Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 727-734, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142541

RESUMO

Abstract Fitness in parasitoids is generally influenced by host quality. We evaluated the development parameters of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoid on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, reared in artificial diets with different protein sources. Larvae of A. fraterculus were reared in the diets based on 1) raw wheat germ (control); 2) whole rice flour; 3) corn flour; and, 4) whole wheat flour + soybean meal. The larvae were used for the development of D. areolatus, to evaluate the number of offspring/female, emergence rate, sex ratio, egg-adult period, adult weight posterior tibia length and longevity. Larvae of A. fraterculus reared in the diets based on wheat germ and corn flour obtained a greater number of offspring, with shorter duration of egg-adult period for males and females. In diets with rice flour and corn flour, A. fraterculus larvae generated adults of D. areolatus with greater weight, longer tibia length and higher sex ratio, whereas larvae reared in wheat flour + soybean meal diet had a lower sex ratio. The diets based on rice flour and corn are the most appropriate for multiplication of the parasitoid.


Resumo O custo adaptativo de parasitoides é geralmente influenciado pela qualidade do hospedeiro. Nós avaliamos parâmetros de desenvolvimento do parasitoide Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) em larvas de Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) criadas em dieta artificial com diferentes fontes proteicas. Larvas de A. fraterculus foram criadas em dietas a base de: 1) germe de trigo cru (testemunha); 2) farinha de arroz integral; 3) farinha de milho; e, 4) farinha de trigo integral + farelo de soja. As larvas foram usadas para o desenvolvimento de D. areolatus para avaliar o número de descendentes/fêmea, taxa de emergência, razão sexual, duração do período ovo-adulto, peso de adultos, comprimento da tíbia posterior e longevidade. Larvas de A. fraterculus criadas nas dietas a base de germe de trigo e farinha de milho, permitiram obter um maior número de descendentes do parasitoide, com menor duração do período de desenvolvimento ovo-adulto, para ambos os sexos. Nas dietas com farinha de arroz e farinha de milho, larvas de A. fraterculus geraram adultos de D. areolatus com maior peso e tamanho de tíbia de machos e fêmeas e uma maior quantidade de fêmeas. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo + farelo de soja afetou a geração de descendentes, causando uma menor razão sexual. As dietas a base de farinha de arroz e milho são as mais adequadas para a multiplicação do parasitoide.

4.
Neotrop Entomol ; 49(2): 292-301, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907799

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the lethal toxicity and oviposition deterrence of ethanolic extracts of Annona mucosa Jacq., Annona muricata L., and Annona sylvatica A. St.-Hil on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) compared with those of a limonoid-based bioinsecticide (Azamax™ 1.2 EC-azadiractin +3-tigloyl-azadiractol) and a synthetic spinosyn-based insecticide (Delegate™ 250 WG-spinetoram). In addition, the efficacy of the selected toxic bait formulations was evaluated by mixing them with food attractants (Anamed™, 3% Biofruit and 7% sugarcane molasses). In the topical application and ingestion bioassays (2000 mg L-1), the aqueous emulsion of the A. mucosa extract caused greater than 80% mortality of A. fraterculus adults in a similar manner to the spinosyn-based synthetic insecticide. Concentration-response curves were performed for the most promising treatments and showed an activity level dependent on the mode of contamination, exposure time, and applied concentration. In bioassays with and without choice, the A. mucosa (77%), A. muricata (51%), A. sylvatica (60%), Azamax™ (74%), and Delegate™ 250 WG (100%) significantly reduced the number of punctures and galleries in grape berries. In combination with the food attractants Anamed™, 3% Biofruit, and 7% sugarcane molasses, the emulsion of the A. mucosa extract had a residual effect similar to that of the spinetoram insecticide, with a mortality rate of over 80% of A. fraterculus adults up to 14 days after application (DAA) in the absence of rain. Thus, acetogenin-rich formulations, especially from A. mucosa seeds, are useful alternatives for the integrated management of A. fraterculus in agricultural orchards.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 80(4): 727-734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778480

RESUMO

Fitness in parasitoids is generally influenced by host quality. We evaluated the development parameters of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoid on Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, reared in artificial diets with different protein sources. Larvae of A. fraterculus were reared in the diets based on 1) raw wheat germ (control); 2) whole rice flour; 3) corn flour; and, 4) whole wheat flour + soybean meal. The larvae were used for the development of D. areolatus, to evaluate the number of offspring/female, emergence rate, sex ratio, egg-adult period, adult weight posterior tibia length and longevity. Larvae of A. fraterculus reared in the diets based on wheat germ and corn flour obtained a greater number of offspring, with shorter duration of egg-adult period for males and females. In diets with rice flour and corn flour, A. fraterculus larvae generated adults of D. areolatus with greater weight, longer tibia length and higher sex ratio, whereas larvae reared in wheat flour + soybean meal diet had a lower sex ratio. The diets based on rice flour and corn are the most appropriate for multiplication of the parasitoid.

6.
Neotrop Entomol ; 49(1): 1-11, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749122

RESUMO

Insecticidal gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) involves a post-transcriptional mechanism with great potential for insect control. Here, we aim to summarize the progress on RNAi research toward control of insect pests in the Neotropical region and discuss factors determining its efficacy and prospects for pest management. We include an overview of the available RNAi information for Neotropical pests in the Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera orders. Emphasis is put on significant findings in the use of RNAi against relevant Neotropical pests, including diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), and the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman). We also examine the main factors involved in insecticidal RNAi efficiency and major advances to improve screening of lethal genes, formulation, and delivery. Few studies detail resistance mechanisms to RNAi, demonstrating a need for more research. Advances in formulation, delivery, and resistance management tools for insecticidal RNAi in the Neotropics can provide a basis for efficient field application.

7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 48(6): 957-965, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364009

RESUMO

The pupal parasitoid Trichopria anastrephae Lima (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) shows potential to control Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and understanding the behavior of this parasitoid in challenging environments is important to obtain a higher efficiency in mass rearing and in biological control programs. This study aimed to verify the effects of extrinsic intraspecific competition and the absence of host on the parasitism of T. anastrephae in D. suzukii pupae. Therefore, to evaluate the parasitism of T. anastrephae under intraspecific competition, groups of 20 pupae (24 h old) of D. suzukii were offered for different densities of parasitoids (1, 3, 5, or 10 couples) during a 7-day period. Whereas to evaluate the effects of host deprivation on parasitism of T. anastrephae, we tested different treatments: T1-no deprivation, T2-complete deprivation, T3-deprivation every other day, T4-deprivation for 3 days, and T5-deprivation for 7 days. The increase of density of parasitoids resulted in an increase of oviposition scars on pupae and a longer biological cycle, suggesting the occurrence of superparasitism. Increased density also resulted in a higher percentage of attacked pupae, but did not affect parasitoids emergence nor sex ratio. Host deprivation affected number of parasitized pupae, number and sex ratio of offspring, and the longevity of females. Based on our findings, competition among females do not impair offspring viability, and host deprivation for a period up to 7 days do not influence parasitism capacity, indicating that it can be used as a pre-release strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Drosophila/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Oviposição , Densidade Demográfica , Pupa/parasitologia , Razão de Masculinidade
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 104-110, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984011

RESUMO

Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered the main fruit pests worldwide. In Brazil, two species are predominant: the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of artificial diets with variable pH in their larval development and adult performance. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12h (L:D) photoperiod. Semisolid diets with pH values of 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0, adjusted by adding hydrochloric acid were tested. Results indicated that the diet with pH 6.0 did not support larval development of both species of fruit fly. Diets with greater acidic pH values did not allow egg, larvae or pupae development and adult reproduction of A. fraterculus. For C. capitata , the pH of artificial diet exerts greater influence compared to A. fraterculus on the duration and viability of the larval stage, number of pupae, sex ratio and longevity of males.


Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) são consideradas as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. No Brasil, duas espécies são predomindantes: a mosca-das-frutas Sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus e a mosca-do-Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Neste estudo avaliamos o efeito de dietas artificiais com pH variável no seu desenvolvimento larval e performance de adultos. Os experimentos foram realizados em laboratório a 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% UR e fotoperíodo de 12:12 horas. Foram testadas dietas semi-sólidas com valores de pH de 6,0; 5,0; 4,0; 3,0; 2,0; 1,5 e 1,0, ajustados pela adição de ácido clorídrico. Os resultados indicaram que a dieta com pH 6,0 não suportou o desenvolvimento larval de ambas as espécies de mosca-das-frutas. As dietas com pH ácido não permitiram o desenvolvimento de ovos, larvas ou pupas e a reprodução de adultos de A. fraterculus. Para C. capitata o pH da dieta artificial exerceu maior influência do que para A. fraterculus nos parâmetros de duração e viabilidade do estágio larval, número de pupas, razão sexual e longevidade de machos.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratitis capitata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratitis capitata/fisiologia , Dieta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Braz J Biol ; 79(1): 104-110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694560

RESUMO

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered the main fruit pests worldwide. In Brazil, two species are predominant: the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of artificial diets with variable pH in their larval development and adult performance. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12h (L:D) photoperiod. Semisolid diets with pH values of 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0, adjusted by adding hydrochloric acid were tested. Results indicated that the diet with pH 6.0 did not support larval development of both species of fruit fly. Diets with greater acidic pH values did not allow egg, larvae or pupae development and adult reproduction of A. fraterculus. For C. capitata , the pH of artificial diet exerts greater influence compared to A. fraterculus on the duration and viability of the larval stage, number of pupae, sex ratio and longevity of males.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Ceratitis capitata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratitis capitata/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 443-448, Aug. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951564

RESUMO

Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine 'Clemenules' on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH) and photophase (12 h). A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange 'Navelina' and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine 'Clemenules'. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.


Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) representam um risco à fruticultura mundial, especialmente na cultura dos citros, entretanto estudos biológicos demonstram que as moscas-das-frutas não estão perfeitamente adaptadas à estes hospedeiros. Este estudo investigou a oviposição de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) e sua relação com o pericarpo de frutos cítricos. Foi avaliada a relação entre a profundidade de oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata e a espessura do epicarpo dos frutos de laranjeira [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' e tangerineira [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' e a influência do mesocarpo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules' na oviposição destas espécies. O estudo foi conduzido em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2 °C), umidade relativa (70 ± 10%) e fotofase (12 horas). A. fraterculus e C. capitata depositaram ovos no flavedo de frutos de laranjeira 'Navelina' e entre o flavedo e o albedo de frutos de tangerineira 'Clemenules'. Quando oferecido frutos com mesocarpo exposto, não houve oviposição por ambas as espécies de mosca. Os resultados demonstram que a espessura do epicarpo de frutos cítricos não influenciou a oviposição de A. fraterculus e de C. capitata, a qual não ocorreu na presença apenas do mesocarpo, sugerindo que outros fatores estão envolvidos na oviposição por estas espécies.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Oviposição/fisiologia , Citrus/parasitologia , Carica/parasitologia , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mangifera/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/fisiologia , Citrus/fisiologia , Carica/fisiologia , Mangifera/fisiologia
11.
J Insect Sci ; 18(2)2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718497

RESUMO

The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Larva/parasitologia , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Pupa/parasitologia
12.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(3): 1087-1095, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590417

RESUMO

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest in South American orchards. When control measures are not adopted, this pest can cause losses of up to 100%. Doryctobracon brasiliensis (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval-pupal endoparasitoid that can be used as a native biological control agent against A. fraterculus. This study aimed to develop a rearing technique for D. brasiliensis in larvae of A. fraterculus. Trials were carried out to: 1) determine the optimal instar for parasitism, 2) define the exposure time of larvae to parasitoids, 3) determine the density requirements of A. fraterculus larvae offered to each parasitoid, and 4) evaluate the effect of diet on adults of D. brasiliensis. In all trials, we evaluated the number of offspring, parasitism rate, and sex ratio. Moreover, in the experiment to investigate the effects of diet, we determined the longevity of males and females. In both choice and nonchoice parasitism tests, the parasitoids preferred third-instar larvae of A. fraterculus over second- and first-instar larvae. An exposure time of 12 h of A. fraterculus larvae produced larger numbers of parasitoids and higher parasitism rates. The density of 15 larvae of A. fraterculus to each female of D. brasiliensis produced a larger number of offspring. A supply of honey solution (20 and 50%) to the parasitoids yielded the highest number offspring and resulted in greater longevity. Our findings can be used to support the development of a mass rearing protocol for D. brasiliensis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Traços de História de Vida , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Masculino , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/parasitologia , Pupa/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Braz J Biol ; 78(3): 443-448, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091115

RESUMO

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck)] 'Navelina' and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.)] 'Clemenules' and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine 'Clemenules' on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH) and photophase (12 h). A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange 'Navelina' and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine 'Clemenules'. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.


Assuntos
Carica/parasitologia , Citrus/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Mangifera/parasitologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Carica/fisiologia , Citrus/fisiologia , Feminino , Mangifera/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/fisiologia
14.
Environ Entomol ; 46(4): 871-877, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881950

RESUMO

Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Oviposição , Prunus/genética , Animais , Brasil , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Prunus/fisiologia
15.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(6): 591-605, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852987

RESUMO

Non-native insect pests are often responsible for important damage to native and agricultural plant hosts. Since Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become an important pest in North America and Europe (i.e., in 2008), the global production of soft thin-skinned fruits has faced severe production losses. In the southern Neotropical region, however, the first record of D. suzukii occurred in 2013 in the south of Brazil. It has also been recorded in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Despite its recent occurrence in the southern Neotropical region, the fast dispersion of D. suzukii has inspired local research efforts in an attempt to mitigate the consequences of this insect pest invasion. In this forum, we explore the current status of D. suzukii in southern Neotropical regions, discussing its future perspectives. Additionally, we attempt to draft activities and a research agenda that may help to mitigate the losses caused by D. suzukii in native and commercial soft-skinned fruits produced in this region. Currently, D. suzukii appears to be well established in the south of Brazil, but considering the entire southern Neotropical region, the invasion panorama is still underinvestigated. The lack of studies and regulatory actions against D. suzukii has contributed to the invasion success of this species in this region. Considering several peculiarities of both the pest biology and the environmental of this region, the authors advocate for the need of intensive and integrative studies toward the development and implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programs against D. suzukii in the southern Neotropical region.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Drosophila/classificação , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(5): 554-560, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474328

RESUMO

Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is a solitary parasitoid of eggs and the first instar larvae of Tephritidae. Due to the occurrence of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in various regions and under several climatic conditions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different temperatures on the embryonic development (egg-adult) and determine thermal requirements and the number of annual generations F. arisanus on eggs of C. capitata. In the laboratory, eggs of C. capitata (24 h) were submitted to parasitism of F. arisanus during 6 h. Later, the eggs were placed in plastic containers (50 mL) (50 eggs/container) on a layer of artificial diet and packed in chambers at temperatures 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 12 h. The largest number of offspring, emergence rate, and weight of adults of F. arisanus were observed at 25°C. The highest sex ratios (sr > 0.75) were recorded at 15 and 18°C, being statistically higher than the temperatures 20°C (0.65), 22°C (0.64), 25°C (0.65), 28°C (0.49), and 30°C (0.47). At 32°C, there was no embryonic development of F. arisanus. The egg-adult period was inversely proportional to temperature. Based on the development of the biological cycle (egg-adult), the temperature threshold (T t) was 10.3°C and thermal constant (K) of 488.34 degree-days, being the number of generations/year directly proportional to the temperature increase. The data show the ability of F. arisanus to adapt to different thermal conditions, which is important for biological control programs of C. capitata.


Assuntos
Ceratitis capitata/parasitologia , Temperatura , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Óvulo/parasitologia
17.
Neotrop Entomol ; 46(1): 1-7, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389188

RESUMO

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) has been recently detected causing damage to strawberries in Brazil. Infestation in strawberry culture has often been observed jointly with the presence of Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This study investigated the susceptibility of strawberries at three ripening stages to infestation of D. suzukii and Z. indianus and their interaction. In the laboratory, strawberries cv. Albion at different ripening stages (green, semi-ripe and ripe) were exposed to D. suzukii and Z. indianus for 24 h in choice and no-choice bioassays. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of mechanical damage incurred artificially or by D. suzukii oviposition on Z. indianus infestation. In no-choice bioassay, there were no significant differences in fruit susceptibility to D. suzukii infestation at different ripening stages. However, in choice bioassay, D. suzukii adults preferred to oviposit on R fruit. The presence of mechanical damage did not increase susceptibility of fruit to D. suzukii oviposition. For Z. indianus, there was greater susceptibility of R fruit in relation to SR and G fruit in both the choice and no-choice bioassays. There was a significant and positive interaction of mechanical damage and damage caused by D. suzukii to R fruit and infestation by Z. indianus, which was not observed in SR and G fruit. Although infestation of Z. indianus is related to attack damaged or decaying fruit, this work shows that this species has the ability to oviposit and develop in healthy strawberry fruit with and increased infestation level when the fruit has damage to its epidermis.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Fragaria , Oviposição , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Frutas
18.
J Insect Sci ; 16(1)2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27638954

RESUMO

Fopius arisanus (Sonan, 1932) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an egg-larval parasitoid used in control programs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). In Brazil, C. capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) are considered the main tephritid pests of exotic and indigenous fruits. The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. arisanus in C. capitata and A. fraterculus Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F. arisanus These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg-adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. arisanus was reared in eggs of C. capitata than in those of A. fraterculus However, adults of F. arisanus from eggs of A. fraterculus were heavier and had greater longevity than those obtained from C. capitata eggs. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. arisanus reared in eggs of C. capitata, although eggs of A. fraterculus also provided positive values for population increase.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Tephritidae/parasitologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Ceratitis capitata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceratitis capitata/parasitologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 495-499, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-781409

RESUMO

Abstract Stiretrus decastigmus (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an important predator of the insect pest Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The present study investigated the pre-imaginal development of S. decastigmus at different temperatures. The temperatures were: 20, 25, and 30 °C, with a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and a photofase of 12 h, and the nymphs were fed larvae of M. ochroloma. We evaluated the duration and viability of the egg and nymphal stages, the duration of each instar, and the predation potential. The incubation time decreased with increasing temperature, and the viability was highest at 25 °C. The duration of the nymphal stage was inversely proportional to the temperature, ranging from 18 days at 30 °C to 40.6 days at 20 °C. The highest S. decastigmus predation rates were found at 20 °C (90.4 larvae) and 30 °C (72.5 larvae). S. decastigmus showed the highest viability and lowest consumption of larvae of M. ochroloma at 25 °C.


Resumo Stiretrus decastigmus (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) é um importante predador do inseto-praga Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento pré-imaginal de S. decastigmus em diferentes temperaturas. Foram utilizadas as temperaturas de 20, 25, e 30 °C, umidade relativa do ar de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 h, sendo as ninfas alimentadas com larvas de M. ochroloma. Foram avaliados a duração e viabilidade dos estágios de ovo e ninfa, a duração de cada instar e o potencial de predação. O período de incubação diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e apresentou maior viabilidade a 25 °C. A duração do estágio ninfal foi inversamente proporcional a temperatura com 18 dias a 30 °C e 40,6 dias a 20 °C. A maior taxa de predação de S. decastigmus foi encontrada a 20 °C (90,4 larvas) e 30 °C (72,5 larvas). S. decastigmus teve maior viabilidade e menor consumo de larvas de M. ochroloma a 25 °C.


Assuntos
Animais , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Temperatura , Besouros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Ecossistema , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(3): 1094-1101, 2016 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106221

RESUMO

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is among the most important pests of fruit trees in South America, where it can cause losses of up to 100% in fruit orchards. The endoparasitoid Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is one of the main natural enemies of A. fraterculus in Neotropical countries and can be used as a biological control agent against this pest. This study aimed to provide background biological information for the development of a method for mass rearing of A. pelleranoi in larvae of A. fraterculus . We determined the effects of diet on the longevity and parasitism capacity of A. pelleranoi adults, the optimal instar of A. fraterculus for parasitism, the ideal exposure time of the larvae to the parasitoid, and the parasitism capacity of females of A. pelleranoi . The results showed that a 30% honey:water solution maximized parasitoid longevity. Third-instar larvae of A. fraterculus should be used in parasitoid multiplication. An exposure time of 4 h of A. fraterculus larvae produced a larger number of parasitoid offspring, with the highest proportion of females. In addition, the estimated mean parasitism capacity of females of A. pelleranoi was 10 larvae per day. This information can help to develop a mass-rearing method for A. pelleranoi in larvae of A. fraterculus .

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...