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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1403-1413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467598

RESUMO

Cause of complex dyskinesia remains elusive in some patients. A homozygous missense variant leading to drastic decrease of PDE2A enzymatic activity was reported in one patient with childhood-onset choreodystonia preceded by paroxysmal dyskinesia and associated with cognitive impairment and interictal EEG abnormalities. Here, we report three new cases with biallelic PDE2A variants identified by trio whole-exome sequencing. Mitochondria network was analyzed after Mitotracker™ Red staining in control and mutated primary fibroblasts. Analysis of retrospective video of patients' movement disorder and refinement of phenotype was carried out. We identified a homozygous gain of stop codon variant c.1180C>T; p.(Gln394*) in PDE2A in siblings and compound heterozygous variants in young adult: a missense c.446C>T; p.(Pro149Leu) and splice-site variant c.1922+5G>A predicted and shown to produce an out of frame transcript lacking exon 22. All three patients had cognitive impairment or developmental delay. The phenotype of the two oldest patients, aged 9 and 26, was characterized by childhood-onset refractory paroxysmal dyskinesia initially misdiagnosed as epilepsy due to interictal EEG abnormalities. The youngest patient showed a proven epilepsy at the age of 4 months and no paroxysmal dyskinesia at 15 months. Interestingly, analysis of the fibroblasts with the biallelic variants in PDE2A variants revealed mitochondria network morphology changes. Together with previously reported case, our three patients confirm that biallelic PDE2A variants are a cause of childhood-onset refractory paroxysmal dyskinesia with cognitive impairment, sometimes associated with choreodystonia and interictal baseline EEG abnormalities or epilepsy.

3.
Epilepsia ; 61(6): 1142-1155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the phenotypic spectrum of phosphatidylinositol glycan class A protein (PIGA)-related congenital disorder of glycosylation (PIGA-CDG) and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Our cohort encompasses 40 affected males with a pathogenic PIGA variant. We performed a detailed phenotypic assessment, and in addition, we reviewed the available clinical data of 36 previously published cases and assessed the variant pathogenicity using bioinformatical approaches. RESULTS: Most individuals had hypotonia, moderate to profound global developmental delay, and intractable seizures. We found that PIGA-CDG spans from a pure neurological phenotype at the mild end to a Fryns syndrome-like phenotype. We found a high frequency of cardiac anomalies including structural anomalies and cardiomyopathy, and a high frequency of spontaneous death, especially in childhood. Comparative bioinformatical analysis of common variants, found in the healthy population, and pathogenic variants, identified in affected individuals, revealed a profound physiochemical dissimilarity of the substituted amino acids in variant constrained regions of the protein. SIGNIFICANCE: Our comprehensive analysis of the largest cohort of published and novel PIGA patients broadens the spectrum of PIGA-CDG. Our genotype-phenotype correlation facilitates the estimation on pathogenicity of variants with unknown clinical significance and prognosis for individuals with pathogenic variants in PIGA.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 41(7): 1263-1279, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196822

RESUMO

Heterozygous de novo variants in the eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A2 have previously been described in association with intellectual disability and epilepsy but never functionally validated. Here we report 14 new individuals with heterozygous EEF1A2 variants. We functionally validate multiple variants as protein-damaging using heterologous expression and complementation analysis. Our findings allow us to confirm multiple variants as pathogenic and broaden the phenotypic spectrum to include dystonia/choreoathetosis, and in some cases a degenerative course with cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Pathogenic variants appear to act via a haploinsufficiency mechanism, disrupting both the protein synthesis and integrated stress response functions of EEF1A2. Our studies provide evidence that EEF1A2 is highly intolerant to variation and that de novo pathogenic variants lead to an epileptic-dyskinetic encephalopathy with both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features. Developmental features may be driven by impaired synaptic protein synthesis during early brain development while progressive symptoms may be linked to an impaired ability to handle cytotoxic stressors.

5.
Neuron ; 106(3): 404-420.e8, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135084

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X account for 1%-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases in females and are associated with autism, brain malformations, and epilepsy. Yet, the developmental and molecular mechanisms by which DDX3X mutations impair brain function are unknown. Here, we use human and mouse genetics and cell biological and biochemical approaches to elucidate mechanisms by which pathogenic DDX3X variants disrupt brain development. We report the largest clinical cohort to date with DDX3X mutations (n = 107), demonstrating a striking correlation between recurrent dominant missense mutations, polymicrogyria, and the most severe clinical outcomes. We show that Ddx3x controls cortical development by regulating neuron generation. Severe DDX3X missense mutations profoundly disrupt RNA helicase activity, induce ectopic RNA-protein granules in neural progenitors and neurons, and impair translation. Together, these results uncover key mechanisms underlying DDX3X syndrome and highlight aberrant RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Neurogênese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , RNA/metabolismo
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031333

RESUMO

CDC42BPB encodes MRCKß (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase beta), a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a downstream effector of CDC42, which has recently been associated with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified 12 heterozygous predicted deleterious variants in CDC42BPB (9 missense, 2 frameshift, and 1 nonsense) in 14 unrelated individuals (confirmed de novo in 11/14) with neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, and structural brain abnormalities including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. The frameshift and nonsense variants in CDC42BPB are expected to be gene-disrupting and lead to haploinsufficiency via nonsense-mediated decay. All missense variants are located in highly conserved and functionally important protein domains/regions: 3 are found in the protein kinase domain, 2 are in the citron homology domain, and 4 in a 20-amino acid sequence between 2 coiled-coil regions, 2 of which are recurrent. Future studies will help to delineate the natural history and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms of the missense variants leading to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotypes.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(3): 524-537, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

8.
Neurobiol Dis ; 136: 104709, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843706

RESUMO

Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is a brain malformation associated with a wide clinical spectrum including intellectual disability (ID) and an etiopathological complexity. We identified a novel missense G424R mutation in the X-linked p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) gene in a boy presenting with severe ID, microcephaly and CCA and his fetal sibling with CCA and severe hydrocephaly. PAK3 kinase is known to control synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine dynamics but its implication is less characterized in brain ontogenesis. In order to identify developmental functions of PAK3 impacted by mutations responsible for CCA, we compared the biochemical and biological effects of three PAK3 mutations localized in the catalytic domain. These mutations include two "severe" G424R and K389N variants (responsible for severe ID and CCA) and the "mild" A365E variant (responsible for nonsyndromic mild ID). Whereas they suppressed kinase activity, only the two severe variants displayed normal protein stability. Furthermore, they increased interactions between PAK3 and the guanine exchange factor αPIX/ARHGEF6, disturbed adhesion point dynamics and cell spreading, and severely impacted cell migration. Our findings highlight new molecular defects associated with mutations responsible for severe clinical phenotypes with developmental brain defects.

9.
Clin Genet ; 97(3): 477-482, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883110

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the PLCB1 gene, encoding for a phospholipase C beta isoform strongly expressed in the brain, have been reported to cause infantile epileptic encephalopathy in only four children to date. We report here three additional patients to delineate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease. Our three patients were one sporadic case with an intragenic homozygous deletion and two cousins with the homozygous p.(Arg222*) nonsense variant in PLCB1. These patients had severe to profound intellectual disability, epileptic spasms at age 3-5 months concomitant with developmental arrest or regression, other seizure types and drug-resistant epilepsy. With this report, we expand the clinical, radiologic and electroencephalographic knowledge about the extremely rare PLCB1-related encephalopathy. Since the first report in 2010, the overall number of reported patients with our additional patients is currently limited to seven. All seven patients had epileptic encephalopathy, mainly infantile spasms and 6/7 had profound intellectual disability, with one only being able to walk. Truncal hypotonia was the most frequent neurological sign, sometimes associated with pyramidal and/or extrapyramidal hypertonia of limbs. Microcephaly was inconstant. In conclusion, the phenotypical spectrum of PLCB1-related encephalopathy is relatively narrow, comprises infantile spasms and severe to profound intellectual disability, and does not seem to define a recognizable clinical entity.

10.
NPJ Genom Med ; 4: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814998

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a group of rare, severe neurodevelopmental disorders, where even the most thorough sequencing studies leave 60-65% of patients without a molecular diagnosis. Here, we explore the incompleteness of transcript models used for exome and genome analysis as one potential explanation for a lack of current diagnoses. Therefore, we have updated the GENCODE gene annotation for 191 epilepsy-associated genes, using human brain-derived transcriptomic libraries and other data to build 3,550 putative transcript models. Our annotations increase the transcriptional 'footprint' of these genes by over 674 kb. Using SCN1A as a case study, due to its close phenotype/genotype correlation with Dravet syndrome, we screened 122 people with Dravet syndrome or a similar phenotype with a panel of exon sequences representing eight established genes and identified two de novo SCN1A variants that now - through improved gene annotation - are ascribed to residing among our exons. These two (from 122 screened people, 1.6%) molecular diagnoses carry significant clinical implications. Furthermore, we identified a previously classified SCN1A intronic Dravet syndrome-associated variant that now lies within a deeply conserved exon. Our findings illustrate the potential gains of thorough gene annotation in improving diagnostic yields for genetic disorders.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824749

RESUMO

Background: Genes involved in Tourette syndrome (TS) remain largely unknown. We aimed to identify genetic factors contributing to TS in a French cohort of 120 individuals using a combination of hypothesis-driven and exome-sequencing approaches. Methods: We first sequenced exons of SLITRK1-6 and HDC in the TS cohort and subsequently sequenced the exome of 12 individuals harboring rare variants in these genes to find additional rare variants contributing to the disorder under the hypothesis of oligogenic inheritance. We further screened three candidate genes (OPRK1, PCDH10, and NTSR2) preferentially expressed in the basal ganglia, and three additional genes involved in neurotensin and opioid signaling (OPRM1, NTS, and NTSR1), and compared variant frequencies in TS patients and 788 matched control individuals. We also investigated the impact of altering the expression of Oprk1 in zebrafish. Results: Thirteen ultrarare missense variants of SLITRK1-6 and HDC were identified in 12 patients. Exome sequencing in these patients revealed rare possibly deleterious variants in 3,041 genes, 54 of which were preferentially expressed in the basal ganglia. Comparison of variant frequencies altering selected candidate genes in TS and control individuals revealed an excess of potentially disrupting variants in OPRK1, encoding the opioid kappa receptor, in TS patients. Accordingly, we show that downregulation of the Oprk1 orthologue in zebrafish induces a hyperkinetic phenotype in early development. Discussion: These results support a heterogeneous and complex genetic etiology of TS, possibly involving rare variants altering the opioid pathway in some individuals, which could represent a novel therapeutic target in this disorder.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1237-1253, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785787

RESUMO

We report an early-onset autosomal-recessive neurological disease with cerebellar atrophy and lysosomal dysfunction. We identified bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in Oxidative Resistance 1 (OXR1) in five individuals from three families; these individuals presented with a history of severe global developmental delay, current intellectual disability, language delay, cerebellar atrophy, and seizures. While OXR1 is known to play a role in oxidative stress resistance, its molecular functions are not well established. OXR1 contains three conserved domains: LysM, GRAM, and TLDc. The gene encodes at least six transcripts, including some that only consist of the C-terminal TLDc domain. We utilized Drosophila to assess the phenotypes associated with loss of mustard (mtd), the fly homolog of OXR1. Strong LoF mutants exhibit late pupal lethality or pupal eclosion defects. Interestingly, although mtd encodes 26 transcripts, severe LoF and null mutations can be rescued by a single short human OXR1 cDNA that only contains the TLDc domain. Similar rescue is observed with the TLDc domain of NCOA7, another human homolog of mtd. Loss of mtd in neurons leads to massive cell loss, early death, and an accumulation of aberrant lysosomal structures, similar to what we observe in fibroblasts of affected individuals. Our data indicate that mtd and OXR1 are required for proper lysosomal function; this is consistent with observations that NCOA7 is required for lysosomal acidification.


Assuntos
Atrofia/patologia , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Lisossomos/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Atrofia/genética , Atrofia/metabolismo , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/metabolismo , Criança , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4920, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664034

RESUMO

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is characterised by cortical myoclonic tremor usually from the second decade of life and overt myoclonic or generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Four independent loci have been implicated in FAME on chromosomes (chr) 2, 3, 5 and 8. Using whole genome sequencing and repeat primed PCR, we provide evidence that chr2-linked FAME (FAME2) is caused by an expansion of an ATTTC pentamer within the first intron of STARD7. The ATTTC expansions segregate in 158/158 individuals typically affected by FAME from 22 pedigrees including 16 previously reported families recruited worldwide. RNA sequencing from patient derived fibroblasts shows no accumulation of the AUUUU or AUUUC repeat sequences and STARD7 gene expression is not affected. These data, in combination with other genes bearing similar mutations that have been implicated in FAME, suggest ATTTC expansions may cause this disorder, irrespective of the genomic locus involved.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Íntrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4919, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664039

RESUMO

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by cortical tremor and seizures. Intronic TTTTA/TTTCA repeat expansions in SAMD12 (FAME1) are the main cause of FAME in Asia. Using genome sequencing and repeat-primed PCR, we identify another site of this repeat expansion, in MARCH6 (FAME3) in four European families. Analysis of single DNA molecules with nanopore sequencing and molecular combing show that expansions range from 3.3 to 14 kb on average. However, we observe considerable variability in expansion length and structure, supporting the existence of multiple expansion configurations in blood cells and fibroblasts of the same individual. Moreover, the largest expansions are associated with micro-rearrangements occurring near the expansion in 20% of cells. This study provides further evidence that FAME is caused by intronic TTTTA/TTTCA expansions in distinct genes and reveals that expansions exhibit an unexpectedly high somatic instability that can ultimately result in genomic rearrangements.


Assuntos
Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1263-1272, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical phenotypes associated with KCNC1 variants other than the Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy-causing variant p.Arg320His, determine the electrophysiological functional impact of identified variants and explore genotype-phenotype-physiological correlations. METHODS: Ten cases with putative pathogenic variants in KCNC1 were studied. Variants had been identified via whole-exome sequencing or gene panel testing. Clinical phenotypic data were analyzed. To determine functional impact of variants detected in the Kv 3.1 channel encoded by KCNC1, Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and automated two-electrode voltage clamping were used. RESULTS: Six unrelated patients had a Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and a recurrent de novo variant p.Ala421Val (c.1262C > T). Functional analysis of p.Ala421Val revealed loss of function through a significant reduction in whole-cell current, but no dominant-negative effect. Three patients had a contrasting phenotype of Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures and different KCNC1 variants, all of which caused loss of function with reduced whole-cell currents. Evaluation of the variant p.Ala513Val (c.1538C > T) in the tenth case, suggested it was a variant of uncertain significance. INTERPRETATION: These are the first reported cases of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy due to KCNC1 mutation. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with KCNC1 is now broadened to include not only a Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy, but an infantile onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy, as well as Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures. Loss of function is a key feature, but definitive electrophysiological separation of these phenotypes has not yet emerged.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Canais de Potássio Shaw/genética , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Xenopus laevis
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Estatura , Criança , Exoma , Face , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Haploinsuficiência , Histonas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deleção de Genes , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
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