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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(11): 2120-2128, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129437

RESUMO

Cucurbit[n]urils (CBn, n = 6-8) serve as molecular receptors for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in aqueous solution. The amphiphilic nature of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium guests (Cnmim), with a cationic imidazolium residue and a hydrophobic alkyl chain, enabled their complexation with CBn through a combination of the hydrophobic effect and ion-dipole interactions. 1H NMR experiments revealed that the cavity of CBn can host the hydrophobic chain of the ILs, while one of the carbonyl rims served as a docking site for the imidazolium ring. The structure of the complexes was further analyzed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which indicated that the cavity of CB6 can accommodate up to 5 carbon atoms, while the larger cavity of CB7 and CB8 can encapsulate longer alkyl chains in folded conformations. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments provided up to micromolar affinity of ILs to CBn in aqueous solution, which was independently quantified by indicator displacement titrations.

2.
Chemphyschem ; 21(10): 971-976, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163219

RESUMO

The supramolecular recognition of closo,closo-[B21 H18 ]- by cyclodextrins (CDs) has been studied in aqueous solution by isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These solution studies follow up on previous mass-spectrometric measurements and computations, which indicated the formation and stability of CD ⋅ B21 H18 - complexes in the gas phase. The thermodynamic signature of solution-phase binding is exceptional, the association constant for the γ-CD complex with B21 H18 - reaches 1.8×106  M-1 , which is on the same order of magnitude as the so far highest observed value for the complex between γ-CD and a metallacarborane. The nature of the intermolecular interaction is also examined by quantum-mechanical computational protocols. These suggest that the desolvation penalty, which is particularly low for the B21 H18 - anion, is the decisive factor for its high binding strength. The results further suggest that the elliptical macropolyhedral boron hydride is another example of a CD binder, whose extraordinary binding affinity is driven by the chaotropic effect, which describes the intrinsic affinity of large polarizable and weakly solvated chaotropic anions to hydrophobic cavities and surfaces in aqueous solution.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14131-14134, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696884

RESUMO

High binding constants of 19 inorganic cations with the cucurbit[n]uril homologues (CBn, n = 5, 6, 7, 8) in water were determined and the far-reaching consequences and interferences of the high affinities (millimolar to micromolar) are discussed.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(94): 14123-14126, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690892

RESUMO

A putrescine derivative of aminomethyladamantane is established as a ditopic guest with two mutually exclusive binding sites for cucurbit[6]uril and cucurbit[7]uril. A mixture containing both hosts, the ditopic guest, and two fluorescent dyes affords a relay system with a ratiometric fluorescence response and enables a kinetic analysis of the switching mechanism.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(51): 20137-20145, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739668

RESUMO

The membrane transport mechanisms of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are still controversial, and reliable assays to report on their internalization in model membranes are required. Herein, we introduce a label-free, fluorescence-based method to monitor membrane transport of peptides in real time. For this purpose, a macrocyclic host and a fluorescent dye forming a host-dye reporter pair are encapsulated inside phospholipid vesicles. Internalization of peptides, which can bind to the supramolecular host, leads to displacement of the dye from the host, resulting in a fluorescence change that signals the peptide uptake and, thus, provides unambiguous evidence for their transport through the membrane. The method was successfully validated with various established CPPs, including the elusive peptide TP2, in the presence of counterion activators of CPPs, and with a calixarene-based supramolecular membrane transport system. In addition, transport experiments with encapsulated host-dye reporter pairs are not limited to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) but can also be used with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and fluorescence microscopy imaging.

6.
ChemistryOpen ; 8(11): 1350-1354, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741820

RESUMO

The combination of the macrocyclic hosts p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene and cucurbit[7]uril with the fluorescent dyes lucigenin and berberine affords two label-free enzyme assays for the detection of kinase and phosphatase activity by fluorescence monitoring. In contrast to established assays, no substrate labeling is required. Since phosphorylation is one of the most important regulatory mechanisms in biological signal transduction, the assays should be useful for identification of inhibitors and activators in high-throughput screening (HTS) format for drug discovery.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(91): 13669-13672, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663544

RESUMO

We report the modification of the 2-ammonio group at halogenated decaborate ions with 2,3-epoxypropane, the product of which reacts readily with nucleophiles to form previously inaccessible coupling of polyhedra with organic molecules and materials. We demonstrate that these ions present a good binding motif in supramolecular chemistry.

8.
Front Chem ; 7: 619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572710

RESUMO

The supramolecular chemistry of cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) has been rapidly developing to encompass diverse medicinal applications, including drug formulation and delivery, controlled drug release, and sensing for bioanalytical purposes. This is made possible by their unique recognition properties and very low cytotoxicity. In this review, we summarize the host-guest complexation of biologically important molecules with CBn, and highlight their implementation in medicinal chemistry and chemical biology.

9.
Chemistry ; 25(57): 13088-13093, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441544

RESUMO

A convenient supramolecular strategy for constructing a ratiometric fluorescent chemosensing ensemble, consisting of a macrocyclic host (cucurbit[8]uril CB[8]), and a pyrene-tagged amphiphilic peptide beacon (AP 1), is reported. AP 1 unfolds upon encapsulation of the pyrene termini into the hydrophobic CB[8] cavity. This changes pyrene excimer to monomer emission. Substrates with higher affinity for the CB[8] cavity can displace AP 1 from the ensemble. The released AP 1 folds again to form a pyrene excimer, which allows for the ratiometric fluorescence monitoring of the substrate. In this report, the ensemble capacity for ratiometric fluorescence monitoring of biological substrates, such as amino acid derivatives, specific peptides, and proteins, in aqueous media is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Imidazóis/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/análise , Pirenos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Água/química
10.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 123(25): 15769-15776, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303905

RESUMO

We demonstrate that the reproducibility of sensors for nitroaromatics based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be significantly improved via a hierarchical aqueous self-assembly approach mediated by the multifunctional macrocyclic molecule cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). Our approach is enabled by the novel host-guest complexation between CB[7] and an explosive marker 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT). Binding studies are performed using experimental and computation techniques to quantify key binding parameters for the first time. This supramolecular complexation allows DNT to be positioned in close proximity to the plasmonic hotspots within aggregates of CB[7] and gold nanoparticles, resulting in significant SERS signals with a detection limit of ∼1 µM. The supramolecular ensemble is selective against a structurally similar nitroaromatics owing to the molecular-recognition nature of the complexation as well as tolerant against the presence of model organic contaminants that bind strongly to the SERS substrates.

11.
J Org Chem ; 84(18): 11790-11798, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274306

RESUMO

Metallacarboranes are a class of inorganic boron clusters that have recently been recognized as biologically active compounds. Herein, we report on the host-guest complexation of several cobalt bis(1,2-dicarbollide) anions (COSANs) with cyclodextrins (CDs) in aqueous solution. The binding affinities reach micromolar values, which are among the highest known values for native CDs, and exceed those for neutral hydrophobic organic guest molecules. The entrapment of the COSANs inside the cavity of CDs was confirmed using NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Complexation by CDs greatly influences the photophysical and electrochemical properties of COSANs. In combination with indicator displacement assays, a label-free fluorescence-based method was developed to allow real-time monitoring of the translocation of COSANs through lipid bilayer membranes.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(5): 671-674, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565597

RESUMO

A supramolecular host-guest FRET pair based on a carboxyfluorescein-labelled cucurbit[7]uril (CB7-CF, as acceptor) and the fluorescent dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, as donor) is developed for sensing of DNA. In comparison to the commercial DNA staining dye SYBR Green I, the new chemosensing ensemble offers dual-emission signals, which allows a linear ratiometric response over a wide concentration range.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , DNA/análise , Fluoresceínas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Imidazóis/química , Indóis/química , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/síntese química , DNA/química , Fluoresceínas/síntese química , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Chem Sci ; 10(44): 10240-10246, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110310

RESUMO

Whilst cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) have been utilized in gas encapsulation, only the smaller CBn (n = 5 and 6) have utility given their small cavity size. In this work, we demonstrate that the large cavity of CB8 can be tailored for gaseous and volatile hydrocarbon encapsulation by restricting its internal cavity size with auxiliary aryl-bisimidazolium (Bis, aryl = phenyl, naphthyl, and biphenyl) guests. The binding constants for light hydrocarbons (C ≤ 4) are similar to those measured with CB6, while larger values are obtained with Bis·CB8 for larger guests. A clear propensity for higher affinities of alkenes relative to alkanes is observed, most pronounced with the largest delocalized naphthalene residue in the auxiliary Bis guest, which provides unique evidence for sizable small-molecule π-π interactions.

14.
Chem Sci ; 9(45): 8575-8581, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568782

RESUMO

We report herein the controlled surface functionalization of micro- and nanoparticles by supramolecular host-guest interactions. Our idea is to exploit the competition of two high-affinity guests for binding to the surface-bound supramolecular host cucurbit[7]uril (CB7). To establish our strategy, surface azide groups were introduced to hard-sphere (poly)methylmethacrylate particles with a grafted layer of poly(acrylic acid), and a propargyl derivative of CB7 was coupled to the surface by click chemistry. The amount of surface-bound CB7 was quantified with the high-affinity guest aminomethyladamantane (AMADA), which revealed CB7 surface coverage densities around 0.3 nmol cm-2 indicative of a 3D layer of CB7 binding sites on the surface. The potential for surface functionalization was demonstrated with an aminoadamantane-labeled rhodamine (Ada-Rho) as a second high-affinity guest. Simultaneous incubation of CB7-functionalized particles with both high-affinity guests, AMADA and Ada-Rho, revealed a simple linear relationship between the resulting surface coverage densities of the model fluorescent dye and the mole fraction of Ada-Rho in the incubation mixture. This suggests a highly modular supramolecular strategy for the stable immobilization of application-relevant molecules on particle surfaces and a precise control of their surface coverage densities.

15.
Nat Chem ; 10(12): 1252-1257, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297753

RESUMO

The accurate dissection of binding energies into their microscopic components is challenging, especially in solution. Here we study the binding of noble gases (He-Xe) with the macrocyclic receptor cucurbit[5]uril in water by displacement of methane and ethane as 1H NMR probes. We dissect the hydration free energies of the noble gases into an attractive dispersive component and a repulsive one for formation of a cavity in water. This allows us to identify the contributions to host-guest binding and to conclude that the binding process is driven by differential cavitation energies rather than dispersion interactions. The free energy required to create a cavity to accept the noble gas inside the cucurbit[5]uril is much lower than that to create a similarly sized cavity in bulk water. The recovery of the latter cavitation energy drives the overall process, which has implications for the refinement of gas-storage materials and the understanding of biological receptors.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13925, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224752

RESUMO

The host-guest interactions of a third-generation fluoroquinone, danofloxacin (DOFL), with the macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) have been investigated at different pH values (~3.5, 7.5, and 10). The photophysical properties have been positively affected, that is, the fluorescence yield and lifetime increased, as well as the photostability of DOFL improved in the presence of CB7. The antibacterial activity of DOFL is enhanced in the presence of CB7, as tested against four pathogenic bacteria; highest activity has been found towards B. cereus and E. coli, and lower activity towards S. aureus and S. typhi. The antibacterial activity of two additional second-generation fluoroquinones, i.e., norfloxacin and ofloxacin, has also been investigated in the absence as well as the presence of CB7 and compared with that of DOFL. In case of all drugs, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 3-5 fold in the presence of CB7. The extended shelf-life (antibacterial activity over time) of the fluoroquinone drugs in the presence of CB7, irrespective of four types of bacteria, can be attributed to the enhanced photostability of their CB7 complexes, which can act as better antibiotics with a longer expiry date than uncomplexed DOFL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/química , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Imidazóis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Calorimetria , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 14: 1961-1971, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202450

RESUMO

We introduce herein boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes as a new class of fluorophores for the design of reporter dyes for supramolecular host-guest complex formation with cucurbit[7]uril (CB7). The BODIPYs contain a protonatable aniline nitrogen in the meso-position of the BODIPY chromophore, which was functionalized with known binding motifs for CB7. The unprotonated dyes show low fluorescence due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), whereas the protonated dyes are highly fluorescent. Encapsulation of the binding motif inside CB7 positions the aniline nitrogen at the carbonyl rim of CB7, which affects the pKa value, and leads to a host-induced protonation and thus to a fluorescence increase. The possibility to tune binding affinities and pKa values is demonstrated and it is shown that, in combination with the beneficial photophysical properties of BODIPYs, several new applications of host-dye reporter pairs can be implemented. This includes indicator displacement assays with favourable absorption and emission wavelengths in the visible spectral region, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and noncovalent surface functionalization with fluorophores.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(43): 13968-13981, 2018 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992706

RESUMO

Following up on scattered reports on interactions of conventional chaotropic ions (for example, I- , SCN- , ClO4 - ) with macrocyclic host molecules, biomolecules, and hydrophobic neutral surfaces in aqueous solution, the chaotropic effect has recently emerged as a generic driving force for supramolecular assembly, orthogonal to the hydrophobic effect. The chaotropic effect becomes most effective for very large ions that extend beyond the classical Hofmeister scale and that can be referred to as superchaotropic ions (for example, borate clusters and polyoxometalates). In this Minireview, we present a continuous scale of water-solute interactions that includes the solvation of kosmotropic, chaotropic, and hydrophobic solutes, as well as the creation of void space (cavitation). Recent examples for the association of chaotropic anions to hydrophobic synthetic and biological binding sites, lipid bilayers, and surfaces are discussed.

19.
Chemistry ; 24(49): 12970-12975, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893507

RESUMO

Polyhedral carboxymethyl carborane (C2 B10 H12 ) derivatives, including mono- and disubstituted o-, m-, and p-isomers, have been synthesized. Supramolecular host-guest complexation of these derivatives with cyclodextrins (CDs; namely, α-, ß-, and γ-CD) has been investigated in water. The globular structure of the carborane binding moiety and its hydrophobic character qualify it as an ideal recognition site to form stable inclusion complexes with macrocyclic host molecules in aqueous solution. The measured binding affinities for the carborane derivatives were in the millimolar range (Ka =103 -104 m-1 ) with differently sized CDs, and preferential binding to ß-CD.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 122(16): 4445-4456, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617564

RESUMO

Protein folding can be described as a probabilistic succession of events in which the peptide chain forms loops closed by specific amino acid residue contacts, herein referred to as loop nodes. To measure loop rates, several photophysical methods have been introduced where a pair of optically active probes is incorporated at selected chain positions and the excited probe undergoes contact quenching (CQ) upon collision with the second probe. The quenching mechanisms involved triplet-triplet energy transfer, photoinduced electron transfer, and collision-induced fluorescence quenching, where the fluorescence of Dbo, an asparagine residue conjugated to 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, is quenched by tryptophan. The discrepancy between the loop rates afforded from these three CQ techniques has, however, remained unresolved. In analyzing this discrepancy, we now report two short-distance FRET methods where Dbo acts as an energy acceptor in combination with tryptophan and naphtylalanine, two donors with largely different fluorescence lifetimes of 1.3 and 33 ns, respectively. Despite the different quenching mechanisms, the rates from FRET and CQ methods were, surprisingly, of comparable magnitude. This combination of FRET and CQ data led to a unifying physical model and to the conclusion that the rate of loop formation in folding reactions varies not only with the kind and number of residues that constitute the chain but also in particular with the size and properties of the residues that constitute the loop node.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Dobramento de Proteína , Proteínas/química , Fluorescência , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Triptofano/química
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