiplatelet therapy.

19.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 19(3): 237-246, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex and multi-factorial rhythm disorder. Catheter ablation is widely used for the management of AF. However, it is limited by relapse of the arrhythmia necessitating repeat procedures. AREAS COVERED: This review aims to discuss the predictors of post-ablation recurrent AF including age, gender, genetic predisposition, AF type and duration, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, echocardiographic parameters of heart chambers, left atrial fibrosis and ablation strategies and targets. An extensive literature search was undertaken on PubMed and Google Scholar to obtain full texts of relevant AF-related articles. EXPERT OPINION: Maintenance of stable sinus rhythm is the main intended outcome of AF ablation. Therefore, it is very crucial to identify the risk factors that may influence the ablation success. Most of these predictors such as comorbidities, ablation strategy and targets and lifestyle factors are either reversible or modifiable. Thus, not only the awareness of these known risk factors by both patients and their physicians but also future research to identify the unknown predictors are critical to optimize care in this multi-faceted morbidity.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652714

RESUMO

A recent surveillance analysis indicates that cardiac arrest/death occurs in ≈1:50,000 professional or semi-professional athletes, and the most common cause is attributable to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). It is critically important to diagnose any inherited/acquired cardiac disease, including coronary artery disease, since it frequently represents the arrhythmogenic substrate in a substantial part of the athletes presenting with major VAs. New insights indicate that athletes develop a specific electro-anatomical remodeling, with peculiar anatomic distribution and VAs patterns. However, because of the scarcity of clinical data concerning the natural history of VAs in sports performers, there are no dedicated recommendations for VA ablation. The treatment remains at the mercy of several individual factors, including the type of VA, the athlete's age, and the operator's expertise. With the present review, we aimed to illustrate the prevalence, electrocardiographic (ECG) features, and imaging correlations of the most common VAs in athletes, focusing on etiology, outcomes, and sports eligibility after catheter ablation.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Esportes , Arritmias Cardíacas , Atletas , Eletrocardiografia , Coração , Humanos
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