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1.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103611

RESUMO

Fumonisins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that contaminate food for human and animal consumption. They have neurotoxic effects, but the mechanisms by which these toxins affect the nervous system are not fully known. In the present study, male Wistar rats were fed between 21 and 63 days of age with diets that contained fumonisins B1+B2 at 0, 1, and 4 mg/kg. The following variables were assessed: food consumption, growth, body weight gain, and blood parameters. Morphoquantitave analyses of the most metabolically active myenteric neurons were performed, detected by NADH-diaphorase activity. Nitrergic neurons were detected by NADPH-diaphorase activity. The fumonisin-containing diets did not significantly alter food consumption or the body or plasma parameters. These diets decreased the metabolic activity of jejunal myenteric neurons, reducing neuronal density of the most metabolic active neurons by 30.8% and the cell body area by 4.3%. The diets also decreased the cell body area of nitrergic neurons by 22.1%. The effects of fumonisin B1 on the respiratory metabolism of isolated mitochondria in the brain and liver were also assessed. A decrease in oxygen consumption up to a 29% in the brain and 38% in the liver was observed in mitochondrial isolates to which 50 µM fumonisin B1 was added. The decrease in respiratory activity that was triggered by exposure to fumonisins was related to the lower metabolic activity of myenteric neurons, which had a negative impact on neuroplasticity of the enteric nervous system.

2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 683-688, June 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098307

RESUMO

The aim was to evaluate bone repair and gingival tissue repair in osteopenic rats. Fifteen female wistar rats were included; in all of them ovariectomy was realized to induce osteopenia; after 45 days, the animals were submitted to 2 surgical techinques 1) dental extraction of the upper central incisor with no socket preservation and 2) 5 mm cranial defect in the calvarium; 5 rats were included in the control group (G1) withput alendronate application; in the group 2 (G2) was used subcutenous alendronate (0.5 mg/kg) once for three weeks and then was realizd the both surgical techniques. In group 3 (G3), after ovariectomy was realized the both dental extraction and the calvarium defect and after that was realized the alendronate protocol. In each group, after six week was realized euthanasia and descriptive histological analysis of the surgical areas involved. In bone formation of the 5 mm cranial defect was observed with good progression in the 3 experimental models and no modification in quality of bone repair was observed. For the gingival tissue in the extraction socket, no differences were observed between G1 and G3. On other hand, in G2 a thinner and reduced gingival epithelium was found. Our results showed that alendronate was not an obstacle for bone repair; deficiencies in re-epithelialization of oral mucosa show the impact of alendronate before dental extraction.


El objetivo fue evaluar la reparación ósea y gingival en ratas con osteopenia. Quince ratas wistar hembras fueron incluidas; en todas ellas se realizo ovarectomia y fue realizada la inducción de osteopenia; después de 45 días, los animales fueron sometidos a dos técnicas quirúrgicas 1) extracciones dentales del incisivo central superior sin preservación alveolar y 2) creación de un defecto craneano de 5 mm en la calota; 5 animales fueron incluidos como grupo control (G1) sin la aplicación de alendronato; en el grupo 2 (G2) se utilizó alendronato subcutáneo (0,5 mg/kg) una vez a la semana durante 3 semanas. En el grupo 3 (G3), después de la ovarectomia se realizó la exodoncia y el defecto en el cráneo y después de ello se inicio el protocolo con alendronato. En cada grupo, después de seis semanas se realizó la eutanasia con descripción histológica de los hallazgos. En el hueso formado en el defecto craneano de 5 mm se observó una adecuada progresión de reparación en los 3 modelos experimentales y no se observó cambios importantes en el modelo de reparación. Para el tejido gingival en el sitio de extracción, no se observaron diferencias entre el grupo G1 y G3. Por otra parte, el G2 presentó un tejido mas delgado con reducción del epitelio gingival; nuestros resultados demuestran que el alendronato no fue un obstáculo en la reparación ósea; deficiencias en la re epitelización de la mucosa oral muestran el impacto del alendronato después de la exodoncia.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Alendronato/administração & dosagem , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteonecrose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/complicações , Ovariectomia , Ratos Wistar , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem
3.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 32(4): e13770, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., is commonly found in cereals ingested by humans and animals. Its ingestion is correlated with hepatic, hematologic, renal, splenic, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and neural damages, according to dose, duration of exposure and species. In this work, the effects of the ingestion of DON-contaminated diet at concentrations considered tolerable for human and animal intake were assessed. METHODS: Male Wistar rats aging 21 days were allotted to five groups that were given, for 42 days, diets contaminated with different concentrations of DON (0, 0.2, 0.75, 1.75, and 2 mg kg-1 of chow). Food ingestion, bodyweight, oxidative status and morphometric analyses of gliocytes, and neurons of jejunal myenteric ganglia were recorded. KEY RESULTS: At these concentrations, there was no food rejection, decrease in bodyweight gain, changes in oxidative status, or loss of either neurons or gliocytes. However, DON decreased gliocyte area, general neuronal population, nitrergic, cholinergic and NADH-diaphorase positive subpopulations and, as a result, ganglion area. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: It was concluded that, even in the absence of visible effect, DON exposure reduces cell body area of gliocytes and neurons of the myenteric plexus of the rat jejunum.

4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 249-254, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is widely distributed throughout the world's population. The virus spreads through direct contact with an infected individual. After primary infection, the virus remains in a latent state, and the recurrence of herpetic lesions is common. Standard treatment is performed with nucleoside analogues, but the selection of resistant strains have occurred, thus requiring the continual search for new antiviral agents. Plant extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds are a good source for studying possible antiviral compounds. HYPOTHESIS: Among plants with antiviral activity, the crude extract of aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae) have previously shown to inhibit HSV-1 infection in vitro. METHODS: The present study investigated the chemical composition of a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) of T. parthenium, and in vivo safety and therapeutic efficacy against HSV-1 infection. RESULTS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the CHE was composed of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) and sesquiterpene lactones (parthenolide). Acute and subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity tests in vivo showed that oral CHE administration did not result in signs of toxicity, with no genotoxic potential. The CHE was also safe for topical administration, in which no irritation of the epidermis was observed in treated animals. Tests of topical and oral therapeutic efficacy showed that the CHE was effective against HSV-1 infection. Topical administration was the most effective, the results for which were comparable to acyclovir. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the CHE from aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium has in vivo anti-HSV-1 activity and is safe for oral and topical application.


Assuntos
Antivirais/toxicidade , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Tanacetum parthenium/química , Tanacetum parthenium/toxicidade , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360555

RESUMO

Gluconeogenesis overstimulation due to hepatic insulin resistance is the best-known mechanism behind elevated glycemia in obese subjects with hepatic steatosis. This suggests that glucose production in fatty livers may differ from that of healthy livers, also in response to other gluconeogenic determinant factors, such as the type of substrate and modulators. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these factors on hepatic gluconeogenesis in cafeteria diet-induced obese adult rats submitted to a cafeteria diet at a young age. The livers of the cafeteria group exhibited higher gluconeogenesis rates when glycerol was the substrate, but lower rates were found when lactate and pyruvate were the substrates. Stearate or glucagon caused higher stimulations in gluconeogenesis in cafeteria group livers, irrespective of the gluconeogenic substrates. An increased mitochondrial NADH/NAD⁺ ratio and a reduced rate of 14CO2 production from [14C] fatty acids suggested restriction of the citric acid cycle. The higher glycogen and lipid levels were possibly the cause for the reduced cellular and vascular spaces found in cafeteria group livers, likely contributing to oxygen consumption restriction. In conclusion, specific substrates and gluconeogenic modulators contribute to a higher stimulation of gluconeogenesis in livers from the cafeteria group.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Glucagon/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ácido Pirúvico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Life Sci ; 213: 134-141, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343128

RESUMO

Menopause induces osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Ovariectomized (OVX) rat is an animal model, which mimetics postmenopausal conditions. The present study aimed to test the effects of strength training protocol on bone mineral density and metabolic parameters in OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were randomly separated in four groups: non-ovariectomized rats (Sham); ovariectomized rats (OVX); OVX treated with 17ß-estradiol (HR); and OVX trained group (TR). At 70-days-old OVX groups were submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy. Hormonal replacement and strength training were performed three times per week, for 60 days. 17ß-estradiol was administered by intramuscular injection (50 µg/kg of BW) and strength training protocol was composed by four series of 12 repetitions with 65-75% of 1RM. As expected, OVX impaired glucose homeostasis, promoted weight and adiposity gain, dyslipidemia, sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but hormonal replacement and strength training improved most of these parameters. Both HR and TR normalize glucose homeostasis; however, only TR restores blood insulin. OXV also reduced the maximum force in 42%, but TR improved this parameter in 110%, in addition TR prevents sarcopenia and fat mass gain. Interestingly, strength training was able to improve significantly BMD. Taken together, these data suggest that strength training can be effective in the treatment of damage caused by OVX, which in a translational context, becomes an effective non-pharmacological strategy to improve the health of postmenopausal women, reducing costs with secondary symptoms, mainly caused by weight gain, sarcopenia and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
9.
J Nutr Biochem ; 61: 24-32, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179726

RESUMO

During the early post-natal period, offspring are vulnerable to environmental insults, such as nutritional and hormonal changes, which increase risk to develop metabolic diseases later in life. Our aim was to understand whether maternal obesity during lactation programs offspring to metabolic syndrome and obese phenotype, in addition we aimed to assess the peripheral glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin/insulin signaling pathways. At delivery, female Wistar rats were randomly divided in two groups: Control group (CO), mothers fed a standard rodent chow (Nuvilab); and Diet-induced obesity group (DIO), mothers who had free access to a diet performed with 33% ground standard rodent chow, 33% sweetened condensed milk (Nestlé), 7% sucrose and 27% water. Maternal treatment was performed throughout suckling period. All offspring received standard rodent chow from weaning until 91-day-old. DIO dams presented increased total body fat and insulin resistance. Consequently, the breast milk from obese dams had altered composition. At 91-day-old, DIO offspring had overweight, hyperphagia and higher adiposity. Furthermore, DIO animals had hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, they also showed pancreatic islet hypertrophy and increased pancreatic ß-cell proliferation. Finally, DIO offspring showed low ObRb, JAK2, STAT-3, IRß, PI3K and Akt levels, suggesting leptin and insulin hypothalamic resistance, associated with increased of hypothalamic NPY level and decreased of POMC. Maternal obesity during lactation malprograms rat offspring to develop obesity that is associated with impairment of melanocortin system. Indeed, rat offspring displayed glucose dyshomeostasis and both peripheral and central insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Lactação , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Pâncreas/fisiologia , Ratos Wistar
10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 49(1): 395-405, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Particulate matter (PM) is an important risk factor for immunological system imbalance due to its small size, which can reach more distal regions of the respiratory tract, independently of its chemical composition. Some studies have suggested that PM exposure is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, especially in industrialized urban regions. However, studies regarding the effects of PM exposure during perinatal life on glucose metabolism are limited. We tested whether exposure to PM from an urban area with poor air quality during pregnancy and lactation could cause short- and long-term dysfunction in rat offspring. METHODS: Samples of < 10 µm PM were collected in an urban area of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa), and reconstituted in corn oil. Pregnant Wistar rats received 50 µg PM/day by gavage until the end of lactation. After birth, we analyzed the dams' biochemical parameters as well as those of their male offspring at 21 and 90 days of age. RESULTS: The results showed that PM exposure did not lead to several consequences in dams; however, the male offspring of both ages presented an increase of approximately 15% in body weight. Although the blood glucose levels remained unchanged, the insulin levels were increased 2.5- and 2-fold in PM exposure groups of both ages, respectively. HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß were also increased at both ages. We also demonstrated that the number, islet area and insulin immunodensity of pancreatic islets were significantly increased at both ages from PM exposure. CONCLUSION: Our data show that chronic PM exposure by the oral route during perinatal life in rats leads to glucose dyshomeostasis in male offspring both in early and later life. Thus, we suggest that an ambience with poor air quality, mainly where traffic is dense, can contribute to an increase in metabolic disease incidence.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Curva ROC , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 107: 194-202, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089249

RESUMO

Beverages containing Trichilia catigua are commonly employed in folk medicine. T. catigua bark extracts possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bactericidal properties. These properties suggest T. catigua bark extracts as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced model of colitis in rats we evaluated the effect of an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T. catigua (200 mg/kg) administered by daily oral gavage or intrarectally at different time points after TNBS challenge. TNBS treatment evoked severe colonic inflammation after 24 h that persisted for 7 days, characterized by weight loss, high levels of myeloperoxidase activity, histological and macroscopic damage, and elevated index of oxidative stress in the blood. T. catigua EAF treatment prevented the oxidative stress within 24 h and enhanced tissue recovery observed at day 7, returning histological and macroscopic damage levels to that of the control group. TNBS treatment led to loss of myenteric neurons after 28 days. T. catigua EAF was unable to prevent the neuronal loss. Oral delivery of T. catigua EAF was more effective than intrarectal administration of the extract. In conclusion, T. catigua EAF treatment normalized oxidative stress parameters in blood and reduced the degree of acute inflammation in TNBS colitis.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/patologia , Meliaceae/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização , Administração Oral , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/sangue , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/enzimologia , Colo/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Plexo Mientérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Plexo Mientérico/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 105: 724-733, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906751

RESUMO

Damages to the enteric nervous system caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently attributed to oxidative and nitrosative stress. We aimed to investigate the effect of Resveratrol (RSV) (10 mg/kg) on oxidative and nitrosative stress in the intestinal wall and morphoquantitative aspects of the myenteric plexus of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in diabetic rats. Twenty-four rats were distributed into four groups (n = 6/group): control (C group), control treated with RSV (CR group), diabetic (D group), and diabetic treated with RSV (DR group) for 120 days. Immunohistochemical staining techniques for the general neuronal population, nitrergic and calretinin neuronal subpopulations, enteric glial cells and glial fibrillary acid protein were performed in the myenteric plexus. Furthermore, parameters of oxidative and nitrosative stress were analyzed in the intestinal wall. RSV attenuated oxidative and nitrosative stress and prevented neuronal loss and hypertrophy of the HuC/D-IR, nNOS-IR and CALR-IR neuronal subpopulations in the DR group compared with the D group (P < 0.05). In addition, RSV prevented the increase in glial fibrillary acid protein fluorescence in the DR group compared with the D (P < 0.05). These results suggest that RSV has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects in myenteric plexus in rats with experimental DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/inervação , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Plexo Mientérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Nitrosativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Estreptozocina
13.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199479, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924854

RESUMO

There are several animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus induction but the comparison between models is scarce. Food restriction generates benefits, such as reducing oxidative stress, but there are few studies on its effects on diabetes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences in physiological and biochemical parameters between diabetes models and their responses to food restriction. For this, 30 male Wistar rats were distributed in 3 groups (n = 10/group): control (C); diabetes with streptozotocin and cafeteria-style diet (DE); and diabetes with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (DN), all treated for two months (pre-food restriction period). Then, the 3 groups were subdivided into 6, generating the groups CC (control), CCR (control+food restriction), DEC (diabetic+standard diet), DER (diabetic+food restriction), DNC (diabetic+standard diet) and DNR (diabetic+food restriction), treated for an additional two months (food restriction period). The food restriction (FR) used was 50% of the average daily dietary intake of group C. Throughout the treatment, physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. At the end of the treatment, serum biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and insulin were evaluated. Both diabetic models produced hyperglycemia, polyphagia, polydipsia, insulin resistance, high fructosamine, hepatic damage and reduced insulin, although only DE presented human diabetes-like alterations, such as dyslipidemia and neuropathy symptoms. Both DEC and DNC diabetic groups presented higher levels of protein carbonyl groups associated to lower antioxidant capacity in the plasma. FR promoted improvement of glycemia in DNR, lipid profile in DER, and insulin resistance and hepatic damage in both diabetes models. FR also reduced the protein carbonyl groups of both DER and DNR diabetic groups, but the antioxidant capacity was improved only in the plasma of DER group. It is concluded that FR is beneficial for diabetes but should be used in conjunction with other therapies.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Wistar
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1864(7): 2495-2509, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653185

RESUMO

The present study was planned to improve our understanding about sex differences in the development of hepatic steatosis in cafeteria diet-induced obesity in young mice. Female (FCaf) and male (MCaf) mice fed a cafeteria diet had similar body weight gain and adiposity index, but FCaf had a more extensive steatosis than MCaf. FCaf livers exhibited a higher non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score, elevated lipid percentage area (+34%) in Sudan III staining and increased TG content (+25%) compared to MCaf. Steatosis in FCaf was not correlated with changes in the transcript levels of lipid metabolism-related genes, but a reduced VLDL release rate was observed. Signs of oxidative stress were found in FCaf livers, as elevated malondialdehyde content (+110%), reduced catalase activity (-36%) and increased Nrf2 and Hif1a mRNA expression compared to MCaf. Interestingly, fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) mRNA expression was found to be exclusively induced in MCaf, which also exhibited higher FGF21 serum levels (+416%) and hepatic protein abundance (+163%) than FCaf. Moreover, cafeteria diet increased Fgfr1, Fsp27 and Ucp1 mRNA expression in brown adipose tissue of males (MCaf), but not females (FCaf). FGF21 hepatic production by male mice seems to be part of a complex network of responses to the nutritional stress of the cafeteria diet, probably related to the unfolded protein response activation. Although aimed at the restoration of hepatic metabolic homeostasis, the branch involving Fgf21 upregulation seems to be impaired in females, rendering them incapable of reducing the hepatic lipid content and cellular oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia
15.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 70(2): 178-190, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been identified as a vital cell regulator in plants. This substance is analogous to eicosanoids and similar to that of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. In animals and in animal cells, it displayed an efficient neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action; while in tumoral strains, it demonstrates a potentially highly attractive mechanism of apoptosis induction through various cellular and molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present review was to explore two new hypotheses that explain the action of MeJA, a lipid phytohormone and its potentially anti-apoptotic mechanism for use as a therapeutic target for future treatment of Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). KEY FINDINGS: Methyl jasmonate is a new candidate for the treatment of IBDs, modulating the expression of the major classes of caspase-type protease families that selectively act on the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of the apoptotic process. Its action is based on the reduction of the expression in tumour necrosis factor tissue levels and the modulating action of reactive oxygen species production, acting only on the destruction of cells that express the diseased phenotype, and preserving cells that are not transformed. CONCLUSIONS: Methyl jasmonate may represent an alternative for the transduction processes of important signals in the cellular renewal of the intestinal mucosa.


Assuntos
Acetatos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/uso terapêutico , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Acetatos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Oxilipinas/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 10(2): 223-231, May-Aug. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-859661

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos da restrição calórica sobre a morfologia da aorta torácica em ratos envelhecidos e, a partir dessa análise, inferir sobre a capacidade dessa intervenção em refrear as alterações histológicas observáveis no transcorrer cronológico. Foram utilizados 41 ratos Wistar machos brancos divididos em 7 grupos: controles (Co) 7, 12, 18 e 23 meses e restrição calórica (Rc) 12, 18 e 23 meses. Os ratos foram sacrificados e as aortas coletadas e fixadas em formol 10%. As peças passaram pela rotina histológica, com inclusão em parafina seguida por cortes de 6 µm, os quais foram corados pela orseína-picrosirius-hematoxilina e tricrômico de Masson. A estatística foi feita pela análise de variância de um fator (ANOVA), seguida pelo teste de Tukey para nível de significância de 5%. Os resultados revelaram menor peso corporal e menor espessura íntima-média nos grupos de restrição calórica em relação aos controles. A eficácia da restrição calórica em deter as alterações do envelhecimento somente foi evidenciada até 18 meses de idade, não diferindo entre os grupos controle e de restrição calórica. Infere-se, portanto, um limite etário para os possíveis efeitos atenuadores da restrição calórica sobre as alterações da senescências na parede arterial.


The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the calorie restriction on thoracic aorta morphology in aged rats, and, from this analysis, infer the capacity of this intervention to reduce measurable histological changes in the course of time. It was used 41 white male Wistar rats that were separated into 7 groups: control (Co) 7, 12, 18 and 23 months and calorie restriction (Rc) 12, 18 and 23 months. The rats were sacrificed and their aortas were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. The aortas were prepared through the histological routine techniques, with inclusion in paraffin followed by cuts of 6 µm, which were stained with orcein-picrosirius-hematoxylin and Masson's trichrome. The statistic was made through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey´s test were employed at 5% significance. The results shown lower body weight and lower intima-media thickness in the calorie restriction group compared to control groups. The effectiveness of calorie restriction in reducing the aging changes only was observed up to 18 months, with no significant difference between the control and calorie restriction groups. Therefore, it is concluded that there is an age limit for the possible attenuating effects of the calorie restriction on changes of senescence in the arterial wall.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Aorta Torácica , Envelhecimento , Restrição Calórica
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 86: 213-220, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006746

RESUMO

The hepatotoxicity induced by APAP is caused by the excessive production of N-acetyl-para-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which, when reacting with hepatic proteins proved to cause irreversible lesions. Associated with this process, an intense inflammatory process is also evidenced, characterized by the increased cell influx and production/release of inflammatory mediators. Trans anethole, an aromatic compounds has been showed anti-inflammatory efficacy by inhibit the cellular recruitment and synthesis/releases of many proinflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2), cytokines (TNF, IL-1) and nitrico oxide (NO). The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of trans anethole on some inflammatory parameters that are involved in hepatotoxicity induced by high doses of acetaminophen. Our results demonstrate that treatment with AN at doses 125 and 250mg/kg once a day for seven days prevented the changes caused by the APAP overdose, showing less intensity in the histological changes (necrosis, size of hepatocyte area and inflammatory infiltration), and corroborating the findings of serum activities of transaminases and phosphatases and the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase. In addition, the treatment prevented the up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators such as NO, TNF, IL-1α, MIP-1α and MCP-1 and induced the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Thus, our results demonstrate a possible protective effect of trans anethole on the hepatotoxicity induced by APAP.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Anisóis/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 8175701, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965981

RESUMO

Silk sericin is a natural polymer produced by silkworm, Bombyx mori, which surrounds and keeps together two fibroin filaments in silk thread used in the cocoon. The recovery and reuse of sericin usually discarded by the textile industry not only minimizes environmental issues but also has a high scientific and commercial value. The physicochemical properties of the molecule are responsible for numerous applications in biomedicine and are influenced by the extraction method and silkworm lineage, which can lead to variations in molecular weight and amino acid concentration of sericin. The presence of highly hydrophobic amino acids and its antioxidant potential make it possible for sericin to be applied in the food and cosmetic industry. The moisturizing power allows indications as a therapeutic agent for wound healing, stimulating cell proliferation, protection against ultraviolet radiation, and formulating creams and shampoos. The antioxidant activity associated with low digestibility of sericin that expands the application in the medical field, such as antitumour, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent, anticoagulant, acts in colon health, improving constipation and protects the body from obesity through improved plasma lipid profile. In addition, the properties of sericin allow its application as a culture medium and cryopreservation, in tissue engineering and for drug delivery, demonstrating its effective use, as an important biomaterial.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Bombyx/química , Sericinas/metabolismo , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Sericinas/biossíntese , Engenharia Tecidual
19.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30745, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27561682

RESUMO

We tested whether treatment with a cholinergic antagonist could reduce insulin levels in early postnatal life and attenuate metabolic dysfunctions induced by early overfeeding in adult male rats. Wistar rats raised in small litters (SLs, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NLs, 9 pups/dam) were used in models of early overfeeding and normal feeding, respectively. During the first 12 days of lactation, animals in the SL and NL groups received scopolamine butylbromide (B), while the controls received saline (S) injections. The drug treatment decreased insulin levels in pups from both groups, and as adults, these animals showed improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, vagus nerve activity, fat tissue accretion, insulinemia, leptinemia, body weight gain and food intake. Low glucose and cholinergic insulinotropic effects were observed in pancreatic islets from both groups. Low protein expression was observed for the muscarinic M3 acetylcholine receptor subtype (M3mAChR), although M2mAChR subtype expression was increased in SL-B islets. In addition, beta-cell density was reduced in drug-treated rats. These results indicate that early postnatal scopolamine butylbromide treatment inhibits early overfeeding-induced metabolic dysfunctions in adult rats, which might be caused by insulin decreases during lactation, associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and expression of M3mAChR in pancreatic islets.


Assuntos
Brometo de Butilescopolamônio/farmacologia , Doenças Metabólicas , Obesidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Endocrinology ; 157(5): 1799-812, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007071

RESUMO

Metabolic malprogramming has been associated with low birth weight; however, the interplay between insulin secretion disruption and adrenal function upon lipid metabolism is unclear in adult offspring from protein-malnourished mothers during the last third of gestation. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of a maternal low-protein diet during the last third of pregnancy on adult offspring metabolism, including pancreatic islet function and morphophysiological aspects of the liver, adrenal gland, white adipose tissue, and pancreas. Virgin female Wistar rats (age 70 d) were mated and fed a protein-restricted diet (4%, intrauterine protein restricted [IUPR]) from day 14 of pregnancy until delivery, whereas control dams were fed a 20.5% protein diet. At age 91 d, their body composition, glucose-insulin homeostasis, ACTH, corticosterone, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, pancreatic islet function and liver, adrenal gland, and pancreas morphology were assessed. The birth weights of the IUPR rats were 20% lower than the control rats (P < .001). Adult IUPR rats were heavier, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic, and hypercorticosteronemic (P < .05) with higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, ACTH, and insulin sensitivity index levels (P < .01). The insulinotropic action of glucose and acetylcholine as well as muscarinic and adrenergic receptor function were impaired in the IUPR rats (P < .05). Maternal undernutrition during the last third of gestation disrupts the pancreatic islet insulinotropic response and induces obesity-associated complications. Such alterations lead to a high risk of metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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