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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577374

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide. Due to the non-availability of any vaccine or drugs against COVID-19, immunotherapies involving convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins, antibodies (monoclonal or polyclonal), and the use of immunomodulatory agents to enhance immunity are valuable alternative options. Cell-based therapies including natural killer cells, T cells, stem cells along with cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) based therapies are also being exploited potentially against COVID-19. Future research need to strengthen the field of developing effective immunotherapeutics and immunomodulators with a thrust of providing appropriate, affordable, convenient, and cost-effective prophylactic and treatment regimens to combat global COVID-19 crisis that has led to a state of medical emergency enforcing entire countries of the world to devote their research infrastructure and manpower in tackling this pandemic.

2.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111825, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360553

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the globe and affected millions of individuals as of the efficient virus transmission potential mediated via multiple virus shedding routes. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool samples and its prolonged shedding in environmental compartments like sewage and wastewater signifies a potential threat adding to the transmission cycle of this novel virus. The potential role played by the asymptomatic COVID-19 patients in transmitting the disease via the fecal-oral route is now under investigation. Hence, in the present scenario, wastewater-based epidemiology, and sewage surveillance may provide valuable insights into the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among the human population and could serve as a sensitive surveillance system and a crucial early warning tool. Further studies are required to determine the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment, transmissibility through wastewater, and the potential to infect humans via the fecal-oral route. Appropriate frameworks with regards to evaluation and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 will help implement appropriate intervention strategies and necessary sanitation practices to ensure virus free clean water supply to have a check on the further spread of this pandemic virus.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
3.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 50-60, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349165

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now affected over 72.5 million people worldwide, with nearly 1.6 million deaths reported globally as of December 17, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to have originated from bats and pangolins, and its intermediate animal hosts are being investigated. Crossing of the species barrier and exhibition of zoonosis have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 in farm (minks), domesticated (cats and dogs), and wild animals (tigers, puma, and lions). Recently, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink farms, which led to the death of a myriad minks. The clinical and pathological findings of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the rapid animal-to-animal transmission in minks are almost similar to the findings observed in patients with COVID-19. Additionally, the rapid virus transmission among minks and the associated mutations resulted in a new mink-associated variant that was identified in both minks and humans, thereby providing evidence of mink-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant with a possible reduced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies poses serious risks and is expected to have a direct effect on the diagnostic techniques, therapeutics, and vaccines that are currently under development. This article highlights the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, and provides an understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in minks and the associated zoonotic concerns of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from minks to humans with an emphasis on appropriate mitigation measures and on the necessity of adopting the One Health approach during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Vison/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , /transmissão , /virologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias , /isolamento & purificação
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270484

RESUMO

Globally, researchers are undertaking significant efforts to design and develop effective vaccines, therapeutics, and antiviral drugs to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Plants have been used for the production of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory proteins, drugs, and pharmaceuticals via molecular farming/transient expression system and are considered as bioreactors or factories for their bulk production. These biological products are stable, safe, effective, easily available, and affordable. Plant molecular farming could facilitate rapid production of biologics on an industrial scale, and has the potential to fulfill emergency demands, such as in the present situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. This article aims to describe the methodology and basics of plant biopharming, in addition to its prospective applications for developing effective vaccines and antibodies to counter COVID-19.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270497

RESUMO

The rapid worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in tens of millions of infections and over one million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 infection affects all age groups; however, those over 60 years old are affected more severely. Moreover, pre-existing co-morbidities result in higher COVID-19-associated mortality in the geriatric population. This article highlights the associated risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older people and progress in developing COVID-19 vaccines, especially for efficient vaccination of the older population. There is also a summary of immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic approaches to ameliorate the outcome of COVID-19 in older individuals.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175602

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed unprecedented health and socioeconomic challenges on public health, disrupting it on a global scale. Given that women and children are widely considered the most vulnerable in the times of emergency, whether in war or during a pandemic, the current pandemic has also severely disrupted access to reproductive and child health services. Despite this, data on the effect of the pandemic on pregnant women and newborns remain scarce, and gender-disaggregated indicators of mortality and morbidity are not available. In this context, we suggest the implementation of a gendered approach to ensure the specific needs of women and their newborns are considered during the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Taking into account gender-based biological differences, the inclusion of pregnant and lactating mothers in clinical trials for the development of COVID-19 vaccines is of vital importance.

7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 576875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251158

RESUMO

COVID-19, the human coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, was reported for the first time in Wuhan, China in late 2019. COVID-19 has no preventive vaccine or proven standard pharmacological treatment, and consequently, the outbreak swiftly became a pandemic affecting more than 215 countries around the world. For the diagnosis of COVID-19, the only reliable diagnostics is a qPCR assay. Among other diagnostic tools, the CRISPR-Cas system is being investigated for rapid and specific diagnosis of COVID-19. The CRISPR-Cas-based methods diagnose the SARS-CoV-2 infections within an hour. Apart from its diagnostic ability, CRISPR-Cas system is also being assessed for antiviral therapy development; however, till date, no CRISPR-based therapy has been approved for human use. The Prophylactic Antiviral CRISPR in huMAN cells (PAC-MAN), which is Cas 13 based strategy, has been developed against coronavirus. Although this strategy has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic modality, it may face significant challenges for approval in human clinical trials. This review is focused on describing potential use and challenges of CRISPR-Cas based approaches for the development of rapid and accurate diagnostic technique and/or a possible therapeutic alternative for combating COVID-19. The assessment of potential risks associated with use of CRISPR will be important for future clinical advancements.

8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 574198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072713

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic wreaked havoc worldwide, with more than 20 million confirmed cases and nearly 0. 75 million deaths as of 10th August 2020. Various factors determine the severity and symptoms of this infection. Older age and underlying diseases are the challenges being faced in controlling and treating COVID-19. In 2019, 703 million of the global population was older than 65 years of age. The estimated mortality due to COVID-19 in people older than 76 years of age is reportedly 18%. Frequent infections in older people, higher disease severity, and increased mortality are major challenges in the implementation of appropriate preventive measures and future strategies to protect against this disease in geriatric population. Poor health status, weak immune function, lowered organ function, increased probability of multiple underlying diseases, and poor attention to personal health can increase the susceptibility to various diseases in the geriatric population. Concerning inadequate immunity, the decrease expression of receptors and exaggerated pathophysiologic responses can be debilitating. However, future studies will reveal the hidden facets in these aspects in this COVID-19 catastrophe. In this article, we reviewed the main concerns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the geriatric population, including the risk of acquiring severe COVID-19 resulting in mortality, variation in clinical manifestations, and other pandemic-related concerns. We also discussed the need for increasing attention toward the elderly, taking appropriate prevention and control measures, and considering geriatric-related adjustments in vaccine design and development.

12.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(9): 1033-1046, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to several countries globally. Currently, there is no specific drug or vaccine available for managing COVID-19. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic strategies using convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and intravenous immunoglobulins have therapeutic potential. AREAS COVERED: This review provides the current status of the development of various antibody-based immunotherapeutics such as convalescent plasma, mAbs, NAbs, and intravenous immunoglobulins against COVID-19. The review also highlights their advantages, disadvantages, and clinical utility for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. EXPERT OPINION: In a pandemic situation such as COVID-19, the development of new drugs should focus on and expedite the strategies where safety and efficacy are proven. Antibody-based immunotherapeutic approaches such as convalescent plasma, intravenous immunoglobulins, and mAbs have a proven record of safety and efficacy and are in use for decades. Some of them are already being used to manage COVID-19 patients and found to be useful. However, the mAbs with virus neutralization potential is the need of the hour during this COVID-19 pandemic to be more specific and virus targeted. The research and investment need to be accelerated to bring them into clinical use for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/imunologia , Imunoterapia/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
13.
Virusdisease ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837973

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, a new member of the Coronavirus family. The virus was first identified in Wuhan, China, where the epidemic originated. The viral genome was sequenced and a real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used for the detection of virus. Different countries took different approaches for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Some countries prioritized extensive testing for COVID-19 at a very early phase of the pandemic whereas other countries took a long time to build the testing capacity and to implement the testing extensively. The assay design formats were available in the public domain and thereby allowing researchers to replicate them to make diagnostic kits. Consequently, several antigen or antibody-based diagnostic tests were also developed for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, there were some validation and regulatory challenges while bringing these assays into the market. During the course of the pandemic, it became clear that the countries which implemented testing at an early stage of the pandemic were capable of controlling the spread more effectively than those that implemented them at later stages. As several countries implemented a lockdown for controlling the spread of the virus, it is critical to build the testing capability to meet the extensive need of testing while exiting the lockdown. Testing and isolation of positive cases are the most effective ways of preventing the spread of virus and gradually returning life back to normality.

15.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2205, 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476063

RESUMO

The clinical severity, rapid transmission and human losses due to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have led the World Health Organization to declare it a pandemic. Traditional epidemiological tools are being significantly complemented by recent innovations especially using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. AI-based model systems could improve pattern recognition of disease spread in populations and predictions of outbreaks in different geographical locations. A variable and a minimal amount of data are available for the signs and symptoms of Covid-19, allowing a composite of maximum likelihood algorithms to be employed to enhance the accuracy of disease diagnosis and to identify potential drugs. AI-based forecasting and predictions are expected to complement traditional approaches by helping public health officials to select better response and preparedness measures against Covid-19 cases. AI-based approaches have helped address the key issues but a significant impact on the global healthcare industry is yet to be achieved. The capability of AI to address the challenges may make it a key player in the operation of healthcare systems in future. Here, we present an overview of the prospective applications of the AI model systems in healthcare settings during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

16.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 26-55, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006350

RESUMO

Nipah (Nee-pa) viral disease is a zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is a biosafety level-4 pathogen, which is transmitted by specific types of fruit bats, mainly Pteropus spp. which are natural reservoir host. The disease was reported for the first time from the Kampung Sungai Nipah village of Malaysia in 1998. Human-to-human transmission also occurs. Outbreaks have been reported also from other countries in South and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analysis affirmed the circulation of two major clades of NiV as based on currently available complete N and G gene sequences. NiV isolates from Malaysia and Cambodia clustered together in NiV-MY clade, whereas isolates from Bangladesh and India clusterered within NiV-BD clade. NiV isolates from Thailand harboured mixed population of sequences. In humans, the virus is responsible for causing rapidly progressing severe illness which might be characterized by severe respiratory illness and/or deadly encephalitis. In pigs below six months of age, respiratory illness along with nervous symptoms may develop. Different types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with molecular methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been developed for diagnostic purposes. Due to the expensive nature of the antibody drugs, identification of broad-spectrum antivirals is essential along with focusing on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). High pathogenicity of NiV in humans, and lack of vaccines or therapeutics to counter this disease have attracted attention of researchers worldwide for developing effective NiV vaccine and treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Vírus Nipah/classificação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/análise , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
Nat Protoc ; 11(7): 1229-43, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310263

RESUMO

We have developed a protocol for the generation of genome-wide maps (meiomaps) of recombination and chromosome segregation for the three products of human female meiosis: the first and second polar bodies (PB1 and PB2) and the corresponding oocyte. PB1 is biopsied and the oocyte is artificially activated by exposure to calcium ionophore, after which PB2 is biopsied and collected with the corresponding oocyte. The whole genomes of the polar bodies and oocytes are amplified by multiple displacement amplification and, together with maternal genomic DNA, genotyped for ∼300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genome-wide by microarray. Informative maternal heterozygous SNPs are phased using a haploid PB2 or oocyte as a reference. A simple algorithm is then used to identify the maternal haplotypes for each chromosome, in all of the products of meiosis for each oocyte. This allows mapping of crossovers and analysis of chromosome segregation patterns. The protocol takes a minimum of 3-5 d and requires a clinical embryologist with micromanipulation experience and a molecular biologist with basic bioinformatic skills. It has several advantages over previous methods; importantly, the use of artificial oocyte activation avoids the creation of embryos for research purposes. In addition, compared with next-generation sequencing, targeted SNP genotyping is cost-effective and it simplifies the bioinformatic analysis, as only one haploid reference sample is required to establish phase for maternal haplotyping. Finally, meiomapping is more informative than copy-number analysis alone for analysis of chromosome segregation patterns. Using this protocol, we have provided new insights that may lead to improvements in assisted reproduction for the treatment of infertility.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Meiose , Oócitos/citologia , Corpos Polares/citologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Corpos Polares/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 47(7): 727-735, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985139

RESUMO

Crossover recombination reshuffles genes and prevents errors in segregation that lead to extra or missing chromosomes (aneuploidy) in human eggs, a major cause of pregnancy failure and congenital disorders. Here we generate genome-wide maps of crossovers and chromosome segregation patterns by recovering all three products of single female meioses. Genotyping >4 million informative SNPs from 23 complete meioses allowed us to map 2,032 maternal and 1,342 paternal crossovers and to infer the segregation patterns of 529 chromosome pairs. We uncover a new reverse chromosome segregation pattern in which both homologs separate their sister chromatids at meiosis I; detect selection for higher recombination rates in the female germ line by the elimination of aneuploid embryos; and report chromosomal drive against non-recombinant chromatids at meiosis II. Collectively, our findings show that recombination not only affects homolog segregation at meiosis I but also the fate of sister chromatids at meiosis II.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Recombinação Genética , Células Cultivadas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Troca Genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Meiose , Oócitos/fisiologia , Corpos Polares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 29(5): 600-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154779

RESUMO

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorders has the drawback of time and cost associated with tailoring a specific test for each couple, disorder, or both. The inability of any single assay to detect the monogenic disorder in question and simultaneously the chromosomal complement of the embryo also limits its application as separate tests may need to be carried out on the amplified material. The first clinical use of a novel approach ('karyomapping') was designed to circumvent this problem. In this example, karyomapping was used to confirm the results of an existing PGD case detecting both chromosomal abnormalities and a monogenic disorder (Smith-Lemli-Opitz [SLO] syndrome) simultaneously. The family underwent IVF, ICSI and PGD, and both polar body and cleavage stage biopsy were carried out. Following whole genome amplification, array comparative genomic hybridisation of the polar bodies and minisequencing and STR analysis of single blastomeres were used to diagnose maternal aneuploidies and SLO status, respectively. This was confirmed, by karyomapping. Unlike standard PGD, karyomapping required no a-priori test development. A singleton pregnancy and live birth, unaffected with SLO syndrome and with no chromosome abnormality, ensued. Karyomapping is potentially capable of detecting a wide spectrum of monogenic and chromosome disorders and, in this context, can be considered a comprehensive approach to PGD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cariotipagem/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Blastômeros/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Corpos Polares/patologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/genética , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos
20.
Genet Med ; 16(11): 838-45, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24810687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our aim was to compare the accuracy of family- or disease-specific targeted haplotyping and direct mutation-detection strategies with the accuracy of genome-wide mapping of the parental origin of each chromosome, or karyomapping, by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of the parents, a close relative of known disease status, and the embryo cell(s) used for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of single-gene defects in a single cell or small numbers of cells biopsied from human embryos following in vitro fertilization. METHODS: Genomic DNA and whole-genome amplification products from embryo samples, which were previously diagnosed by targeted haplotyping, were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms genome-wide detection and retrospectively analyzed blind by karyomapping. RESULTS: Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and karyomapping were successful in 213/218 (97.7%) samples from 44 preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles for 25 single-gene defects with various modes of inheritance distributed widely across the genome. Karyomapping was concordant with targeted haplotyping in 208 (97.7%) samples, and the five nonconcordant samples were all in consanguineous regions with limited or inconsistent haplotyping results. CONCLUSION: Genome-wide karyomapping is highly accurate and facilitates analysis of the inheritance of almost any single-gene defect, or any combination of loci, at the single-cell level, greatly expanding the range of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis can be offered clinically without the need for customized test development.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Blastocisto , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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