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1.
Gerontologist ; 60(1): 4-11, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321326

RESUMO

Maintenance of functional independence, or the ability to perform daily tasks independently, is a hallmark of successful aging. Healthy older adults are considered functionally independent if they pass a short survey consisting of relatively simple daily activities, including grocery shopping and managing finances. We argue that aging research often has overlooked an important factor for long-term functional independence in a dynamic environment: adaptation for growth via learning new skills. Previous research has focused primarily on compensation and mitigating decline rather than growth. Given that adaptation for growth is at the core of intelligence, resilience, and neuroplasticity, we suggest that functional independence research with older adults could integrate adaptation for growth into the construct, following research on adolescent autonomy and emerging adulthood. After briefly reviewing research on functional independence and compensation in older adulthood, we offer suggestions to push forward gerontological research linking adaptation for growth and functional independence.

2.
Soc Dev ; 28(3): 725-742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579353

RESUMO

The effect of parental depression on children's adjustment has been well documented, with exposure during early childhood particularly detrimental. Most studies that examine links between parental depression and child behavior are confounded methodologically because they focus on parents raising children who are genetically related to them. Another limitation of most prior research is a tendency to focus only on the effects of maternal depression while ignoring the influence of fathers' depression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether infants' exposure to both parents' depressive symptoms, and inherited risk from birth mother internalizing symptoms, was related to school age children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Study data come from a longitudinal adoption study of 561 adoptive parents, biological mothers, and adopted children. Adoptive fathers' depressive symptoms during infancy contributed independent variance to the prediction of children's internalizing symptoms and also moderated associations between adoptive mothers' depressive symptoms and child externalizing symptoms.

3.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526412

RESUMO

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents and adopted children (n = 561 adoptees). The original sample has been expanded to include siblings of the EGDS adoptees who were reared by the birth mother and assessed beginning at age 7 years (n = 217 biological children), and additional siblings in both the birth and adoptive family homes, recruited when the adoptees were 8-15 years old (n = 823). The overall study aims are to examine how family, peer and contextual processes affect child and adolescent adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Adoptive and birth parents were originally recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the USA following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing and occurred in 9 month's intervals until the adoptees turned 3 years of age, and in 1 to 2 year intervals thereafter through age 15. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, behavior problems, mental health, peer relations, executive functioning, school performance and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, health, context, substance use, parenting and marital relations; and the prenatal environment. Findings highlight the power of the adoption design to detect environmental influences on child development and provide evidence of complex interactions and correlations between genetic, prenatal environmental and postnatal environmental influences on a range of child outcomes. The study sample, procedures and an overview of findings are summarized and ongoing assessment activities are described.

4.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1633-1647, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439063

RESUMO

To advance research from Dishion and others on associations between parenting and peer problems across childhood, we used a sample of 177 sibling pairs reared apart since birth (because of adoption of one of the siblings) to examine associations between parental hostility and children's peer problems when children were ages 7 and 9.5 years (n = 329 children). We extended conventional cross-lagged parent-peer models by incorporating child inhibitory control as an additional predictor and examining genetic contributions via birth mother psychopathology. Path models indicated a cross-lagged association from parental hostility to later peer problems. When child inhibitory control was included, birth mother internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer child inhibitory control, which was associated with more parental hostility and peer problems. The cross-lagged paths from parental hostility to peer problems were no longer significant in the full model. Multigroup analyses revealed that the path from birth mother internalizing symptoms to child inhibitory control was significantly higher for birth parent-reared children, indicating the possible contribution of passive gene-environment correlation to this association. Exploratory analyses suggested that each child's unique rearing context contributed to his or her inhibitory control and peer behavior. Implications for the development of evidence-based interventions are discussed.

5.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(12): 1269-1277, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety in parents is associated with anxiety in offspring, although little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these intergenerational associations. We conducted the first genetically sensitive study to simultaneously examine the effects of mother, father and child anxiety symptoms on each other over time. METHOD: Adoptive parent and child symptoms were measured at child ages 6, 7 and 8 years from 305 families involved in the Early Growth and Development Study, using a prospective adoption design. Children were adopted at birth to nonrelatives, and composite data on internalising problems within birth families were used as a proxy measure of offspring inherited risk for anxiety. Structural equation models were fitted to the data to examine prospective associations between adoptive mother, father and child symptoms, whilst accounting for individuals' symptom stability over time. RESULTS: Child anxiety symptoms at age 7 predicted adoptive mothers' anxiety symptoms at age 8. No mother-to-child or child-to-father effects were observed. These results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using only paternal offspring reports and using a second measure of child anxiety symptoms. Fathers' anxiety symptoms at child age 6 prospectively predicted child symptoms, but only when paternal offspring reports were included in the model. Composite data on birth family internalising problems were not associated with child anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results show environmentally mediated associations between parent and child anxiety symptoms. Results support developmental theories suggesting that child anxiety symptoms can exert influence on caregivers, and mothers and fathers may play unique roles during the development of child symptoms. Further research is needed on the role of genetic transmission associated with anxiety symptoms in biologically related families. In the meantime, researchers and clinicians should strive to include fathers in assessments and consider the effects of child symptoms on caregivers.

6.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1164-1181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843708

RESUMO

This study examines interactions of heritable influences, prenatal substance use, and postnatal parental warmth and hostility on the development of conduct problems in middle childhood for boys and girls. Participants are 561 linked families, collected in 2 cohorts, including birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Heritable influences on internalizing and externalizing (including substance use) problems were derived from birth mothers' and fathers' symptoms, diagnoses, and age of onset from diagnostic interviews, and the proportion of first-degree relatives with the same type of problems. Smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and alcohol use during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively from birth mothers at 5 months postpartum. Earlier externalizing problems and parental warmth and hostility and were assessed at 1 assessment prior to the outcome (Cohort II: 4.5 years; Cohort I: 7 years). Conduct problems were symptoms from a diagnostic interview assessed at age 6 (Cohort II) or 8 (Cohort I). Findings from regression analyses suggest that (a) SDP plays an important role for the development of conduct problems, (b) some relatively well-accepted effects (e.g., parental hostility) were less important when simultaneously considering multiple factors influencing the development of conduct problems, and (c) main effects of genetic risk and SDP, and interactions among genetic risk and postnatal warmth, SDP and postnatal warmth, and genetic risk, SDP, and postnatal hostility for conduct problems were important for boys' but not girls' conduct problems. Replication is needed, but the current results provide preliminary but empirically grounded hypotheses for future research testing complex developmental models of conduct problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Alcoolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1182-1190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816723

RESUMO

A plethora of studies with parents and children who are biologically related has shown that the family environment plays an important role in child development. However, scientists have long known that a rigorous examination of environmental effects requires research designs that go beyond studies of genetically linked family members. Harnessing the principles of sibling comparison and animal cross-fostering designs, we introduce a novel approach: the siblings-reared-apart design. Supplementing the traditional adoption design of adopted child and adoptive parents with a sample of the adopted children's birth parents who raised their biological child(ren) at home (i.e., biological siblings of adoptees), this design provides opportunities to evaluate the role of specific rearing environments. In this proof of concept approach, we tested whether rearing environments differed between adoptive and birth families. Using data from 118 sets of adoption-linked families, each consisting of an adoptive family and the adoptee's birth family, both of whom are raising at least a child in each home, we found that compared with families in the birth homes, (a) adoptive families had higher household incomes and maternal educational attainment; (b) adoptive mothers displayed more guiding parenting, less harsh parenting, and less maternal depression; and (c) socioeconomic differences between the two homes did not account for the behavioral differences in mothers. We discuss the potential of the sibling-reared-apart design to advance developmental science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adoção , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(5): 811-823, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306411

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors increase children's risk for subsequent antisocial behavior. This risk process may begin in early childhood with reciprocal pathways between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. In a sample of 561 linked triads of biological mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children, the present study examined bidirectional links between CU behaviors and harsh parenting across three time points from 18 to 54 months and investigated moderation by inherited risk for psychopathic traits. Child CU behaviors and harsh parenting were measured using adoptive mother and adoptive father reports, and biological mothers provided reports of their personality characteristics. Findings supported reciprocal associations between harsh parenting and CU behaviors during early childhood, especially during the transition from toddlerhood (27 months) to the preschool period (54 months). Moreover, multiple-group analyses showed that level of inherited risk moderated associations between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. Specifically, there were statistically reliable associations between CU behaviors at 27 months and adoptive mothers' harsh parenting at 54 months, and between adoptive fathers' harsh parenting at 27 months and CU behaviors at 54 months among children at higher inherited risk, but not among those at lower inherited risk. The findings illustrate the dynamic interplay between parenting, CU behaviors, and heritable risk.

9.
Child Dev ; 90(4): e468-e485, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460308

RESUMO

This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents' social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners' social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes.

10.
Dev Psychol ; 54(11): 2090-2100, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265026

RESUMO

Anger is a central characteristic of negative affect and is relatively stable from infancy onward. Absolute levels of anger typically peak in early childhood and diminish as children become socialized and better able to regulate emotions. From infancy to school age, however, there are also individual differences in rank-order levels of anger. For example, although decreasing in absolute levels, some children may stay the same and others may increase in rank order relative to their peers. Although change in rank order of anger over time may provide unique insight into children's social development, little is known concerning variations in developmental patterns of anger from a rank-order perspective and how these patterns are related to children's behavioral adjustment. The current study (N = 361) used group-based trajectory analysis and identified 6 distinct patterns of parent-reported child anger by rank across 9 months to 7 years: low-stable rank, average-stable rank, average-decreasing rank, average-increasing rank, high-decreasing rank, and high-stable rank. Most children (65.1%) were in low- to average-rank groups. However, 28.2% and 6.7% of the children were in average-increasing and high-stable groups, respectively. Children in the high-stable group showed elevated levels of externalizing and internalizing problems at age 8 compared to children in the average-stable, average-decreasing, and high-decreasing groups. These findings help to clarify different patterns of anger development across childhood and how they may relate to later problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Masculino
11.
World J Pediatr ; 14(6): 555-569, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/S) attempts to detect chromosomal abnormalities in embryos before implantation. Using the meta-analytic and qualitative review approaches, this study aims to evaluate the effect of PGD/S on clinical pregnancy, live births, and childhood outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using 1) PubMed and other search engines, and 2) an ancestry search by tracking references cited in prior work. After screening the studies, we extracted information pertinent to the meta-analysis. We calculated the effect sizes for clinical pregnancy and live birth rates, and performed a moderation analysis by maternal age, type of genetic screening, and timing of the biopsy. For childhood outcomes, we conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the anthropometric, psychomotor, cognitive, behavioral, and family functioning of PGD/S children. RESULTS: We included 26 studies for clinical pregnancy and live births, and 18 studies for childhood outcomes. Results indicated that women who underwent comprehensive chromosome screening-based PGD/S had significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (rr 1.207, 95% CI 1.017-1.431) and live birth rates (rr 1.362, 95% CI 1.057-1.755) than those whose IVF treatment did not include PGD/S. Early childhood outcomes of PGD/S children did not differ from those of non-PGD/S children. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive chromosome screening-based PGD/S can improve clinical pregnancy and live birth rates without adversely affecting functioning in childhood at least up to age 9. Results are discussed in the context of bioethical, financial, legal, and psychological issues surrounding PGD/S.


Assuntos
Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
12.
Infant Child Dev ; 27(4)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147452

RESUMO

This study examined children's morning HPA axis activation as a moderator of links between hostile, over-reactive parenting at age 4.5 years and children's skills for success in school (higher executive function and literacy, and less externalizing behavior) at age 6. Participants included 361 adoptive families. Parenting was self-reported. HPA axis activation was measured by basal levels in morning cortisol. Executive function and literacy were assessed via standardized tasks. Externalizing behavior was reported by teachers. Results indicated that hostile, over-reactive parenting predicted more externalizing behavior and lower executive functioning regardless of children's morning HPA axis activation. HPA axis activation moderated the effects of hostile, over-reactive parenting on literacy. Among children with moderate to high morning HPA axis activation (approximately 60% of the sample), harsh parenting was linked with lower literacy; children with low morning HPA axis activation exhibited better literacy in the context of more hostile, over-reactive parenting. Yet, across the sample, hostile, over-reactive parenting remained in the low to moderate range, not in the high range. Findings are discussed in the context of considering not only whether children's stress system activation moderates responses to their environments, but also how these processes operate for different developmental outcomes.

13.
Dev Sci ; 21(6): e12692, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978935

RESUMO

The origins of top-down self-regulation are attributed to genetic and socialization factors as evidenced by high heritability estimates from twin studies and the influential role of parenting. However, recent evidence suggests that parenting behavior itself is affected by parents' own top-down self-regulation. Because children's top-down self-regulation is influenced by genetic factors and parenting is influenced by top-down self-regulation, the effects of parenting on children's top-down self-regulation identified in prior studies may partially reflect passive gene-environment correlation. The goal of this study was to examine parenting influences on children's top-down self-regulation using a longitudinal, adoption-at-birth design, a method of identifying parenting influences that are independent of the role of shared genetic influences on children's characteristics because adoptive parents are genetically unrelated to their adopted child. Participants (N = 361) included adoptive families and biological mothers of adopted children. Adoptive mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting were assessed when children were 27 months of age and biological mothers' top-down self-regulation was assessed when children were 54 months of age. Adopted children's top-down self-regulation was assessed when they were 54 and 72 months of age. Results, accounting for child gender, biological mother top-down self-regulation, and the potential evocative effects of adopted child anger, provide evidence that inherited influences and socialization processes uniquely contribute to children's top-down self-regulation. Furthermore, findings demonstrate the importance of both mother's and father's parenting behavior as an influence on young children's top-down self-regulation. The implications of these findings for understanding the complex mechanisms that influence children's top-down self-regulation are discussed.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole , Adoção , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Socialização
14.
J Soc Psychol ; 158(2): 139-151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300488

RESUMO

This study investigated changes in risk-taking propensity on a behavioral decision-making task as a function of varying social conditions with peers. In contrast to the effects of direct peer influence (pro-risk and anti-risk messages by peers), we included a socially ambiguous context (neutral messages by peers) and a no-peer control (participants alone) as comparison conditions. Using a counterbalanced mixed factorial design, college students (N = 187) completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth (BART-Y) twice during two consecutive sessions, including once alone and once with a confederate; the control group completed two sessions of the task alone. The findings showed that, in general, direct pro-risk messages led to the most robust and consistent changes in risk-taking. The findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional and multidirectional nature of peer influence during the college years.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prev Sci ; 19(1): 68-78, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093649

RESUMO

Before genetic approaches were applied in experimental studies with human populations, they were used by animal and plant breeders to observe, and experimentally manipulate, the role of genes and environment on specific phenotypic or behavioral outcomes. For obvious ethical reasons, the same level of experimental control is not possible in human populations. Nonetheless, there are natural experimental designs in human populations that can serve as logical extensions of the rigorous quantitative genetic experimental designs used by animal and plant researchers. Applying concepts such as cross-fostering and common garden rearing approaches from the life science discipline, we describe human designs that can serve as naturalistic proxies for the controlled quantitative genetic experiments facilitated in life sciences research. We present the prevention relevance of three such human designs: (1) children adopted at birth by parents to whom they are not genetically related (common garden approach); (2) sibling designs where one sibling is reared from birth with unrelated adoptive parents and the other sibling is reared from birth by the biological mother of the sibling pair (cross-fostering approach); and (3) in vitro fertilization designs, including egg donation, sperm donation, embryo donation, and surrogacy (prenatal cross-fostering approach). Each of these designs allows for differentiation of the effects of the prenatal and/or postnatal rearing environment from effects of genes shared between parent and child in naturalistic ways that can inform prevention efforts. Example findings from each design type are provided and conclusions drawn about the relevance of naturalistic genetic designs to prevention science.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Medicina Preventiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adoção , Educação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Fertilização In Vitro , Perfil Genético , Humanos , Irmãos
16.
Dev Psychopathol ; 29(5): 1707-1720, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162177

RESUMO

Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother-adopted child (AM-AC) dyads and 126 biological mother-biological child (BM-BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother's trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM-AC and BM-BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers' depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM-AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM-AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Adoção/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Dev Psychol ; 53(3): 436-449, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230401

RESUMO

Marital quality and social support satisfaction were tested as moderators of the association between maternal depressive symptoms and parenting during early childhood (18-36 months) among 2 large, divergent, longitudinal samples (n = 526; n = 570). Unexpectedly, in both samples the association between maternal depressive symptoms and reduced parenting quality was strongest in the context of high marital quality and high social support, and largely nonsignificant in the context of low marital quality and low social support. Possible explanations for these surprising findings are discussed. Results point to the importance of accounting for factors in the broader family context in predicting the association between depressive symptoms and maternal parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Depressão , Casamento/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adoção/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
J Pers ; 85(1): 90-103, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291075

RESUMO

Key to understanding the long-term impact of social inequalities is identifying early behaviors that may signal higher risk for later poor psychosocial outcomes, such as psychopathology. A set of early-emerging characteristics that may signal risk for later externalizing psychopathology is callous-unemotional (CU) behavior. CU behavior predicts severe and chronic trajectories of externalizing behaviors in youth. However, much research on CU behavior has focused on late childhood and adolescence, with little attention paid to early childhood when preventative interventions may be most effective. In this article, we summarize our recent work showing that (a) CU behavior can be identified in early childhood using items from common behavior checklists, (b) CU behavior predicts worse outcomes across early childhood, (c) CU behavior exhibits a nomological network distinct from other early externalizing behaviors, and (d) malleable environmental factors, particularly parenting, may play a role in the development of early CU behaviors. We discuss the challenges of studying contextual contributors to the development of CU behavior in terms of gene-environment correlations and present initial results from work examining CU behavior in an adoption study in which gene-environment correlations are examined in early childhood. We find that parenting is a predictor of early CU behavior even in a sample in which parents are not genetically related to the children.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(5): 1076-1088, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848126

RESUMO

Although it is known that parents and adolescents hold different views regarding adolescent characteristics (e.g., inter-rater agreement on adolescent behaviors between parents and adolescents is low), we know little about parent-adolescent (dis)agreement in their perceptions of parenting. The current study used 220 parent-adolescent dyads (M age = 13.3 years; 50.5 % female) to address this gap and examined how the discrepancy between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent's negative reactions toward an adolescent's anger affects the adolescent's problem behaviors. Results suggested the direction of the disagreement between the two parties is important: when adolescents viewed parenting more negatively than parents did, adolescents showed elevated levels of broadband externalizing behaviors and, specifically, aggressive behaviors. This finding suggests the importance of adolescents' subjective views of how mothers and fathers react to them. The findings are discussed in terms of methodology in family studies and implications toward future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 55(3): 235-42, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26903257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The spillover hypothesis suggests that childhood aggression results from spillover of interparental conflict to poor parenting, which promotes aggressive child behavior. This study was designed to examine the spillover hypothesis in non-genetically related parent-child dyads from the toddler period through age 6 years. METHOD: A sample of 361 sets of children, adoptive parents, and birth parents from the Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) was assessed from child age 9 months to 6 years on measures of adoptive parent financial strain, antisocial traits, marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child aggression. Structural equation modeling was used to examine links from financial strain, parent antisocial traits, and marital hostility in infancy and toddlerhood to hostile parenting and child aggression at ages 4.5 and 6 years. RESULTS: Spillover of marital conflict from child age 18 to 27 months was associated with more parental hostility in mothers and fathers at 27 months. In turn, adoptive fathers' parental hostility, but not mothers', was associated with aggression in children at age 4.5 years. However, there was no significant spillover from hostile parenting at 4.5 years to child aggression at 6 years. Birth mother antisocial traits were unassociated with child aggression. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to examine spillover of marital hostility to parenting to child aggression from toddlerhood through age 6 years in an adoption design, highlighting the impact of these environmental factors from the toddler to preschool period. The findings support the potential benefit of early identification of marital hostility.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adoção , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
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