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1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 71(4): 865-874, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of early immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) upon immunotherapy is not fully understood. METHODS: The Leading to Treatment Discontinuation cohort included 24 patients experiencing severe irAEs after one of two administrations of single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting for metastatic NSCLC between November 2015 and June 2019. The control cohort was composed of 526 patients treated with single anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in any line setting with no severe irAE reported. The primary end points were median progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, risk of progression of disease and risk of death. The correlation of clinic pathological features with early severe irAEs represented the secondary end point. RESULTS: Median PFS was 9.3 and 8.4 months, median OS was 12.0 months and 14.2 months at a median follow-up of 18.1 and 22.6 months in the LTD cohort and in the control cohort, respectively. The ORR was 40% (95% CI 17.2-78.8) in the LTD cohort and 32.7% (95% CI 27.8-38.2) in the control cohort. The risk of disease progression was higher in the LTD cohort (HR 2.52 [95% 1.10-5.78], P = .0288). CONCLUSIONS: We found no survival benefit in LTD cohort compared to the control cohort. However, early and severe irAEs might underly an immune anti-tumor activation. We identified a significant association with first-line immune checkpoints inhibitors treatment and good PS. Further studies on risk prediction and management of serious and early irAEs in NSCLC patients are needed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1 , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359855

RESUMO

The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a promising predictive and prognostic factor in breast cancer. We investigated its ability to predict disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with luminal A- or luminal B-HER2-negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Pre-treatment complete blood cell counts from 168 consecutive patients with luminal breast cancer were evaluated to assess NLR. The study population was stratified into NLRlow or NLRhigh according to a cut-off value established by receiving operator curve (ROC) analysis. Data on additional pre- and post-treatment clinical-pathological characteristics were also collected. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used for statistical analyses. Patients with pre-treatment NLRlow showed a significantly shorter DFS (HR: 6.97, 95% CI: 1.65-10.55, p = 0.002) and OS (HR: 7.79, 95% CI: 1.25-15.07, p = 0.021) compared to those with NLRhigh. Non-ductal histology, luminal B subtype, and post-treatment Ki67 ≥ 14% were also associated with worse DFS (p = 0.016, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, luminal B subtype, post-treatment Ki67 ≥ 14%, and NLRlow remained independent prognostic factors for DFS, while only post-treatment Ki67 ≥ 14% and NLRlow affected OS. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment NLRlow helps identify women at higher risk of recurrence and death among patients affected by luminal breast cancer treated with NACT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neutrófilos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13770, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215766

RESUMO

In metastatic breast cancer (mBC), the change of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status between primary and metastatic lesions is widely recognized, however clinical implications are unknown. Our study address the question if relevant differences exist between subjects who preserve the HER2 status and those who gain the HER2 positivity when relapsed. Data of patients affected by HER2-positive mBC, treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) in a real-world setting at 45 Italian cancer centers were retrospectively collected and analyzed. From 2003 to 2017, 491 HER2-positive mBC patients were included. Of these, 102 (20.7%) had been initially diagnosed as HER2-negative early BC. Estrogen and/or progesterone receptor were more expressed in patients with HER2-discordance compared to patients with HER2-concordant status (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.006, respectively). HER2-discordant tumors were characterized also by a lower rate of brain metastases (p = 0.01) and a longer disease free interval (p < 0.0001). Median overall survival was longer, although not statistically significant, in the subgroup of patients with HER2-discordant cancer with respect to patients with HER2-concordant status (140 vs 78 months, p = 0.07). Our findings suggest that patients with HER2-positive mBC with discordant HER2 status in early BC may have different clinical, biological and prognostic behavior compared to HER2-concordant patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
5.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 86, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888686

RESUMO

The 90K protein, also known as Mac-2 BP or LGALS3BP, can activate the immune response in part by increasing major histocompatibility (MHC) class I levels. In studies on a non-immune cell model, the rat FRTL-5 cell line, we observed that transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, like γ-interferon (IFN), increased 90K levels, despite its immunosuppressive functions and the ability to decrease MHC class I. To explain this paradoxical result, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the TGF-ß1 regulation of 90K expression with the aim to demonstrate that TGF-ß1 utilizes different molecular pathways to regulate the two genes. We found that TGF-ß1 was able to increase the binding of Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1 and USF2, to an E-box element, CANNTG, at -1926 to -1921 bp, upstream of the interferon response element (IRE) in the 90K promoter. Thyrotropin (TSH) suppressed constitutive and γ-IFN-induced 90K expression by decreasing USF binding to the E-box. TGF-ß1 was able to overcome TSH suppression at the transcriptional level by increasing USF binding to the E-box. We suggest that the ability of TGF-ß1 to increase 90K did not result in an increase in MHC class I because of a separate suppressive action of TGF-ß1 directly on the MHC class I gene. We propose that the increased levels of 90K may play a role, rather than in immune response, in the context of the TGF-ß1-induced changing of the cellular microenvironment that predisposes to cell motility and cancer progression. Consistently, analyzing the publicly available cancer patient data sets cBioPortal, we found that 90K expression directly correlated with TGF-ß1 and USFs and that high levels of 90K were significantly associated with increased mortality in patients affected by different types of cancer.

6.
Minerva Urol Nephrol ; 73(4): 489-497, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is the final stage of pCa history and represents a clinically relevant phenotype with an elevated burden of mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide in a "real-life" setting in mCRPC patients. METHODS: Data about all mCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide from September 2017 to September 2018 were collected. Demographics, comorbidities, clinical parameters, outcomes, toxicity, overall survival and progression free survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 158 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 75.8 (±8.7) years with a baseline median PSA of 16.5 (IQR 7.4-47.8) ng/mL. The median follow-up lasted 7.7 (IQR 4-14.1) months. Of all the 10.1% of patients reported grade 3-4 adverse events. 43.7% of patients experienced a progression. Overall, the 6 and 12 months PFS rates were 69.5% (95% CI: 61.7-78.3%) and the 45.6% (95% CI: 36.5-57.1%); a median baseline PSA>16 ng/mL (HR:2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, P<0.005), the use of opioid (HR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9-5.0, P<0.001), a previous treatment (abiraterone, docetaxel or abiraterone + docetaxel) were significantly associated with higher rates of cancer progression. Conversely, a brief pain questionnaire of 0-1 (HR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7, P<0.001), a 12 weeks 50% PSA reduction (HR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8, P<0.006) and a longer time to mCRPC (HR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7, P<0.002) were related to lower cancer progression rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our data shows an effective and safe profile of enzalutamide in a "real world" perspective in patients with mcRPC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Idoso , Benzamidas , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211059873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolution of therapeutic landscape of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) has led to an unprecedented outcome improvement, even if the optimal sequence strategy is still debated. To address this issue and to provide a picture of the advancement of anti-HER2 treatments, we performed a large, multicenter, retrospective study of HER2-positive BC patients. METHODS: The observational PANHER study included 1,328 HER2-positive advanced BC patients treated with HER2 blocking agents since June 2000 throughout July 2020. Endpoints of efficacy were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Patients who received a first-line pertuzumab-based regimen showed better PFS (p < 0.0001) and OS (p = 0.004) than those receiving other treatments. Median PFS and mOS from second-line starting were 8 and 28 months, without significant differences among various regimens. Pertuzumab-pretreated patients showed a mPFS and a mOS from second-line starting not significantly affected by type of second line, that is, T-DM1 or lapatinib/capecitabine (p = 0.80 and p = 0.45, respectively). Conversely, pertuzumab-naïve patients receiving second-line T-DM1 showed a significantly higher mPFS compared with that of patients treated with lapatinib/capecitabine (p = 0.004). Median OS from metastatic disease diagnosis was higher in patients treated with trastuzumab-based first line followed by second-line T-DM1 in comparison to pertuzumab-based first-line and second-line T-DM1 (p = 0.003), although these data might be partially influenced by more favorable prognostic characteristics of patients in the pre-pertuzumab era. No significant differences emerged when comparing patients treated with 'old' or 'new' drugs (p = 0.43), even though differences in the length of the follow-up between the two cohorts should be taken into account. CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a relevant impact of first-line pertuzumab-based treatment and showed lower efficacy of second-line T-DM1 in trastuzumab/pertuzumab pretreated, as compared with pertuzumab-naïve patients. Our findings may help delineate a more appropriate therapeutic strategy in HER2-positive metastatic BC. Prospective randomized trials addressing this topic are awaited.

8.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(12): 761-768, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362173

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pemetrexed maintenance significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients not progressing after induction chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed at examine the association of various clinical factor and survival in a real-world cohort analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred ninety-four patients were included and classified as "PM" cohort ("Pemetrexed Maintenance", including patients given with pemetrexed maintenance after induction chemotherapy, n=112), and "noPM" cohort ("no Pemetrexed Maintenance" including those discontinuing pemetrexed, n=82). RESULTS: The median PFS was 8.8 and 5.4 months in the PM and noPM cohorts, respectively (p=0.001). The median OS was 19.6 months in the "PM" cohort and 13.2 months in the "noPM" cohort (p<0.02). In the multivariate analysis, ECOG Performance Status (PS) 0 and maintenance therapy were independently associated with improved PFS and OS. A longer median PFS was reported in patients given ≥5 cycles of pemetrexed maintenance (p<0.01). DISCUSSION: These results further confirm the survival benefit of pemetrexed maintenance in a real-word population. All eligible advanced NSCLC patients should be strongly considered for at least 5 of pemetrexed maintenance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 279, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2-targeting agents have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of HER2+ advanced breast cancer (ABC). Within a short time frame, the rapid introduction of new therapeutics has led to the approval of pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab and a taxane in first-line, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in second-line. Thereby, evidence of T-DM1 efficacy following trastuzumab/pertuzumab combination is limited, with data from some retrospective reports suggesting lower activity. The purpose of the present study is to investigate T-DM1 efficacy in pertuzumab-pretreated and pertuzumab naïve HER2 positive ABC patients. We also aimed to provide evidence on the exposure to different drugs sequences including pertuzumab and T-DM1 in HER2 positive cell lines. METHODS: The biology of HER2 was investigated in vitro through sequential exposure of resistant HER2 + breast cancer cell lines to trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and their combination. In vitro experiments were paralleled by the analysis of data from 555 HER2 + ABC patients treated with T-DM1 and evaluation of T-DM1 efficacy in the 371 patients who received it in second line. Survival estimates were graphically displayed in Kaplan Meier curves, compared by log rank test and, when possibile, confirmed in multivariate models. RESULTS: We herein show evidence of lower activity of T-DM1 in two HER2+ breast cancer cell lines resistant to trastuzumab+pertuzumab, as compared to trastuzumab-resistant cells. Lower T-DM1 efficacy was associated with a marked reduction of HER2 expression on the cell membrane and its nuclear translocation. HER2 downregulation at the membrane level was confirmed in biopsies of four trastuzumab/pertuzumab-pretreated patients. Among the 371 patients treated with second-line T-DM1, median overall survival (mOS) from diagnosis of advanced disease and median progression-free survival to second-line treatment (mPFS2) were 52 and 6 months in 177 patients who received trastuzumab/pertuzumab in first-line, and 74 and 10 months in 194 pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.0006 and 0.03 for OS and PFS2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab reduces the amount of available plasma membrane HER2 receptor, limiting the binding of T-DM1 in cancer cells. This may help interpret the less favorable outcomes of second-line T-DM1 in trastuzumab/pertuzumab pre-treated patients compared to their pertuzumab-naïve counterpart.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/deficiência , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899209

RESUMO

Chemotherapy based on the sequential use of anthracyclines and taxanes has long represented the most efficacious approach in the management of early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer, whose aggressive behavior is widely renowned. This standard chemotherapy backbone was subsequently enriched by the use of carboplatin, based on its association with increased pathologic complete response and efficacy in the metastatic setting. Following the results from the IMpassion130 trial, the recent approval of the immunotherapic agent atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment for programmed-death ligand 1-positive, unresectable locally advanced, or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer increasingly fueled the flourishing of trials of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the early setting. In this work, we review the most recent inherent literature in light of key methodological issues and provide a quantitative summary of the results from phase II-III randomized trials of immunotherapic agents combined with chemotherapy in the setting of interest. Hints regarding future directions are also discussed.

11.
Curr Urol ; 14(2): 98-104, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the GRANT (GRade, Age, Nodes, and Tumor) score was validated through an adjuvant trial population. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the performance of the GRANT score as a prognostic model for disease-free survival (DFS), compared to the University of California Los Angeles Integrated Staging System (UISS) score, in a "real-life" population of early renal cell carcinoma patients. A uni-/multivariate analysis of DFS was also performed, to weigh the roles of baseline clinical factors. RESULTS: From February 1998 to January 2018, 134 consecutive patients were enrolled, of which 85 patients (63.4%) had a favorable GRANT score, 49 (36.6%) an unfavorable GRANT score, and 21 (15.7%), 84 (62.6%), and 29 (21.6%) patients had a low, intermediate, or high risk of recurrence according to the UISS score, respectively. The median follow-up was 96 months. The median DFS of the overall study population was 53.7 months (95% CI: 38.4-87.8). Only bilateral renal cell carcinoma (p = 0.0041), Fuhrman grade 3/4 (p = 0.0008), pT3b- 4 (p = 0.0324), and pN1-2 (p = 0.0303) pathological status were confirmed as independent predictors of a shorter DFS by the multivariate analysis. The median DFS of patients with favorable and unfavorable GRANT scores were 84.9 (95% CI: 49.8-129) and 38.4 months (95% CI: 24.4-87.8), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0147). The median DFS of patients with low, intermediate, and high risk of recurrence according to the UISS score were 92.3 (95% CI: 18.1-153.9), 51.7 (95% CI: 36.2-87.8), and 49.8 months (95% CI: 31.3-129), respectively, without statistically significant differences (p = 0.4728). DFS c-statistic values were 0.59 (95% CI: 0.51-0.67) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.42-0.60) for the GRANT and the UISS scores, respectively. CONCLUSION: The GRANT score might be a useful tool that is user-friendly and easy to perform in clinical practice.

12.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920942378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is characterized by aggressive clinical behavior and lack of treatment advances. We evaluate the prognostic and the predictive roles of systemic inflammatory biomarkers in patient circulating blood: neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI), and the Lung Immune Prognostic Index (LIPI) score. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (n = 110) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) (n = 10) were enrolled. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier estimator and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with OS while χ2 test was used for categorical data. RESULTS: NLR cutoff value was 1.93. NLR was measured before and after first-line chemotherapy; 25 (21%) patients had higher NLR (delta NLR >1), whereas NLR was lower in 37 (31%). At the univariate analysis, median OS was 12 months: OS for SCLC and LCNEC were 11 months and 14 months, respectively. OS had a prognostic positive value in patients with pre-treatment NLR <1.93 (p = 0.0002), LDH <600 U/L (p = 0,03) and ALI ⩾34 (p = 0,0065). At the multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, LDH levels and response after first-line chemotherapy were independently associated with OS. Median OS for good, intermediate, and poor LIPI was 15 months, 11 months, and 9 months, respectively(p = 0.091). Patients with higher NLR (>1.93) had an increased probability of tumor progression (p = 0.045, χ2 test). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that systemic inflammatory biomarkers could facilitate the understanding of survival differences in the clinical management of lung NEC patients, underlying the need for prospective biomarker-driven studies in the immune checkpoint inhibitors setting.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429381

RESUMO

In locally advanced (LA) breast cancer (BC), neoadjuvant treatments have led to major achievements, which hold particular relevance in HER2-positive and triple-negative BC. Conversely, their role in hormone receptor positive (HR+), hormone epidermal growth factor 2 negative (HER2-) BC is still under debate, mainly due to the generally low rates of pathological complete response (pCR) and lower accuracy of pCR as predictors of long-term outcomes in this patient subset. While administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in LA, HR+, HER2- BC patients is widely used in clinical practice, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) still retains an unfulfilled potential in the management of these subgroups, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. In addition, NET has gained a central role as a platform to test new drugs and predictive biomarkers in previously untreated patients. We herein present historical data regarding Tamoxifen and/or Aromatase Inhibitors and a debate on recent evidence regarding agents such as CDK4/6 and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in the neoadjuvant setting. We also discuss key issues concerning the optimal treatment length, appropriate comparisons with NCT efficacy and use of NET in premenopausal patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa
14.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 15(1): 30-37, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different studies suggest that fulvestrant 500 mg every 28 days (HD-FUL) could be an active treatment in HR+ advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients even treated with aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant setting. The aim of this analysis is to describe the outcome of ABC patients treated with HD-FUL as first-line treatment in terms of median duration of treatment and the overall response rate in a real-world setting. METHODS: For the purpose of the present analysis, we considered two data sets of HR+ ABC patients collected in Italy between 2012 and 2015 (EVA and GIM-13 AMBRA studies). RESULTS: Eighty-one and 91 patients have been identified from the two data sets. The median age was 63 years (range 35-82) for the EVA and 57.8 years (range 35.0-82.3) for the AMBRA patients. ORRs were 23.5 and 24.3% in the whole population, 26.9% in the patients with bone only, and 21.8 and 21.4% in those with visceral metastases. The median duration of HD-FUL was 11.6 months (range 1-48) and 12.4 months (range 2.9-70.0) in the two data sets, respectively. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that HD-FUL should still continue to play a significant role as first-line therapy in HR+ ABC patients.

15.
Int Med Case Rep J ; 13: 89-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crizotinib is the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An increased incidence of renal cysts has been described during the crizotinib treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: We herein report the case of a 74-year-old woman who received crizotinib for metastatic ALK-positive NSCLC. During the crizotinib treatment, complex renal cystic lesions with invasion of perirenal spaces and iliopsoas muscle appeared; two complex hepatic cysts were also observed. Almost all lesions disappeared after switching to alectinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor. CONCLUSION: It would seem that alectinib is able to reduce in size and number hepatic and renal cysts caused by the crizotinib treatment. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to clarify the role of both crizotinib in the onset of renal and hepatic cysts and alectinib in their disappearance.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 128: 17-26, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have found an association between higher body mass index (BMI) and improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients receiving programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors. In a previous study, we found that overweight/obese patients were significantly more likely to experience any grade immune-related adverse events (irAEs) compared to non-overweight patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a 'real-life', multi centre, retrospective observational study aimed at comparing the incidence of irAEs among cancer patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors according to baseline BMI. RESULTS: One thousand and seventy advanced cancer patients were evaluated. The median age was 68 years (range: 21-92), male/female ratio was 724/346. Primary tumours were: non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (653 patients), melanoma (233 patients), renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (152 patients) and others (29 patients). Median BMI was 25 (13.6-46.6); according to World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, 44 patients (4.1%) were defined as underweight, 480 patients (44.9%) as having a normal weight, 416 patients (38.9%) as overweight and 130 patients (12.1%) as obese. Higher BMI was significantly related to higher occurrence of any grade immune-related adverse events [irAEs] (p < 0.0001), G3/G4 irAEs (p < 0.0001) and irAEs leading to discontinuation (LTD) (p < 0.0001). Overweight and obesity were confirmed predictors for irAEs of any grade at both univariate and multivariate analysis. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (compared to normal-weight) were 10.6; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 7.5-14.9 for overweight, and 16.6 (95%CI: 10.3-26.7) for obese patients. Obesity was the only factor significantly related to a higher incidence of G3/G4 irAEs (OR = 11.9 [95%CI: 6.4-22.3], p < 0.0001) and LTD irAEs (OR = 8.8 [95%CI: 4.3-18.2], p < 0.0001). Overweight and obese patients experienced a significantly higher occurrence of cutaneous, endocrine, gastro-intestinal (GI), hepatic and 'others' irAEs, compared to normal-weight patients. Only obese patients experienced a significantly higher occurrence of pulmonary and rheumatic irAEs, compared to normal-weight patients. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the previously evidenced association between higher BMI and better outcome, the current finding about the relationship between BMI and irAEs occurrence can contribute to consideration of these findings as the upside of the downside, which underlies an 'immunogenic phenotype'.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(11): 7900-7910, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943171

RESUMO

Body mass index (BMI) is a main indicator of obesity and its association with breast cancer is well established. However, little is known in the metastatic setting, especially in HER2-positive patients. We assessed the influence of BMI on clinical outcomes of patients treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (mBC). BMI was addressed as a categorical variable, being classified on the basis of the following ranges, that is, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and 30.0-34.9, namely, normal weight, overweight, and Class I obesity. The outcomes chosen were progression-free survival to first-line chemotherapy (PFS1) and overall survival (OS). Overall (N = 709), no impact of BMI was observed on PFS1 (p = .15), while BMI ≥ 30 was associated with worse OS (p = .003). In subjects who progressed to first line (N = 575), analyzing data across PFS1 quartiles and strata of disease burden, BMI predicted lower PFS1 in patients within the I PFS1 quartile and with the lowest disease burden (p = .001). Univariate analysis showed a detrimental effect of BMI ≥ 30 on OS for women within the I PFS1 quartile (p = .03). Results were confirmed in multivariate analysis. According to PFS1 quartiles a higher percentage of patients with high BMI and low disease burden progressed within 6 months of therapy. The effect of BMI on prognosis was also confirmed in multivariate analysis of OS for overall population. In our cohort, a BMI ≥ 30 correlated with worse OS in patients with HER2+ mBC who received pertuzumab and/or T-DM1 but had no impact on PFS to first line. BMI predicted worse I PFS1 quartile.


Assuntos
Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/genética
18.
Biomed Rep ; 12(2): 59-67, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929875

RESUMO

In the present study, the influence of purely palliative radiotherapy (pRT) on the outcomes of patients with advanced cancer undergoing immune checkpoint blockade was evaluated. Patients were stratified into three groups: Patients who had received pRT within 6 months prior to the initiation of immunotherapy (previous pRT); patients who received pRT during immunotherapy (concurrent pRT); and patients who did not receive RT prior to or during immunotherapy (no RT group), and these groups were compared. The median overall survival (mOS), median progression free survival (mPFS) and median time-to-treatment failure (mTTF) for the previous pRT group were significantly shorter compared with the no RT group (mOS, 3.6 vs. 12.1 months, respectively, P=0.0095; mPFS 1.8 vs. 5.4 months, respectively, P=0.0016; mTTF 1.8 vs. 5.7 months, respectively, P=0.0035). The concurrent pRT group had a longer mTTF compared with the previous pRT group and similar outcomes to the no RT group. In the previous pRT group, 26.9% of the patients experienced immune-related adverse events compared with 40.1% of patients in the no RT group. Despite the use of pRT during immunotherapy being considered safe, the results of the present study suggest that pRT has a negative effect on immune balance.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1917-1929, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330065

RESUMO

We analyzed data from 738 HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (mbc) patients treated with pertuzumab-based regimens and/or T-DM1 at 45 Italian centers. Outcomes were explored in relation to tumor subtype assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The median progression-free survival at first-line (mPFS1) was 12 months. Pertuzumab as first-line conferred longer mPFS1 compared to other first-line treatments (16 vs. 9 months, p = 0.0001), regardless of IHC subtype. Median PFS in second-line (mPFS2) was 7 months, with no difference by IHC subtype, but it was more favorable with T-DM1 compared to other agents (7 vs. 6 months, p = 0.03). There was no PFS2 gain in patients with tumors expressing both hormonal receptors (HRs; p = 0.17), while a trend emerged for tumors with one HR (p = 0.05). Conversely, PFS2 gain was significant in HRs-negative tumors (p = 0.04). Median overall survival (mOS) was 74 months, with no significant differences by IHC subtypes. Survival rates at 2 and 3 years in patients treated with T-DM1 in second-line after pertuzumab were significantly lower compared to pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.01). When analyzed by IHC subtype, the outcome was confirmed if both HRs or no HRs were expressed (p = 0.02 and p = 0.006, respectively). Our results confirm that HRs expression impacts the clinical behavior and novel treatment-related outcomes of HER2-positive tumors when treatment sequences are considered. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that HRs expression had no effect on PFS and OS. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the interplay between HER2 and estrogen receptor pathways in HER2-positive (mbc) patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
20.
J Cancer ; 10(24): 5903-5914, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762800

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by distinctive biological features that confer an aggressive clinical behavior. In TNBC patients, the absence of well-defined driver pathways such as hormonal receptor expression or hyperactivation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) significantly reduce the spectrum of therapeutic options, which are currently mainly confined to chemotherapy. Thus far, median overall survival for patients with metastatic TNBC is about 9-12 months with conventional cytotoxic agents. However, the heterogeneity recently revealed at a gene expression level inside the TNBC family may help inform therapeutic decisions concerning the use of chemotherapy and hopefully lead the way to novel targeted options that include immunotherapy. Eribulin, a halichondrin class antineoplastic drug, is currently recommended for treatment of HER2 negative metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (BC) previously exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes, also for patients with a TNBC. It is currently indicated from the second line of treatment. In this review, we aim to analyze a wide range of cumulated evidence on eribulin use in TNBC including preclinical studies, intervention and observational clinical trials. Data from the real-world setting and the emerging evidence increasingly substantiating the rationale for combinations with new generation treatment strategies, e.g., PARP-inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, will be also discussed.

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