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1.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269365

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. 1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. 2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. 7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6×10 -3 ) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5×10 -3 ). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

2.
Med (N Y) ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283203

RESUMO

Background: Small studies have correlated hypertension with pneumonia risk; whether this is recapitulated in larger prospective studies, and represents a causal association, is unclear. Methods: We estimated the risk for prevalent hypertension with incident respiratory diseases over mean follow-up of 8 years among 377,143 British participants in the UK Biobank. Mendelian randomization of blood pressure on pneumonia was implemented using 75 independent, genome-wide significant variants associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures among 299,024 individuals not in the UK Biobank. Secondary analyses with pulmonary function tests were performed. Findings: In total, 107,310 participants (30%) had hypertension at UK Biobank enrollment, and 9,969 (3%) developed pneumonia during follow-up. Prevalent hypertension was independently associated with increased risk for incident pneumonia (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.29-1.43; p < 0.001), as well as other incident respiratory diseases. Genetic predisposition to a 5 mm Hg increase in blood pressure was associated with increased risk for incident pneumonia for systolic blood pressure (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04-1.13; p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20; p = 0.005). Additionally, consistent with epidemiologic associations, increased blood pressure genetic risk was significantly associated with reduced performance on pulmonary function tests (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that elevated blood pressure increases risk for pneumonia. Maintaining adequate blood pressure control, in addition to other measures, may reduce risk for pneumonia. Funding: S.M.Z. (1F30HL149180-01), M.H. (T32HL094301-07), and P.N. (R01HL1427, R01HL148565, and R01HL148050) are supported by the National Institutes of Health. J.P. is supported by the John S. LaDue Memorial Fellowship.

3.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(12): e650-e657, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability, or the variation in the time interval between consecutive heart beats, is a non-invasive dynamic metric of the autonomic nervous system and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular death. Consumer wrist-worn tracking devices using photoplethysmography, such as Fitbit, now provide the unique potential of continuously measuring surrogates of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity through the analysis of interbeat intervals. We aimed to leverage wrist-worn trackers to derive and describe diverse measures of cardiac autonomic function among Fitbit device users. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we collected interbeat interval data that are sent to a central database from Fitbit devices during a randomly selected 24 h period. Age, sex, body-mass index, and steps per day in the 90 days preceding the measurement were extracted. Interbeat interval data were cleaned and heart rate variability features were computed. We analysed heart rate variability metrics across the time (measured via the root mean square of successive RR interval differences [RMSSD] and SD of the RR interval [SDRR]), frequency (measured by high-frequency and low-frequency power), and graphical (measured by Poincare plots) domains. We considered 5 min windows for the time and frequency domain metrics and 60 min measurements for graphical domain metrics. Data from participants were analysed to establish the correlation between heart rate variability metrics and age, sex, time of day, and physical activity. We also determined benchmarks for heart rate variability (HRV) metrics among the users. FINDINGS: We included data from 8 203 261 Fitbit users, collected on Sept 1, 2018. HRV metrics decrease with age, and parasympathetic function declines faster than sympathetic function. We observe a strong diurnal variation in the heart rate variability. SDRR, low-frequency power, and Poincare S2 show a significant variation with sex, whereas such a difference is not seen with RMSSD, high-frequency power, and Poincare S1. For males, when measured from 0600 h to 0700 h, the mean low-frequency power decreased by a factor of 66·5% and high-frequency power decreased by a factor of 82·0% from the age of 20 years to 60 years. For females, the equivalent factors were 69·3% and 80·9%, respectively. Comparing low-frequency power between males and females at the ages of 40-41 years, measured from 0600 h to 0700 h, we found excess power in males, with a Cohen's d effect size of 0·33. For high-frequency power, the equivalent effect size was -0·04. Increased daily physical activity, across age and sex, was highly correlated with improvement in diverse measures of heart rate variability in a dose-dependent manner. We provide benchmark tables for RMSSD, SDRR, high and low frequency powers, and Poincare S1 and S2, separately for different ages and sex and computed at two times of the day. INTERPRETATION: Diverse metrics of cardiac autonomic health can be derived from wrist-worn trackers. Empirical distributions of heart rate variability can potentially be used as a framework for individual-level interpretation. Increased physical activity might yield improvement in heart rate variability and requires prospective trials for confirmation. FUNDING: Fitbit.

4.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(6): 876-889.e12, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232663

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection has led to a global health crisis, and yet our understanding of the disease and potential treatment options remains limited. The infection occurs through binding of the virus with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell membrane. Here, we established a screening strategy to identify drugs that reduce ACE2 levels in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiac cells and lung organoids. Target analysis of hit compounds revealed androgen signaling as a key modulator of ACE2 levels. Treatment with antiandrogenic drugs reduced ACE2 expression and protected hESC-derived lung organoids against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, clinical data on COVID-19 patients demonstrated that prostate diseases, which are linked to elevated androgen, are significant risk factors and that genetic variants that increase androgen levels are associated with higher disease severity. These findings offer insights on the mechanism of disproportionate disease susceptibility in men and identify antiandrogenic drugs as candidate therapeutics for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Gravidade do Paciente , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Células Vero
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 protects against coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS). The impact on other diseases remains less well characterized. METHODS: We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for PCSK9 using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at or near the PCSK9 locus known to impact lower LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C): rs11583680, rs11591147, rs2479409, and rs11206510. We then used our GRS to calculate weighted odds ratios reflecting the impact of a genetically determined 10 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C on several pre-specified phenotypes including CAD, IS, peripheral artery disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), type 2 diabetes, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. Finally, we used our weighted GRS to perform a phenome-wide association study. RESULTS: Genetic and electronic health record data that passed quality control was available in 312,097 individuals, (227,490 White participants, 58,907 Black participants, and 25,700 Hispanic participants). PCSK9 mediated reduction in LDL-C was associated with a reduced risk of CAD and AAA in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (CAD OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.80-0.87], p = 6.0 x 10-21; AAA OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.68-0.86], p = 2.9 x 10-06). Significant protective effects were noted for PAD in White individuals (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.97], p = 2.3 x 10-04) but not in other genetic ancestries. Genetically reduced PCSK9 function associated with a reduced risk of dementia in trans-ethnic meta-analysis (OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.93], p = 5.0 x 10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically reduced PCSK9 function results in a reduction in risk of several important extra-coronary atherosclerotic phenotypes in addition to known effects on CAD and IS, including PAD and AAA. We also highlight a novel reduction in risk of dementia, supporting a well-recognized vascular component to cognitive impairment and an opportunity for therapeutic repositioning.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
6.
Res Sq ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236004

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood1,2. Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality3-11. Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.

7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236019

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for infectious diseases, but the mechanisms linking the two are incompletely understood 1,2 . Age-related mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) detected from blood-derived DNA genotyping, are structural somatic variants associated with aberrant leukocyte cell counts, hematological malignancy, and mortality 3-11 . Whether mCAs represent independent risk factors for infection is unknown. Here we use genome-wide genotyping of blood DNA to show that mCAs predispose to diverse infectious diseases. We analyzed mCAs from 767,891 individuals without hematological cancer at DNA acquisition across four countries. Expanded mCA (cell fraction >10%) prevalence approached 4% by 60 years of age and was associated with diverse incident infections, including sepsis, pneumonia, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. A genome-wide association study of expanded mCAs identified 63 significant loci. Germline genetic alleles associated with expanded mCAs were enriched at transcriptional regulatory sites for immune cells. Our results link mCAs with impaired immunity and predisposition to infections. Furthermore, these findings may also have important implications for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in prioritizing individual preventive strategies and evaluating immunization responses.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161765

RESUMO

Background: Premature menopause is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women, but mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related expansion of hematopoietic cells with leukemogenic mutations without detectable malignancy, is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Whether premature menopause is associated with CHIP is unknown. Methods: We included postmenopausal women from the UK Biobank (N=11,495) aged 40-70 years with whole exome sequences and from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI, N=8,111) aged 50-79 years with whole genome sequences. Premature menopause was defined as natural or surgical menopause occurring before age 40 years. Co-primary outcomes were the presence of (1) any CHIP and (2) CHIP with variant allele frequency (VAF) >0.1. Logistic regression tested the association of premature menopause with CHIP, adjusted for age, race, the first 10 principal components of ancestry, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hormone therapy use. Secondary analyses considered natural vs. surgical premature menopause and gene-specific CHIP subtypes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models tested the association between CHIP and incident coronary artery disease (CAD). Results: The sample included 19,606 women, including 418 (2.1%) with natural premature menopause and 887 (4.5%) with surgical premature menopause. Across cohorts, CHIP prevalence in postmenopausal women with vs. without a history of premature menopause was 8.8% vs. 5.5% (P<0.001), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, premature menopause was independently associated with CHIP (all CHIP: OR 1.36, 95% 1.10-1.68, P=0.004; CHIP with VAF >0.1: OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.79, P=0.007). Associations were larger for natural premature menopause (all CHIP: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23-2.44, P=0.001; CHIP with VAF >0.1: OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.30-2.80, P<0.001) but smaller and non-significant for surgical premature menopause. In gene-specific analyses, only DNMT3A CHIP was significantly associated with premature menopause. Among postmenopausal middle-aged women, CHIP was independently associated with incident coronary artery disease (HR associated with all CHIP: 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.73, P=0.012; HR associated with CHIP with VAF >0.1: 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.94, P=0.005). Conclusions: Premature menopause, especially natural premature menopause, is independently associated with CHIP among postmenopausal women. Natural premature menopause may serve as a risk signal for predilection to develop CHIP and CHIP-associated cardiovascular disease.

9.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173934

RESUMO

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to inflammation and immune dysregulation. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related acquisition and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells due to leukemogenic driver mutations, increases risk for both hematologic malignancy and coronary artery disease (CAD). Since increased inflammation is hypothesized to be both a cause and consequence of CHIP, we hypothesized that PLWH have a greater prevalence of CHIP. We searched for CHIP in multi-ethnic cases from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS, n=600) and controls from the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities study (ARIC, n=8,111) from blood DNA-derived exome sequences. We observed that HIV is associated with increased CHIP prevalence, both in the whole study population and in a subset of 230 cases and 1002 matched controls selected by propensity matching to control for demographic imbalances (SHCS 7%, ARIC 3%, p=0.005). Additionally, unlike in ARIC, ASXL1 was the most commonly implicated mutated CHIP gene. We propose that CHIP may be one mechanism through which PLWH are at increased risk for CAD. Larger prospective studies should evaluate the hypothesis that CHIP contributes to the excess cardiovascular risk in PLWH.

10.
Nature ; 586(7831): 769-775, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057200

RESUMO

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have been identified, and the underlying biological mechanisms that lead to the acquisition of MPNs remain unclear. Here, by conducting a large-scale genome-wide association study (3,797 cases and 1,152,977 controls), we identify 17 MPN risk loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 7 of which have not been previously reported. We find that there is a shared genetic architecture between MPN risk and several haematopoietic traits from distinct lineages; that there is an enrichment for MPN risk variants within accessible chromatin of HSCs; and that increased MPN risk is associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes and other clonal haematopoietic states-collectively suggesting that MPN risk is associated with the function and self-renewal of HSCs. We use gene mapping to identify modulators of HSC biology linked to MPN risk, and show through targeted variant-to-function assays that CHEK2 and GFI1B have roles in altering the function of HSCs to confer disease risk. Overall, our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for inherited MPN risk through the modulation of HSC function.

11.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021622

RESUMO

Importance: Lipoprotein(a) is a highly heritable biomarker independently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It is unclear whether measured lipoprotein(a) or genetic factors associated with lipoprotein(a) can provide comparable or additional prognostic information for primary prevention. Objective: To determine whether a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 43 variants at the LPA gene, which encodes apolipoprotein(a), has clinical utility in assessing ASCVD risk compared with and in addition to lipoprotein(a) measurement. Design, Setting, and Participants: The UK Biobank is a prospective observational study of approximately 500 000 volunteers aged 40 to 69 years who were recruited from 22 sites across the United Kingdom between 2006 and 2010. Using externally derived weights, an LPA GRS was calculated for 374 099 unrelated individuals with array-derived genotypes and lipoprotein(a) measures. Data were analyzed from April 2020 to March 2020. Exposures: Measured lipoprotein(a) and LPA GRS. Main Outcomes and Measures: We estimated the associations between measured lipoprotein(a) and LPA GRS with the incidence of ASCVD (peripheral arterial disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular mortality) using Cox proportional hazards models. To determine the utility of using measured lipoprotein(a) and LPA GRS as risk enhancers for ASCVD, we assessed the potential improvement in ASCVD risk discrimination by QRISK3 and Pooled Cohort Equations among individuals with borderline to intermediate risk (n = 113 703 and 144 350, respectively). Results: The mean age of the overall study population was 57.6 years, and 204 355 individuals were female (54.6%). During a median follow-up of 11.1 years (interquartile range, 1.4 years), 15 444 individuals developed an incident ASCVD event (5.1%). The LPA GRS explained approximately 60% of the variation in measured lipoprotein(a) for White/European individuals. Independently, both lipoprotein(a) and LPA GRS were associated with incident, composite ASCVD (hazard ratio per 120 nmol/L increase, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.23-1.28 vs hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.26-1.33; P < .001). The association between LPA GRS and ASCVD was substantially attenuated after adjusting for measured lipoprotein(a). Adding measured lipoprotein(a) or LPA GRS to QRISK3 provided modest improvements to the risk discrimination of incident ASCVD events (area under the receiver operating curve, 0.640; 95% CI, 0.633-0.647 vs 0.642; 95% CI, 0.635-0.649 for both; P = .005 and P = .01, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: When indicated, cardiovascular risk assessment with lipoprotein(a) at middle-age may include direct measurement or an LPA GRS.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 417-423, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial sitosterolemia is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by hyperabsorption and decreased biliary excretion of dietary sterols. Affected individuals typically have complete genetic deficiency-homozygous loss-of-function (LoF) variants-in the ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes and have substantially elevated plasma sitosterol and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The impact of partial genetic deficiency of ABCG5 or ABCG8-as occurs in heterozygous carriers of LoF variants-on LDL-C and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has remained uncertain. METHODS: We first recruited 9 sitosterolemia families, identified causative LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8, and evaluated the associations of these ABCG5 or ABCG8 LoF variants with plasma phytosterols and lipid levels. We next assessed for LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 in CAD cases (n=29 321) versus controls (n=357 326). We tested the association of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 or ABCG8 with blood lipids and risk for CAD. Rare LoF variants were defined as protein-truncating variants with minor allele frequency <0.1% in ABCG5 or ABCG8. RESULTS: In sitosterolemia families, 7 pedigrees harbored causative LoF variants in ABCG5 and 2 pedigrees in ABCG8. Homozygous LoF variants in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 led to marked elevations in sitosterol and LDL-C. Of those sitosterolemia families, heterozygous carriers of ABCG5 LoF variants exhibited increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels compared with noncarriers. Within large-scale CAD case-control cohorts, prevalence of rare LoF variants in ABCG5 and in ABCG8 was ≈0.1% each. ABCG5 heterozygous LoF variant carriers had significantly elevated LDL-C levels (25 mg/dL [95% CI, 14-35]; P=1.1×10-6) and were at 2-fold increased risk of CAD (odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.27-3.35]; P=0.004). By contrast, ABCG8 heterozygous LoF carrier status was not associated with increased LDL-C or risk of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Although familial sitosterolemia is traditionally considered as a recessive disorder, we observed that heterozygous carriers of an LoF variant in ABCG5 had significantly increased sitosterol and LDL-C levels and a 2-fold increase in risk of CAD.

14.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

16.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(11): 1209-1215, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893370

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is independently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Elevated Lp(a) affects approximately one in five individuals and meaningfully contributes to the residual cardiovascular risk in individuals with otherwise well-controlled risk factors. With targeted therapies in the therapeutic pipeline, there is a need to further characterize the clinical phenotypes and outcomes of individuals with elevated levels of this unique biomarker. The Mass General Brigham Lp(a) Registry will be built from the longitudinal electronic health record of two large academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts, to develop a detailed cohort of patients who have had their Lp(a) measured. In combination with structured data sources, clinical documentation will be analyzed using natural language processing techniques to accurately characterize baseline characteristics. Important outcome measures including all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events will be available for analysis. Approximately 30 000 patients who have had their Lp(a) tested within the Mass General Brigham system from January 2000 to July 2019 will be included in the registry. This large Lp(a) cohort will provide meaningful observational data regarding the differential risk associated with Lp(a) values and cardiovascular disease. With a new frontier of targeted Lp(a) therapies on the horizon, the Mass General Brigham Lp(a) Registry will help provide a deeper understanding of Lp(a)'s role in long term cardiovascular outcomes.

17.
Science ; 369(6509)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913073

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants are abundant across the human genome, and identifying their function and phenotypic impact is a major challenge. Measuring aberrant gene expression has aided in identifying functional, large-effect rare variants (RVs). Here, we expanded detection of genetically driven transcriptome abnormalities by analyzing gene expression, allele-specific expression, and alternative splicing from multitissue RNA-sequencing data, and demonstrate that each signal informs unique classes of RVs. We developed Watershed, a probabilistic model that integrates multiple genomic and transcriptomic signals to predict variant function, validated these predictions in additional cohorts and through experimental assays, and used them to assess RVs in the UK Biobank, the Million Veterans Program, and the Jackson Heart Study. Our results link thousands of RVs to diverse molecular effects and provide evidence to associate RVs affecting the transcriptome with human traits.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Herança Multifatorial , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos
18.
Am Heart J ; 229: 138-143, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827459

RESUMO

The present study included 14,550 postmenopausal female participants in the UK Biobank who completed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Earlier age at menopause was significantly and independently associated with smaller left ventricular end-diastolic volume and smaller stroke volume, a pattern suggesting acceleration of previously described age-related left ventricular remodeling. These findings may have implications for understanding mechanisms of heart failure, specifically heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, among women with early menopause.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração , Menopausa Precoce/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100504, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838244

RESUMO

Background: Despite over 4 million cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States, limited data exist including socioeconomic background and post-discharge outcomes for patients hospitalized with this disease. Methods: In this case series, we identified patients with COVID-19 admitted to 3 Partners Healthcare hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts between March 7th, 2020, and March 30th, 2020. Patient characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes were determined. Findings: A total of 247 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified; the median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-76 years), 58% were men, 30% of Hispanic ethnicity, 21% enrolled in Medicaid, and 12% dual-enrolled Medicare/Medicaid. The median estimated household income was $66,701 [IQR: $50,336-$86,601]. Most patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (72%), and statins (76%; newly initiated in 34%). During their admission, 103 patients (42%) required intensive care. At the end of the data collection period (June 24, 2020), 213 patients (86.2%) were discharged alive, 2 patients (0.8%) remain admitted, and 32 patients (13%) have died. Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids. Over a median post-discharge follow-up of 80 days (IQR, 68-84), 22 patients (10.3%) were readmitted. Interpretation: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are frequently of vulnerable socioeconomic status and often require intensive care. Patients who survive COVID-19 hospitalization have substantial need for post-acute services.

20.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1506-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829667

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have been associated with heart failure (HF). It is unknown whether concurrent pregnancy complications (small-for-gestational-age or preterm delivery) or recurrent HDP modify HDP-associated HF risk. In this cohort study, we included Norwegian women with a first birth between 1980 and 2004. Follow-up occurred through 2009. Cox models examined gestational hypertension and preeclampsia in the first pregnancy as predictors of a composite of HF-related hospitalization or HF-related death, with assessment of effect modification by concurrent small-for-gestational-age or preterm delivery. Additional models were stratified by final parity (1 versus ≥2 births) and tested associations with recurrent HDP. Among 508 422 women, 565 experienced incident HF over a median 11.8 years of follow-up. After multivariable adjustment, gestational hypertension in the first birth was not significantly associated with HF (hazard ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 0.84-2.35], P=0.19), whereas preeclampsia was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.00 (95% CI, 1.50-2.68, P<0.001). Among women with HDP, risks were not modified by concurrent small-for-gestational-age or preterm delivery (Pinteraction=0.42). Largest hazards of HF were observed in women whose only lifetime birth was complicated by preeclampsia and women with recurrent preeclampsia. HF risks were similar after excluding women with coronary artery disease. In summary, women with preeclampsia, especially those with one lifetime birth and those with recurrent preeclampsia, experienced increased HF risk compared to women without HDP. Further research is needed to clarify causal mechanisms.

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