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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802913

RESUMO

Depression is a major problem in youth mental health. Current treatment is on average effective, but adolescents are hesitant to seek help. Blended treatment could lower the barriers to seeking treatment. Evidence on effectiveness is, however, scarce. The present pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of blended cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to face-to-face CBT and treatment as usual. A total of 129 adolescents with clinical depression (82.2% female), aged 13-22 (M = 16.60, SD = 2.03) received blended CBT, face-to-face CBT or treatment as usual. Clinical diagnosis, depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months follow-up. Participants receiving blended CBT were, compared to participants receiving face-to-face CBT and treatment as usual, evenly likely to be in remission from their depressive disorder at post-intervention and at six-month follow-up. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time in all three conditions, and changes were not significantly different between conditions. Other secondary outcomes (suicide risk, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, severity of depression, and global functioning) did not differ between treatment conditions at post-intervention and six-month follow-up. Since there was no evidence for favorable outcomes for face-to-face therapies above blended CBT, blended CBT may also be an effective treatment format in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14815, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908173

RESUMO

We examined if manualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more effective than Treatment As Usual (TAU) for clinically depressed adolescents within routine care. This multisite Randomized controlled trail included 88 clinically depressed adolescents (aged 12-21 years) randomly assigned to CBT or TAU. Multiple assessments (pre-, post treatment and six-month follow-up) were done using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and ratings and multiple informants. The primary outcome was depressive or dysthymic disorder based on the KSADS. Completers, CBT (n = 19) and TAU (n = 26), showed a significant reduction of affective diagnoses at post treatment (76% versus 76%) and after six months (90% versus 79%). Intention-to-treat analyses on depressive symptoms showed that 41.6% within CBT and 31.8% within the TAU condition was below clinical cut-off at post treatment and after six-months, respectively 61.4% and 47.7%. No significant differences in self-reported depressive symptoms between CBT and TAU were found. No prediction or moderation effects were found for age, gender, child/parent educational level, suicidal criteria, comorbidity, and severity of depression. We conclude that CBT did not outperform TAU in clinical practice in the Netherlands. Both treatments were found to be suitable to treat clinically referred depressed adolescents. CBT needs further improvement to decrease symptom levels below the clinical cut-off at post treatment.

3.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892235

RESUMO

With Latent Class Analysis applied on data of 98 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (9-12 years; 17 girls) participating in social skills training (SST) in a randomized controlled trial (Dekker et al. 2019), four subgroups were detected, based on social-communicative skills before, and response patterns to training. Two subgroups improved after SST. Characterizing the subgroups based on participant and intervention characteristics showed that improvement was related to lower parent-reported perceived difficulty of social-communicative skills at start, higher verbal ability, younger age and milder symptoms of ASD and anxiety. The lowest performing non-improving subgroup participated more often in SST without parent/teacher involvement, compared to all other subgroups. Response to SST in ASD seems to vary depending on participant characteristics.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the Netherlands, there was a sharp increase in the number of suicides among 10- to 19-year-olds in 2017. A multi-method psychological autopsy study (PA) was conducted to assess feasibility, identify related factors, and study the interplay of these factors to inform suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: Coroners identified youth suicides in 2017 in their records and then general practitioners (GPs) contacted the parents of these youths. Over a period of 7 months, 66 qualitative interviews were held with the parents, peers, and teachers, providing information on precipitating factors and five topics involving 35 cases (17 boys and 18 girls, mean age 17 years). Furthermore, 43 parents and care professionals filled in questionnaires to examine risk and care-related factors. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. RESULTS: Although registration problems faced by coroners and resistance to contacting bereaved families by GPs hampered the recruitment, most parents highly appreciated being interviewed. Several adverse childhood experiences played a role at an individual level, such as (cyber) bullying, parental divorce, sexual abuse, as well as complex mental disorders, and previous suicide attempts. Two specific patterns stood out: (1) girls characterized by insecurity and a perfectionist attitude, who developed psychopathology and dropped out of school, and (2) boys with a developmental disorder, such as autism, who were transferred to special needs education and therefore felt rejected. In addition, adolescents with complex problems had difficulty finding appropriate formal care. Regarding potential new trends, contagion effects of social media use in a clinical setting and internet use for searching lethal methods were found. CONCLUSION: This first national PA study showed that, as expected, a variety of mostly complex clusters of problems played a role in youth suicides. An infrastructure is needed to continuously monitor, evaluate, and support families after each youth suicide and thereby improve prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Países Baixos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders in children and young people are common and bring significant personal and societal costs. Over the last two decades, there has been a substantial increase in research evaluating psychological and pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people and exciting and novel research has continued as the field strives to improve efficacy and effectiveness, and accessibility of interventions. This increase in research brings potential to draw together data across studies to compare treatment approaches and advance understanding of what works, how, and for whom. There are challenges to these efforts due largely to variation in studies' outcome measures and variation in the way study characteristics are reported, making it difficult to compare and/or combine studies, and this is likely to lead to faulty conclusions. Studies particularly vary in their reliance on child, parent, and/or assessor-based ratings across a range of outcomes, including remission of anxiety diagnosis, symptom reduction, and other domains of functioning (e.g., family relationships, peer relationships). METHODS: To address these challenges, we convened a series of international activities that brought together the views of key stakeholders (i.e., researchers, mental health professionals, young people, parents/caregivers) to develop recommendations for outcome measurement to be used in treatment trials for anxiety disorders in children and young people. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This article reports the results of these activities and offers recommendations for selection and reporting of outcome measures to (a) guide future research and (b) improve communication of what has been measured and reported. We offer these recommendations to promote international consistency in trial reporting and to enable the field to take full advantage of the great opportunities that come from data sharing going forward.

6.
J Anxiety Disord ; 73: 102230, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428821

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although there is consensus that exposure is the key ingredient in treating childhood anxiety disorders, several studies in the USA suggest exposure to be underused in clinical practice. Previous research pointed to therapists' beliefs about exposure, their age, experience, caseload, training and theoretical orientation, as well as the level of the therapists' own anxiety as important factors in the underusage of exposure in the treatment of adult anxiety disorders. This study examined what therapist characteristics may be involved in the (non-)use of exposure in treating childhood anxiety disorders. METHODS: An internet-based survey among 207 youth mental health care professionals in the Netherlands and Belgium was conducted to assess therapists' beliefs about exposure, their age, experience, caseload, training and theoretical orientation, as well as the level of the therapists' own anxiety, depression and stress. RESULTS: The current survey showed that therapists used exposure in about half of their cases of childhood anxiety and that the non-use was independently associated with the relatively strong negative beliefs about exposure, therapists' age, and non-CBT orientation. DISCUSSION: Findings point to the importance of addressing negative beliefs about exposure in therapists' training and supervision to resolve therapy drift away from exposure, and consequently improve utilization and delivery of exposure-based therapy for childhood anxiety disorders.

7.
Behav Res Ther ; 130: 103589, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220473

RESUMO

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, but an alarming treatment gap exists, especially in lower- and middle income countries (LMIC), where people are exposed to many societal and sociodemographic risk factors. As internet access increases in LMIC, online interventions could decrease this gap, especially when shown suitable for all demographics, including vulnerable groups with low socioeconomic status (SES). We used mixed-model analysis to explore moderating effects of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education level, SES and urbanicity) on treatment effect in a recent trial in Indonesia, comparing guided online behavioral activation versus online psychoeducation only for depression, in 313 participants from (sub)urban areas. Outcome measures were self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR). Without correction for multiple testing, we found urbanicity to moderate treatment effect, with stronger treatment effect in suburban relative to urban participants (IDS-SR 24 weeks past baseline, p = 0.04) and a trend towards moderation by SES, with stronger treatment effect in low SES groups (PHQ-9 10 weeks past baseline, p = 0.07). These exploratory results suggest online treatments are a promising mental health intervention for all demographics in a (sub)urban LMIC setting, but hypothesis-testing studies including rural participants are warranted.

8.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 29(2): e1820, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the gains made by current first-line interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD), modest rates of treatment response and high relapse indicate the need to augment existing interventions. Following theory and initial research indicating the promise of mindful yoga interventions (MYIs), this study examines mindful yoga as a treatment of MDD. METHODS/DESIGN: This randomized controlled trial uses a sample of young females (18-34 years) to examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a 9-week manualized MYI added to treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone. Primary outcome measures consist of clinician-administered (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and self-report (Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scales) measures of depression. Underlying mechanisms will be examined, including rumination, negative self-evaluation, intolerance of uncertainty, interoceptive awareness, and dispositional mindfulness. Assessments were conducted at preintervention and will be conducted at postintervention, 6-, and 12-month follow up. RESULTS: The baseline sample consists of 171 females (88 were randomized into the MYI), reporting a baseline Mage = 25.08 years (SDage = 4.64), MHamilton-depression = 18.39 (SDHamilton = 6.00), and a MDASS-depression = 21.02 (SDDASS = 9.36). CONCLUSION: This trial will provide important information regarding the benefits of adding yoga-based interventions to TAU for young women with MDD and the mechanisms through which such benefits may occur.

9.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 27(1): 24-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether changes in parenting after behavioural parent training in routine clinical care are associated with improvements in preschool children's disruptive behaviours. METHOD: We evaluated changes after parent training in maternal and paternal self-reports of parental discipline practices parenting sense of competence, and parents' ratings of child disruptive behaviours in parents of 63 children, with a one group pretest-posttest design. We also compared parenting parameters in this clinical sample with a nonclinical sample (n = 121). RESULTS: Mothers' self-reports of parental discipline practices and parenting sense of competence significantly improved after behavioural parent training. Less over-reactivity in both mothers and fathers was associated with fewer disruptive behaviours in children. After parent training, mothers' ratings of their discipline techniques did not differ anymore from those in the nonclinical sample. CONCLUSION: Positive changes in parental discipline practices, particularly less over-reactive parental behaviours, were related to a decrease of disruptive child behaviours.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 51(2): 187-199, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485859

RESUMO

The current study examines whether facial emotion identification and family factors at preadolescence (age 11) predict psychotic experiences 5 years later during adolescence (age 16) and whether family factors may mediate the association between facial emotion identification and psychotic experiences. Data was obtained from the epidemiological cohort TRAILS (N = 2059). At preadolescence, a facial emotion identification test and three questionnaires to assess family functioning, perceived parenting styles and parenting stress, were administered. At adolescence, a questionnaire on psychotic experiences was administered. Facial emotion identification at preadolescence was not associated with psychotic experiences at adolescence, and the mediational role of family functioning was not further explored. However, increased overprotective parenting at preadolescence was associated with a higher frequency of psychotic experiences and delusions at adolescence. Future research may examine the mechanism behind the role of overprotective parenting on psychotic experiences during adolescence.

11.
Int J Psychol ; 55(3): 392-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131458

RESUMO

Homesickness is common among university students and associated with mental health problems. Most previous studies assessed homesickness as a summary of the past weeks. However, there may be significant fluctuations across situations. At the current residence, homesickness may especially be triggered during (phone) interactions with attachment figures. Dutch and international 1st-year students (n = 92) completed the Utrecht Homesickness Scale and subsequently used a smartphone application to record social interactions for 14 days (ecological momentary assessment [EMA]). For each interaction they reported the social context (e.g. location, contact type) and their affective state, including homesickness. Homesickness in the past weeks and momentary homesickness were both higher in international students than in Dutch students. Feeling homesick was highest at participants' current residency, when interacting with parents, or when using video-chat. When participants felt more homesick, they reported less pleasant and more unpleasant affect. In conclusion, EMA provided insight in cross-situational variations in homesickness.


Assuntos
Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Emoções/fisiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(5): 568-576, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691504

RESUMO

AIM: Early intervention programs for first-episode psychosis have led to the awareness that the period before onset of a first episode is important in light of early intervention. This has induced a focus on the so-called 'at risk mental state' (ARMS). Individuals with ARMS are at increased risk for later psychotic disorder, but also for other psychiatric disorders as well as poor psychosocial functioning. Thus, adequate detection and treatment of ARMS is essential. METHODS: Since 2018, screening for and treatment of ARMS is recommended standard care in the Netherlands. Implementation is still ongoing. We initiated a naturalistic long-term cohort study of ARMS individuals, the onset and transition of and recovery from adverse development (OnTheROAD) study, with the aim to monitor course and outcome of symptoms and psychosocial functioning over time, as well as patterns of comorbidity and associations with factors of risk and resilience. To this end, participants complete a broad battery of instruments at baseline and yearly follow-up assessments up to 3 years. Outcome is defined in terms of symptom severity level, functioning and quality of life. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of negative symptoms as part of the ARMS concept. Results from this study can aid in refining the existing ARMS criteria, understanding the developmental course of ARMS and investigating the hypothesized pluripotentiality in outcome of ARMS. New knowledge may inform the further development of specialized early interventions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we describe the rationale, outline and set-up of OnTheROAD.

13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(10): e13434, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention to treat depressive disorders in youth. However, 50% of adolescents still have depressive symptoms after treatment, and 57% drop out during treatment. Online CBT interventions have proven to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms and seem promising as a treatment for depressed adolescents. However, combining online programs with face-to-face sessions seems necessary to increase their effectiveness and monitor for suicide risk. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a blended CBT treatment protocol, a mixture of online and face-to-face CBT, as a treatment for clinically depressed adolescents. METHODS: A pragmatic quasi-experimental controlled trial will be conducted to study the effectiveness of a blended CBT treatment protocol, in which blended CBT is compared with face-to-face CBT (n=44) and treatment as usual (n=44); the latter two were collected in a previous randomized controlled trial. The same inclusion and exclusion criteria will be used: adolescents aged between 12 and 21 years, with a clinical diagnosis of a depressive disorder, and referred to one of the participating mental health institutions. Assessments will be conducted at the same time points: before the start of the intervention, during the intervention (after 5 and 10 weeks), postintervention, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS: The primary outcome is the presence of a depression diagnosis at 12-month follow-up. Several secondary outcomes will be measured, such as depressive symptoms, quality of life, and suicide risk. Costs and effects in both conditions will be compared to analyze cost-effectiveness. Further, moderating (age, gender, alcohol and drug use, parental depression, and other psychopathology) and mediating effects (negative automatic thoughts, cognitive emotion regulation, attributional style) will be analyzed. Also, treatment characteristics will be studied, such as characteristics of the therapists, treatment expectancy, and therapeutic alliance. Dropout rates and treatment characteristics will be measured to study the feasibility of blended CBT. CONCLUSIONS: This study will examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a blended CBT program in which depressed adolescents are treated in mental health care. Results of blended CBT will be compared with face-to-face CBT and treatment as usual, and implications for implementation will be reviewed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register (NTR6759); http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6759. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/13434 RR1-10.2196/12654.

14.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1006-1018, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070449

RESUMO

Questionnaire measures offer a time and cost-effective alternative to full diagnostic assessments for identifying and differentiating between potential anxiety disorders and are commonly used in clinical practice. Little is known, however, about the capacity of questionnaire measures to detect specific anxiety disorders in clinically anxious preadolescent children. This study aimed to establish the ability of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) subscales to identify children with specific anxiety disorders in a large clinic-referred sample (N = 1,438) of children aged 7 to 12 years. We examined the capacity of the Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety, and Physical Injury Fears (phobias) subscales to discriminate between children with and without the target disorder. We also identified optimal cutoff scores on subscales for accurate identification of children with the corresponding disorder, and examined the contribution of child, mother, and father reports. The Separation Anxiety subscale was able to accurately identify children with separation anxiety disorder, and this was replicated across all 3 reporters. Mother- and father-reported Social Phobia subscales also accurately identified children with social anxiety disorder, although child report was only able to accurately detect social anxiety disorder in girls. Using 2 or more reporters improved the sensitivity of the Separation Anxiety and Social Phobia subscales but reduced specificity. The Generalized Anxiety and Physical Injury Fears subscales failed to accurately identify children with the corresponding disorders. These findings have implications for the potential use of mother-, father-, and child-report SCAS subscales to detect specific disorders in preadolescent children in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 150, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123309

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, disabling and moderately heritable. Depression and anxiety are also highly comorbid and have a strong genetic correlation (rg ≈ 1). Cognitive behavioural therapy is a leading evidence-based treatment but has variable outcomes. Currently, there are no strong predictors of outcome. Therapygenetics research aims to identify genetic predictors of prognosis following therapy. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of symptoms following cognitive behavioural therapy in adults with anxiety disorders (n = 972), adults with major depressive disorder (n = 832) and children with anxiety disorders (n = 920; meta-analysis n = 2724). We estimated the variance in therapy outcomes that could be explained by common genetic variants (h2SNP) and polygenic scoring was used to examine genetic associations between therapy outcomes and psychopathology, personality and learning. No single nucleotide polymorphisms were strongly associated with treatment outcomes. No significant estimate of h2SNP could be obtained, suggesting the heritability of therapy outcome is smaller than our analysis was powered to detect. Polygenic scoring failed to detect genetic overlap between therapy outcome and psychopathology, personality or learning. This study is the largest therapygenetics study to date. Results are consistent with previous, similarly powered genome-wide association studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
16.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(8): 927-935, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale Questionnaire (AVHRS-Q) is a short self-report measure assessing several characteristics of auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) that was derived from a validated clinical interview (the auditory vocal hallucination rating scale; AVHRS). This study investigated the internal reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity of the AVHRS-Q using two clinical samples. METHODS: In sample I, 32 psychiatric patients with AVH were recruited from an academic hospital service and assessed with the AVHRS and the AVHRS-Q. Data for sample II were retrospectively retrieved from a pseudonymised Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) database collected in the context of mental healthcare at the same academic hospital service. Data from 82 psychiatric patients with AVH were retrieved, who completed the AVHRS-Q, and measures of psychological distress (the Outcome Questionnaire; OQ-45, and the Symptom Checklist; SCL-90) and quality of life (the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life; MANSA). RESULTS: The AVHRS-Q showed good internal consistency in both samples. Severity scores of the AVHRS-Q were strongly correlated to the severity scores of the AVHRS (r = 0.90, p < 0.01). The AVHRS-Q and AVHRS did not differ in the identification of mild and severe voice-hearers [X2 (1, N = 32) = 15.71]. AVHRS-Q severity scores had moderate correlations with measures of psychological distress (OQ-45, r = 0.43, p < 0.01; SCL-90, r = 0.50, p < 0.05) and quality of life (MANSA, r = - 0.22, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The AVHRS-Q demonstrated good reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity, suggesting it can be applied in both clinical and research settings for a quick and reliable assessment of AVH.


Assuntos
Alucinações/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Alucinações/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0213165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818390

RESUMO

AIMS: Theory of Mind (ToM) is often impaired in early and chronic phases of psychosis and it is often suggested that poor ToM is a trait vulnerability for psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine in an adolescent sample whether childhood ToM abilities can predict psychotic experiences over a period of six years and whether this is mediated by social functioning. To examine whether ToM is a specific predictor for psychosis, symptoms of depression and anxiety were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A baseline case-control sample (T0: age 7-8 years) with and without auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) in the general population was assessed after five years (T1: age 12-13 years) on ToM ability (ToM Storybook Frank), and after eleven years (T2: age 18-19 years) on psychotic experiences (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences; CAPE), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale; DASS-21), and social functioning (Groningen Questionnaire on Social Behaviour; GSVG-45). Analyses were conducted on a subsample of 157 adolescents aged 18-19 years (T2) who had data available on ToM ability at T1. RESULTS: ToM at T1 was not predictive of psychotic experiences after six years (from age 12-13 to age 18-19) and social functioning was also not a mediator. ToM was not associated with psychopathology in general (depressive and anxiety symptoms) over six years (from age 12-13 to age 18-19). CONCLUSIONS: The current study found no evidence for a longitudinal association between ToM ability and psychotic experiences, social functioning, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, in adolescence.


Assuntos
Psicologia do Adolescente , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Ajustamento Social , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Psychiatry ; 57: 33-45, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is first choice of treatment for depressive symptoms and disorders in adolescents, however improvements are necessary because overall efficacy is low. Insights on CBT components and contextual and structural characteristics might increase the efficacy. The aim of our approach is to evaluate the efficacy of CBT for youth with depression and investigate the influence of specific components, contextual and structural factors that could improve effects. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted, searches were undertaken in CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO. Outcomes were meta-analyzed and confidence in results was assessed using the GRADE-method. Meta-regression was used to pinpoint components or other factors that were associated with an in- or decrease of effects of CBT. RESULTS: We included 31 trials with 4335 participants. Moderate-quality evidence was found for CBT reducing depressive symptoms at the end of treatment and at follow-up, and CBT as indicated prevention resulted in 63% less risk of being depressed at follow-up. CBT containing a combination of behavioral activation and challenging thoughts component (as part of cognitive restructuring) or the involvement of caregiver(s) in intervention were associated with better outcomes for youth on the long term. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that CBT is effective for youth with a (subclinical) depression. Our analyses show that effects might improve when CBT contains the components behavioral activation and challenging thoughts and also when the caregiver(s) are involved. However, the influential effects of these three moderators should be further tested in RCTs.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
19.
Internet Interv ; 18: 100262, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31890615

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Therapist-led behavioral parent training is a well-established treatment for behavior problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, parental attrition is high; self-directed forms of parent training may be a promising alternative. To date, no studies have compared these two forms of parent training in referred children with ADHD. The objectives of this pilot study were to examine the non-inferiority of a blended parent training (i.e. online program + supportive therapist contact) in comparison to its therapist-led equivalent (i.e. face-to-face parent training) regarding effects on behavioral problems, and to compare attrition rates, parental satisfaction, and therapist-time between both treatments. Methods: 21 school-aged children with ADHD and behavioral problems, who had been referred to an outpatient mental health clinic, were randomized to blended (n = 11) or face-to-face (n = 10) parent training. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. Treatment completers and dropouts were included in the analyses. Results and conclusions: Blended parent training was not found to be non-inferior to face-to-face parent training in the reduction of behavior problems. Parents in the blended condition dropped out of treatment significantly earlier than parents in the face-to-face condition and were less satisfied. Therapists in the blended condition spent significantly less time on parent training than therapists in the face-to-face condition.

20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(3): 415-424, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032394

RESUMO

In 122 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 9-13 years; 19 girls), we investigated the effectiveness of a 15-session social skills group training (SST) with and without parent and teacher involvement (PTI) in a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: SST (n = 47), SST-PTI (n = 51), and care-as-usual (CAU, n = 24). Hierarchical linear modeling was used for immediate and 6-month follow-up analyses. Measures were administered before randomization (blind), post-treatment and at follow-up (not blind). Trial registration: Dutch Trial Register; http://www.trialregister.nl ; NTR2405. At post-treatment, children in both SSTs had improved significantly more than CAU on the primary outcome, Vineland Socialization (SST: Cohen's d = 0.39; 95% CI - 2.23 to 3.11 and SST-PTI: d = 0.43; 95% CI - 2.19 to 3.15) and on the secondary outcome parent-SSRS "Cooperation" (SST: d = 0.43; 95% CI - 0.23 to 1.15 and SST-PTI: d = 0.45; 95% CI - 0.21 to 1.17), with no difference between post-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, children in SST-PTI improved significantly more on the teacher-SSRS than in CAU ["Cooperation" d =0.42 (95% CI - 0.33 to 1.13); "Assertion" d =0.34 (95% CI - 0.39 to 1.11); "Self-Control" d =0.61 (95% CI - 0.08 to 1.34)] and in SST ["Cooperation" d =0.34 (95% CI - 0.37 to 1.05); "Self-Control" d =0.59 (95% CI - 0.13 to 1.32)]. The current study corroborates earlier findings in smaller samples and wider age ranges, with small but statistically significant effects of SST for high-functioning pre-adolescent children with ASD. Parental and teacher involvement intensified treatment, yet did not yield an additional effect relative to SST for children only, as reported by parents. 6 months after training, no further improvement or decline was found.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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