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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 577, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022435

RESUMO

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to inflammation and immune dysregulation. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related acquisition and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells due to leukemogenic driver mutations, increases risk for both hematologic malignancy and coronary artery disease (CAD). Since increased inflammation is hypothesized to be both a cause and consequence of CHIP, we hypothesized that PLWH have a greater prevalence of CHIP. We searched for CHIP in multi-ethnic cases from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS, n = 600) and controls from the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities study (ARIC, n = 8111) from blood DNA-derived exome sequences. We observed that HIV is associated with a twofold increase in CHIP prevalence, both in the whole study population and in a subset of 230 cases and 1002 matched controls selected by propensity matching to control for demographic imbalances (SHCS 7%, ARIC 3%, p = 0.005). We also observed that ASXL1 is the most commonly mutated CHIP-associated gene in PLWH. Our results suggest that CHIP may contribute to the excess cardiovascular risk observed in PLWH.

2.
Genet Med ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disparities in access to genetics services are well-documented. Family health history is routinely used to determine whether patients should be screened for heritable conditions. We sought to explore variation in levels of self-rated family health history knowledge as a possible contributer to this disparity. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the All of Us Research Program. We compared the characteristics of participants who reported "None," "Some", and "A lot" of family health history knowledge using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Self-rated family health history data were available for 116,799 participants. A minority of survey participants (37%) endorsed "A lot" of knowledge about their family health history (n = 43,661). Most participants (60%) endorsed "Some" family health history knowledge (n = 69,914) and 3% (n = 3224) endorsed "None." In adjusted analyses, those who indicated "Some" family health history knowledge or "None" were more likely to be assigned male sex at birth, identify as possible gender and sexual minorities, have a self-reported race other than White, have a lower household annual income (<$25,000), or report lower educational attainment (

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative gene therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. The occurrence of myeloid malignancies in these trials has prompted safety concerns. Individuals with SCD are predisposed to myeloid malignancies, but the underlying causes remain undefined. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a pre-malignant condition that also confers significant predisposition to myeloid cancers. While it has been speculated that CH may play a role in SCD-associated cancer predisposition, limited data addressing this issue have been reported. METHODS: Here, we leveraged 74,190 whole genome sequences to robustly study CH in SCD. Somatic mutation calling methods were used to assess CH in all samples and comparisons between individuals with and without SCD were performed. RESULTS: While we had sufficient power to detect a greater than 2-fold increased rate of CH, we found no detectable variation in rate or clone properties between individuals affected by SCD and controls. The rate of CH in individuals with SCD was unaltered by hydroxyurea use. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an increased risk for acquiring detectable CH in SCD, at least as measured by whole genome sequencing. These results should help guide ongoing efforts and further studies that seek to better define the risk factors underlying myeloid malignancy predisposition in SCD and help ensure that curative therapies can be more safely applied. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the New York Stem Cell Foundation and National Institutes of Health. The funders had no role in study design or reporting.

4.
Blood ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855941

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with age and smoking, but other determinants of the disease are incompletely understood. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common, age-related state in which somatic mutations in clonal blood populations induce aberrant inflammatory responses. Patients with CHIP have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, but the association with COPD remains unclear. We analyzed whole-genome and exome sequencing data to detect CHIP in 48,835 subjects, of whom 8,444 had moderate-to-very-severe COPD, from four separate cohorts with COPD phenotyping and smoking history. We measured emphysema in murine models in which Tet2 was deleted in hematopoietic cells. In COPDGene, individuals with CHIP had a risk of moderate-to-severe and severe or very severe COPD 1.6 and 2.2 times greater than non-carriers, respectively (adjusted 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.1 to 2.2 and 1.5 to 3.2). These findings were consistent observed in three additional cohorts and meta-analyses of all subjects. CHIP was also associated with decreased FEV1% predicted in COPDGene (mean between group difference -5.7%; adjusted 95% CI, -8.8 to -2.6), a finding replicated in additional cohorts. Smoke exposure was associated with a small but significant increased risk of having CHIP (OR 1.03 per ten pack-years, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) in the meta-analysis of all subjects. Inactivation of Tet2 in mouse hematopoietic cells exacerbated emphysema development and inflammation in cigarette smoke exposure models. Somatic mutations in blood cells are associated with the development and severity of COPD, independent of age and cumulative smoke exposure.

5.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. IL-6 signaling perturbation through IL-6 or IL-6R blockade may have potential benefit on cardiovascular risk. It is unknown whether targeting either IL-6 or IL-6 receptor may result in similar effects on CVD and adverse events. We compared the anticipated effects of targeting IL-6 and IL-6 receptor on cardiometabolic risk and potential side effects. METHODS: We constructed four instruments: two main instruments with genetic variants in the IL6 and IL6R loci weighted for their association with CRP, and two after firstly filtering variants for their association with IL-6 or IL-6R expression. Analyses were performed for coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure, type 2 diabetes (T2D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), infection endpoints, and quantitative hematological, metabolic, and anthropometric parameters. RESULTS: A 1 mg/L lower CRP by the IL6 instrument was associated with lower CAD (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77;0.96), AF, and T2D risk. A 1mg/L lower CRP by the IL6R instrument was associated with lower CAD (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86;0.95), any stroke and ischemic stroke, AF, RA risk and higher pneumonia risk. The eQTL filtered results were in concordance with the main results, but with wider confidence intervals. CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 signalling perturbation by either IL6 or IL6R genetic instruments is associated with a similar risk reduction for multiple cardiometabolic diseases, suggesting that both IL-6 and IL-6R are potential therapeutic targets to lower CVD. Moreover, IL-6 rather than IL-6R inhibition might have a more favorable pneumonia risk.

7.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121037388, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a novel age-related risk factor for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The association of CHIP with risk of incident ischemic stroke was reported previously in an exploratory analysis including a small number of incident stroke cases without replication and lack of stroke subphenotyping. The purpose of this study was to discover whether CHIP is a risk factor for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We utilized plasma genome sequence data of blood DNA to identify CHIP in 78 752 individuals from 8 prospective cohorts and biobanks. We then assessed the association of CHIP and commonly mutated individual CHIP driver genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1) with any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: CHIP was associated with an increased risk of total stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.27]; P=0.01) after adjustment for age, sex, and race. We observed associations with CHIP with risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.01-1.51]; P=0.04) and with small vessel ischemic stroke subtypes. In gene-specific association results, TET2 showed the strongest association with total stroke and ischemic stroke, whereas DMNT3A and TET2 were each associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: CHIP is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly with hemorrhagic and small vessel ischemic stroke. Future studies clarifying the relationship between CHIP and subtypes of stroke are needed.

8.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743558

RESUMO

Background: The microvasculature, the smallest blood vessels in the body, has key roles in maintenance of organ health as well as tumorigenesis. The retinal fundus is a window for human in vivo non-invasive assessment of the microvasculature. Large-scale complementary machine learning-based assessment of the retinal vasculature with phenome-wide and genome-wide analyses may yield new insights into human health and disease. Methods: We utilized 97,895 retinal fundus images from 54,813 UK Biobank participants. Using convolutional neural networks to segment the retinal microvasculature, we calculated fractal dimension (FD) as a measure of vascular branching complexity, and vascular density. We associated these indices with 1,866 incident ICD-based conditions (median 10y follow-up) and 88 quantitative traits, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and ethnicity. Results: Low retinal vascular FD and density were significantly associated with higher risks for incident mortality, hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, anemia, and multiple ocular conditions, as well as corresponding quantitative traits. Genome-wide association of vascular FD and density identified 7 and 13 novel loci respectively, which were enriched for pathways linked to angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF, PDGFR, angiopoietin, and WNT signaling pathways) and inflammation (e.g., interleukin, cytokine signaling). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the retinal vasculature may serve as a biomarker for future cardiometabolic and ocular disease and provide insights on genes and biological pathways influencing microvascular indices. Moreover, such a framework highlights how deep learning of images can quantify an interpretable phenotype for integration with electronic health records, biomarker, and genetic data to inform risk prediction and risk modification.

9.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811547

RESUMO

Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in the discovery of alleles contributing to the risk of coronary artery disease. In addition to providing causal insights into disease, these endeavours have yielded and enabled the refinement of polygenic risk scores. These scores can be used to predict incident coronary artery disease in multiple cohorts and indicate the clinical response to some preventive therapies in post hoc analyses of clinical trials. These observations and the widespread ability to calculate polygenic risk scores from direct-to-consumer and health-care-associated biobanks have raised many questions about responsible clinical adoption. In this Review, we describe technical and downstream considerations for the derivation and validation of polygenic risk scores and current evidence for their efficacy and safety. We discuss the implementation of these scores in clinical medicine for uses including risk prediction and screening algorithms for coronary artery disease, prioritization of patient subgroups that are likely to derive benefit from treatment, and efficient prospective clinical trial designs.

10.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LNK/SH2B3 inhibits JAK/STAT signaling by hematopoietic cytokine receptors. GWAS have shown association of a common SNP in LNK (R262W, T allele) with neutrophilia, thrombocytosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). We have shown that LNK(TT) reduces LNK function and that LNK deficient mice display prominent platelet-neutrophil aggregates, accelerated atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Platelet-neutrophil interactions can promote neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. The goals of this study were to assess the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in atherosclerosis and thrombosis in mice with hematopoietic Lnk deficiency. METHODS: We bred mice with combined deficiency of Lnk and the NETosis-essential enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase4 (PAD4) and transplanted their bone marrow into Ldlr-/- mice. We evaluated the role of LNK in atherothrombosis in humans and mice bearing a gain of function variant in JAK2 (JAK2V617F). RESULTS: Lnk deficient mice displayed accelerated carotid artery thrombosis with prominent NETosis that was completely reversed by PAD4 deficiency. Thrombin-activated Lnk-/-platelets promoted increased NETosis when incubated with Lnk-/- neutrophils compared to WT platelets or WT neutrophils. This involved increased surface exposure and release of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) from Lnk-/- platelets, as well as increased priming and response of Lnk-/- neutrophils to OxPL. To counteract the effects of OxPL, we introduced a transgene expressing the single-chain variable fragment of E06 (E06-scFv). E06-scFv reversed accelerated NETosis, atherosclerosis and thrombosis in Lnk-/- mice. We also showed increased NETosis when human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived LNK(TT) neutrophils were incubated with LNK(TT) platelet/megakaryocytes, but not in isogenic LNK(CC) controls, confirming human relevance. Using data from UK Biobank we found that individuals with the JAK2VF mutation only showed increased CAD when also carrying the LNK R262W allele. Mice with hematopoietic Lnk+/- and Jak2VF clonal hematopoiesis, showed accelerated arterial thrombosis but not atherosclerosis compared to Jak2VFLnk+/+ controls. CONCLUSIONS: Hematopoietic Lnk deficiency promotes NETosis and arterial thrombosis in an OxPL-dependent fashion. LNK(R262W) reduces LNK function in human platelets and neutrophils promoting NETosis, and increases CAD risk in humans carrying JAK2VF mutations. Therapies targeting OxPL may be beneficial for CAD in genetically defined human populations.

12.
JAMA ; 326(20): 2078-2079, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812868
13.
Circulation ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

Background: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. Methods: Proteomic profiling of 1,301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan®). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥ 5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink®) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study. Results: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8 × 10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß = 0.61±0.05, p-value = 3.27 × 10-30) and MMP-3 (ß = -0.60±0.05, p = 1.67 × 10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with nine proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1 associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß = 0.34±0.04, p = 1.34 × 10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community dwelling individuals without heart failure. Conclusions: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation and myocardial function.

14.
J Exp Med ; 218(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698806

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, occurring in close proximity to hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. Recurrent somatic mutations that lead to an expanded population of mutant blood cells is termed clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Analyzing exome sequencing data from the UK Biobank, we found CHIP to be associated with increased incident osteoporosis diagnoses and decreased bone mineral density. In murine models, hematopoietic-specific mutations in Dnmt3a, the most commonly mutated gene in CHIP, decreased bone mass via increased osteoclastogenesis. Dnmt3a-/- demethylation opened chromatin and altered activity of inflammatory transcription factors. Bone loss was driven by proinflammatory cytokines, including Irf3-NF-κB-mediated IL-20 expression from Dnmt3a mutant macrophages. Increased osteoclastogenesis due to the Dnmt3a mutations was ameliorated by alendronate or IL-20 neutralization. These results demonstrate a novel source of osteoporosis-inducing inflammation.

15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705020

RESUMO

Importance: A growing body of evidence suggests that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs), including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes (GD), preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction, are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Adverse pregnancy outcomes may therefore represent an opportunity to intervene to prevent or delay onset of CVD. The objective of this review was to summarize the current evidence for targeted postpartum interventions and strategies to reduce CVD risk in women with a history of APOs. Observations: A search of PubMed and Ovid for English-language randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, descriptive studies, and guidelines published from January 1, 2000, to April 30, 2021, was performed. Four broad categories of interventions were identified: transitional clinics, lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy, and patient and clinician education. Observational studies suggest that postpartum transitional clinics identify women who are at elevated risk for CVD and may aid in the transition to longitudinal primary care. Lifestyle interventions to increase physical activity and improve diet quality may help reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in women with prior GD; less is known about women with other prior APOs. Metformin hydrochloride may prevent development of type 2 diabetes in women with prior GD. Evidence is lacking in regard to specific pharmacotherapies after other APOs. Cardiovascular guidelines endorse using a history of APOs to refine CVD risk assessment and guide statin prescription for primary prevention in women with intermediate calculated 10-year CVD risk. Research suggests a low level of awareness of the link between APOs and CVD among both patients and clinicians. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that transitional clinics, lifestyle intervention, targeted pharmacotherapy, and clinician and patient education represent promising strategies for improving postpartum maternal cardiometabolic health in women with APOs; further research is needed to develop and rigorously evaluate these interventions. Future efforts should focus on strategies to increase maternal postpartum follow-up, improve accessibility to interventions across diverse racial and cultural groups, expand awareness of sex-specific CVD risk factors, and define evidence-based precision prevention strategies for this high-risk population.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003399, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corin is a protease expressed in cardiomyocytes that plays a key role in salt handling and intravascular volume homeostasis via activation of natriuretic peptides. It is unknown if Corin loss-of-function (LOF) is causally associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We analyzed all coding CORIN variants in an Italian case-control study of CAD. We functionally tested all 64 rare missense mutations in Western Blot and Mass Spectroscopy assays for proatrial natriuretic peptide cleavage. An expanded rare variant association analysis for Corin LOF mutations was conducted in whole exome sequencing data from 37 799 CAD cases and 212 184 controls. RESULTS: We observed LOF variants in CORIN in 8 of 1803 (0.4%) CAD cases versus 0 of 1725 controls (P, 0.007). Of 64 rare missense variants profiled, 21 (33%) demonstrated <30% of wild-type activity and were deemed damaging in the 2 functional assays for Corin activity. In a rare variant association study that aggregated rare LOF and functionally validated damaging missense variants from the Italian study, we observed no association with CAD-21 of 1803 CAD cases versus 12 of 1725 controls with adjusted odds ratio of 1.61 ([95% CI, 0.79-3.29]; P=0.17). In the expanded sequencing dataset, there was no relationship between rare LOF variants with CAD was also observed (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.89-1.49]; P=0.30). Consistent with the genetic analysis, we observed no relationship between circulating Corin concentrations with incident CAD events among 4744 participants of a prospective cohort study-sex-stratified hazard ratio per SD increment of 0.96 ([95% CI, 0.87-1.07], P=0.48). CONCLUSIONS: Functional testing of missense mutations improved the accuracy of rare variant association analysis. Despite compelling pathophysiology and a preliminary observation suggesting association, we observed no relationship between rare damaging variants in CORIN or circulating Corin concentrations with risk of CAD.

17.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642702

RESUMO

The study aims to determine the shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity with existing medical conditions using electronic health record (EHR) data. We conducted a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) of genetic variants associated with critical illness (n=35) or hospitalization (n=42) due to severe COVID-19 using genome-wide association summary from the Host Genetics Initiative. PheWAS analysis was performed using genotype-phenotype data from the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Program (MVP). Phenotypes were defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes mapped to clinically relevant groups using published PheWAS methods. Among 658,582 Veterans, variants associated with severe COVID-19 were tested for association across 1,559 phenotypes. Variants at the ABO locus (rs495828, rs505922) associated with the largest number of phenotypes (n rs495828 = 53 and n rs505922 =59); strongest association with venous embolism, odds ratio (OR rs495828 1.33 (p=1.32 × 10 -199 ), and thrombosis OR rs505922 1.33, p=2.2 x10 -265 . Among 67 respiratory conditions tested, 11 had significant associations including MUC5B locus (rs35705950) with increased risk of idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis OR 2.83, p=4.12 × 10 -191 ; CRHR1 ( rs61667602) associated with reduced risk of pulmonary fibrosis, OR 0.84, p=2.26× 10 -12 . The TYK2 locus (rs11085727) associated with reduced risk for autoimmune conditions, e.g., psoriasis OR 0.88, p=6.48 x10 -23 , lupus OR 0.84, p=3.97 × 10 -06 . PheWAS stratified by genetic ancestry demonstrated differences in genotype-phenotype associations across ancestry. LMNA (rs581342) associated with neutropenia OR 1.29 p=4.1 × 10 -13 among Veterans of African ancestry but not European. Overall, we observed a shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity and conditions related to underlying risk factors for severe and poor COVID-19 outcomes. Differing associations between genotype-phenotype across ancestries may inform heterogenous outcomes observed with COVID-19. Divergent associations between risk for severe COVID-19 with autoimmune inflammatory conditions both respiratory and non-respiratory highlights the shared pathways and fine balance of immune host response and autoimmunity and caution required when considering treatment targets.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5975, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645798

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 525 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we show that CH is associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR = 1.85, 95%=1.15-2.99, p = 0.01), in particular CH characterized by non-cancer driver mutations (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.15-3.50, p = 0.01). We further explore the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH is significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.30, p = 6×10-3) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.15-2.13, p = 5×10-3). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hematopoiese Clonal/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103593, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interval between inpatient hospitalization for symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) and post-discharge office consultation is a vulnerable period for adverse events. METHODS: Content was customized on a smartphone app-based platform for hospitalized patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) which included education, tracking, reminders and live health coaches. We conducted a single-arm open-label pilot study of the app at two academic medical centers in a single health system, with subjects enrolled 02/2018-05/2019 and 1:3 propensity-matched historical controls from 01/2015-12/2017. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy, we assessed 30-day hospital readmission (primary), outpatient cardiovascular follow-up, and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) enrollment as recorded in the health system. Outcomes were assessed by Cox Proportional Hazards model. FINDINGS: 118 of 324 eligible (36·4%) 21-85 year-old patients who underwent PCI for symptomatic CAD who owned a smartphone or tablet enrolled. Mean age was 62.5 (9·7) years, 87 (73·7%) were male, 40 of 118 (33·9%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 68 (57·6%) enrolled underwent PCI for MI and 59 (50·0%) had previously known CAD; demographics were similar among matched historical controls. No significant difference existed in all-cause readmission within 30 days (8·5% app vs 9·6% control, ARR -1.1% absolute difference, 95% CI -7·1-4·8, p = 0·699) or 90 days (16·1% app vs 19·5% control, p = 0.394). Rates of both 90-day CR enrollment (HR 1·99, 95% CI 1·30-3·06) and 1-month cardiovascular follow up (HR 1·83, 95% CI 1·43-2·34) were greater with the app. Weekly engagement at 30- and 90-days, as measured by percentage of weeks with at least one day of completion of tasks, was mean (SD) 73·5% (33·9%) and 63·5% (40·3%). Spearman correlation analyses indicated similar engagement across age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. INTERPRETATIONS: A post-PCI smartphone app with live health coaches yielded similarly high engagement across demographics and safely increased attendance in cardiac rehabilitation. Larger prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary to test whether this app improves cardiovascular outcomes following PCI. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Boston Scientific. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03416920 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03416920).

20.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1921-1927, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663986

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) results from somatic genomic alterations that drive clonal expansion of blood cells. Somatic gene mutations associated with hematologic malignancies detected in hematopoietic cells of healthy individuals, referred to as CH of indeterminate potential (CHIP), have been associated with myeloid malignancies, while mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) have been associated with lymphoid malignancies. Here, we analyzed CHIP in 55,383 individuals and autosomal mCAs in 420,969 individuals with no history of hematologic malignancies in the UK Biobank and Mass General Brigham Biobank. We distinguished myeloid and lymphoid somatic gene mutations, as well as myeloid and lymphoid mCAs, and found both to be associated with risk of lineage-specific hematologic malignancies. Further, we performed an integrated analysis of somatic alterations with peripheral blood count parameters to stratify the risk of incident myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. These genetic alterations can be readily detected in clinical sequencing panels and used with blood count parameters to identify individuals at high risk of developing hematologic malignancies.

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