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2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence has increased in recent decades along with the use and dose of diagnostic radiation. Here we examine the association between reported exposure to diagnostic radiation and TGCT risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of men with and without TGCT recruited from hospital- and population-based settings. Participants reported on exposures to 1) x-ray or CT below the waist and 2) lower GI series or barium enema, which consists of a series of x-rays of the colon. We also derived a combined measure of exposure. We used logistic regression to determine the risk of developing TGCT according to categories of exposures (0, 1-2, or ≥3 exposures) and age at first exposure, adjusting for age, year of birth, race, county, body mass index at diagnosis, family history of TGCT, and personal history of cryptorchidism. RESULTS: There were 315 men with TGCT and 931 men without TGCT in our study. Compared to no exposures, risk of TGCT was significantly elevated among those reporting at least three exposures to x-ray or CT (OR≥3 exposures, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.15-2.76; p = 0.010), lower GI series or barium enema (OR≥3 exposures, 4.58; 95% CI, 2.39-8.76; p<0.001), and the combined exposure variable (OR≥3 exposures, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.05-2.42; p = 0.029). The risk of TGCT was elevated for those exposed to diagnostic radiation at age 0-10 years, compared to those first exposed at age 18 years or later, although this association did not reach statistical significance (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 0.91-4.42; p = 0.086). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to diagnostic radiation below the waist may increase TGCT risk. If these results are validated, efforts to reduce diagnostic radiation doses to the testes should be prioritized.

3.
Cancer Genet ; 248-249: 49-56, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported conflicting evidence on the inclusion of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in the DICER1 tumor-predisposition phenotype. We evaluated the relationship between DICER1 and TGCT by reviewing scrotal ultrasounds of males with pathogenic germline variants in DICER1 and queried exome data from TGCT-affected men for DICER1 variants. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-four male DICER1-carriers and family controls (n=41) enrolled in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) DICER1 Natural History Study were offered scrotal ultrasounds. These studies were examined by a single radiologist for abnormalities. In parallel, DICER1 variants from two large exome-sequenced TGCT cohorts were extracted. We used previously published AMG-AMP criteria to characterize rare DICER1 variants. RESULTS: There was no observed difference in frequency of testicular cystic structures in DICER1-carriers versus controls. DICER1 variation was not associated with TGCT in the NCI DICER1-carriers. In 1,264 exome-sequenced men with TGCT, none harbored ClinVar- or InterVar-determined pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in DICER1. Three DICER1 variants of uncertain significance (one case and two controls) were predicted "damaging" based on a priori criteria. CONCLUSION: Using two complementary approaches, we found no evidence of an association between pathogenic DICER1 variants and TGCT.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(12): 2095-2097, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer risk and surveillance outcomes in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). METHODS: Analysis of the International Agency for Research on Cancer database and a single-center adult LFS cohort. RESULTS: UGI cancer was present in 7.2% of families and 3.9% of individuals with a pathogenic/likely pathogenic TP53 mutation in International Agency for Research on Cancer; 29% occurred before age 30. Our institutional cohort had 35 individuals (31% of the LFS cohort) with 48 cumulative upper endoscopies; 3 (8.5%) individuals had concerning UGI findings. DISCUSSION: UGI cancer is observed in LFS. Upper endoscopy should be part of a comprehensive LFS surveillance program.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and the Grading System for Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) are scoring systems to predict metastatic potential in pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGLs). The goal of this study is to assess PASS and GAPP as metastatic predictors and to correlate with survival outcomes. METHODS: The cohort included PCC/PGL with ≥5 years of follow-up or known metastases. Surgical pathology slides were rereviewed. PASS and GAPP scores were assigned. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards were performed to assess recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: From 143 subjects, 106 tumors were PCC and 37 were PGL. Metastases developed in 24%. The median PASS score was 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0-8.0) and median GAPP score was 3.0 (IQR: 2.0-4.0). Interrater reliability was low-moderate for PASS (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.6082) and good for GAPP (ICC 0.7921). Older age (OR: 0.969, P = .0170) was associated with longer RFS. SDHB germline pathogenic variant (OR: 8.205, P = .0049), extra-adrenal tumor (OR: 6.357, P < .0001), Ki-67 index 1% to 3% (OR: 4.810, P = .0477), and higher GAPP score (OR: 1.537, P = .0047) were associated with shorter RFS. PASS score was not associated with RFS (P = .1779). On Cox regression, a GAPP score in the moderately differentiated range was significantly associated with disease recurrence (HR: 3.367, P = .0184) compared with well-differentiated score. CONCLUSION: Higher GAPP scores were associated with aggressive PCC/PGL. PASS score was not associated with metastases and demonstrated significant interobserver variability. Scoring systems for predicting metastatic PCC/PGL may be improved by incorporation of histopathology, clinical data, and germline and somatic tumor markers.

7.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2101-2107, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Minimal data exist regarding the efficacy of screening protocols for individuals with SDHx germline pathogenic variants with hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate the SDHx-related tumor detection rate in individuals undergoing clinical screening protocols. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective longitudinal observational study was conducted. Individuals with germline SDHx pathogenic variants underwent clinical whole-body imaging and biochemical testing. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three individuals with SDHx germline pathogenic variants completed 491 imaging screens. Individuals with SDHB germline pathogenic variants were most common (n = 188/263, 72%), followed by SDHD (n = 35/263, 13%) and SDHC (n = 28/263, 11%). SDHx-related tumors were found in 17% (n = 45/263) of the cohort. Most SDHx-related tumors were identified on baseline imaging screen (n = 39/46, 85%). Individuals with SDHD pathogenic variants had the highest tumor detection rate (n = 14/35, 40%). Of imaging screens identifying SDHx-related paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma, 29% (n = 12/41) had negative biochemical testing. Secondary actionable findings were identified in 15% (n = 75/491) of imaging screens. CONCLUSION: Current SDHx screening protocols are effective at identifying SDHx-related tumors. Tumor detection rates vary by SDHx gene and screening has the potential to uncover actionable secondary findings. Imaging is an essential part of the screening process as biochemical testing alone does not detect all disease.

9.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(11): 2242-2252.e7, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389536

RESUMO

Melanomas frequently harbor activating NRAS mutations leading to activation of MAPK kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling; however, the clinical efficacy of inhibitors to this pathway is limited by resistance. Tumors rewire metabolic pathways in response to stress signals such as targeted inhibitors and drug resistance, but most therapy-resistant preclinical models are generated in conditions that lack physiological metabolism. We generated human NRAS-mutant melanoma xenografts that were resistant to the MEK inhibitor (MEKi) PD0325901 in vivo. MEKi-resistant cells showed cross-resistance to the structurally distinct MEKi trametinib and elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. Additionally, we observed upregulation of the serine synthesis pathway and PHGDH, a key enzyme in this pathway. Suppressing PHGDH in MEKi-resistant cells together with MEKi treatment decreased oxidative stress tolerance and cell proliferation. Together, our data suggest targeting PHGDH as a potential strategy in overcoming MEKi resistance.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(1): 181-188, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in TP53, have an over 50% risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. Patients with LFS are at risk for radiation-induced malignancies; however, only small case series have prior investigated radiation risks in the treatment of breast cancer. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of malignancy in breast cancer patients with LFS following adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective chart review was conducted for female breast cancer patients with confirmed germline TP53 mutation. The frequency of radiation-induced malignancies in LFS patients was compared to non-LFS breast cancer cases reported in the Penn Medicine Cancer Registry via statistical analyses. RESULTS: We identified 51 female LFS breast cancer patients with 74 primary diagnoses. Fifty-seven% had a history of breast cancer only, and 25% had breast cancer as their presenting diagnosis of LFS. LFS-associated breast cancers were predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (48%) and HER2+ (58%). Twenty patients underwent adjuvant radiotherapy with a median follow-up of 12.5 (2-20) years. Of 18 patients who received radiation in a curative setting, one (6%) patient developed thyroid cancer, and one (6%) patient developed sarcoma in the radiation field. This risk for radiation-induced malignancy associated with LFS was higher for both sarcoma and thyroid cancer in comparison with the control cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We found a lower risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancies in LFS breast cancer patients than previously reported in the literature (33% risk of radiation-induced sarcoma). These findings suggest that LFS may not be an absolute contraindication for radiotherapy in breast cancer. The potential risk for locoregional recurrence without radiotherapy must be weighed against the long-term risk for radiation-induced malignancies in consideration of adjuvant radiotherapy for LFS breast cancer patients.

15.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 53-60, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1/2 carriers reduces the breast cancer (BC) risk is conflicting, potentially due to methodological issues of prior analysis. We analysed the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC risk in BRCA1/2 carriers after adjusting for potential biases. METHODS: We analysed data from 444 BRCA1 and 409 BRCA2 carriers under age 51 with no cancer prior to genetic testing or during first 6 months of surveillance (to avoid cancer-induced testing bias and prevalent-cancer bias). Observation started 6 months after genetic testing (to avoid event-free time bias), until BC diagnosis, risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) or death. A multistate model with four states (non-RRSO, RRSO, RRM and BC) and five transitions was fitted to characterise outcomes and to calculate the BC risk reduction after premenopausal RRSO (before age 51). A systematic review was performed to assess the association between premenopausal RRSO and BC. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 96 women (11.3%) developed BC (54 BRCA1, 42 BRCA2). The risk of BC after premenopausal RRSO decreased significantly in BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI):0.22-0.92]), but was not conclusive in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 0.77 [95%CI:0.35-1.67]). The systematic review suggested that premenopausal RRSO is associated with a decrease of BC risk in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Premenopausal RRSO was associated with BC risk reduction in BRCA1 carriers, which can help guide cancer risk-reducing strategies in this population. Longer follow-up and larger sample size may be needed to estimate the potential benefit in BRCA2 carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pré-Menopausa , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 312(2): 155-158, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372728

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common illness that most commonly originates in childhood, but can be seen in all ages. Filaggrin (FLG) loss of function variants have been associated with the onset and severity of atopic dermatitis and are the most common genetic association with AD. Previous studies have shown variability in the frequency of FLG variants. We have recently demonstrated that previous FLG genotyping methods were inadequate for proper genotyping. In this concise report, we show that genotyping using a popular older informatics program is problematic. In fact, publications that used the older program likely do not properly capture all FLG variants.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Mutação
17.
Br J Cancer ; 122(3): 333-339, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies suggest a survival benefit when platinum-based chemotherapy is administered to patients with pancreatic cancer harbouring a germline mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 (mut-positive PDAC). However, the objective response rate (ORR) and real-world progression free survival (rwPFS) achieved with such treatment remain ill-defined. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with advanced-stage mut-positive PDAC who had been treated with platinum-based therapy were matched by age, race and sex to 52 platinum-treated control PDAC patients. Responses to therapy were determined by RECIST v1.1, performed by blinded radiology review. Measured outcomes included ORR and rwPFS. RESULTS: The ORR in mut-positive patients was 58% compared to 21% in the control group (p = 0.0022). There was no significant difference in ORR between platinum regimens in mut-positive patients (p = 0.814), whereas in control patients, the only observed responses were to FOLFIRINOX. rwPFS was 10.1 mo. for mut-positive patients and 6.9 mo. for controls (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.25-0.74; 0.0068). CONCLUSION: Mut-positive PDAC has a high ORR and prolonged rwPFS to platinum-based chemotherapy. These findings may have implications particularly in the neoadjuvant setting, and for future clinical trial design, and highlight the importance of early germline testing in patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(6): 595-601.e1, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic relapsing skin disease. Genetic variants have been associated with skin barrier function and immune regulation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an immune regulator, has been previously associated with AD. OBJECTIVE: To fine map TSLP and evaluate associations with the onset and persistence of AD. METHODS: TSLP variation was determined using targeted massively parallel sequencing in a longitudinal cohort of children with AD. Evaluations included linkage disequilibrium and the persistence of AD for as many as 10 years of follow-up. The association between the presence of AD and rs1898671 variation was evaluated in a second independent cohort. RESULTS: The minor variant frequency for rs1898671 was 23.5% (95% CI, 21.4%-25.8%). This variant was not in linkage disequilibrium with other TSLP variants in the longitudinal cohort (n = 741). White children with AD were less likely to have rs1898671 variant (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20-1.66) than Genome Aggregation Database controls. Children with AD and the rs1898671 variant during follow-up were more likely to have remission than children who were wild type for rs1898671 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.91). In the second cohort (n = 585), the rs1898671 variant was less prevalent in those with AD than those without. The protective effect was greater in rs1898671 heterozygotes (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.34-2.75) than homozygotes (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.61-2.70). CONCLUSION: TSLP and specifically rs1898671 are important in the pathogenesis of AD and could represent a potential clinical target for the development of therapies to treat individuals with AD.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor-only genomic profiling (TGP) is increasingly advocated for all patients with cancer given the possible therapeutic implications. It is critical to develop clinical algorithms to identify and address potentially actionable germline findings identified by TGP. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team analyzed publicly available data for genes in which mutations are implicated in germline cancer susceptibility and established a pipeline to automate clinical referral for evaluation of TGP findings. RESULTS: A total of 2,308 patients underwent TGP, with 81 patients (3.5%) identified by the automatic referral pipeline; 37 patients (1.6%) were referred outside the pipeline based on concerns by the molecular geneticist, pathologist, or oncologist regarding genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirty-one patients (38%) and 17 patients (46%) underwent germline testing from the automatic pipeline and other referrals, respectively, and of these patients, 23 (72%) and four (24%) had confirmed germline pathogenic variants (GPVs), respectively. The majority of confirmed GPVs were in automatic referral genes, with BRCA2 being most common (confirmed GPVs in 11 [85%] of 13 patients tested), followed by PALB2 (five [67%] of six patients), BRCA1 (two [40%] of five patients), MSH6 (two of three patients), and MLH1 (two of two patients). Forty-eight percent of confirmed GPVs were found in tumors known to be associated with germline mutations in the gene. Germline testing was not performed in 50 (62%) of 81 patients identified by automatic referral as a result of poor patient health or death (30%), lack of follow-up (30%), and patient refusal (30%). CONCLUSION: Of patients undergoing TGP, 5% had somatic findings triggering referral, and implementation of an automatic referral pipeline based solely on gene versus other clinical or molecular features resulted in a 74% germline confirmation. However, only 41% of referred patients underwent germline testing. Systems-based approaches are needed to identify carriers of actionable germline cancer susceptibility mutations identified by TGP.

20.
Cell ; 178(4): 933-948.e14, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398344

RESUMO

Interferon-gamma (IFNG) augments immune function yet promotes T cell exhaustion through PDL1. How these opposing effects are integrated to impact immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is unclear. We show that while inhibiting tumor IFNG signaling decreases interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in cancer cells, it increases ISGs in immune cells by enhancing IFNG produced by exhausted T cells (TEX). In tumors with favorable antigenicity, these TEX mediate rejection. In tumors with neoantigen or MHC-I loss, TEX instead utilize IFNG to drive maturation of innate immune cells, including a PD1+TRAIL+ ILC1 population. By disabling an inhibitory circuit impacting PD1 and TRAIL, blocking tumor IFNG signaling promotes innate immune killing. Thus, interferon signaling in cancer cells and immune cells oppose each other to establish a regulatory relationship that limits both adaptive and innate immune killing. In melanoma and lung cancer patients, perturbation of this relationship is associated with ICB response independent of tumor mutational burden.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Interferon gama/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , RNA-Seq , Transfecção
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