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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105270, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487976

RESUMO

Developmental studies have shown that infants exploit ordinal information to extract and generalize repetition-based rules from a sequence of items. Within the visual modality, this ability is constrained by the spatial layout within which items are delivered given that a left-to-right orientation boosts infants' rule learning, whereas a right-to-left orientation hinders this ability. Infants' rule learning operates across different domains and can also be transferred across modalities when learning is triggered by speech. However, no studies have investigated whether the transfer of rule learning occurs across different domains when language is not involved. Using a visual habituation procedure, we tested 7-month-old infants' ability to extract rule-like patterns from numerical sequences and generalize them to non-numerical sequences of visual shapes and whether this ability is affected by the spatial orientation. Infants were first habituated to left-to-right or right-to-left oriented numerical sequences instantiating an ABB rule and were then tested with the familiar rule instantiated across sequences of single geometrical shapes and a novel (ABA) rule. Results showed a transfer of learning from number to visual shapes for left-to-right oriented sequences but not for right-to-left oriented ones (Experiment 1) even when the direction of the numerical change (increasing vs. decreasing) within the habituation sequences violated a small-left/large-right number-space association (Experiment 2). These results provide the first demonstration that visual rule learning mechanisms in infancy operate at a high level of abstraction and confirm earlier findings that left-to-right oriented directional cues facilitate infants' representation of order.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Percepção Espacial
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 215: 105326, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883319

RESUMO

Adults present a large number of asymmetries in visuospatial behavior that are known to be supported by functional brain lateralization. Although there is evidence of lateralization for motor behavior and language processing in infancy, no study has explored visuospatial attention biases in the early stages of development. In this study, we tested for the presence of a leftward visuospatial bias (i.e., pseudoneglect) in 4- and 5-month-old infants using an adapted version of the line bisection task. Infants were trained to identify the center of a horizontal line (Experiment 1) while their eye gazes were monitored using a remote eye-tracking procedure to measure their potential gazing error. Infants exhibited a robust pseudoneglect, gazing leftward with respect to the veridical midpoint of the horizontal line. To investigate whether infants' pseudoneglect generalizes to any given object or is dependent on the horizontal dimension, in Experiment 2 we assessed infants' gaze deployment in vertically oriented lines. No leftward bias was found, suggesting that early visuospatial attention biases in infancy are constrained by the orientation of the visual plane in which the information is organized. The interplay between biological and cultural factors that might contribute to the early establishment of the observed leftward bias in the allocation of visuospatial attention is discussed.

3.
Dev Psychol ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928628

RESUMO

Most cooperative interactions involve interpersonal trust and the expectation of mutual reciprocation. Thus, understanding when and how humans acquire interpersonal trust can help unveil the origins and development of children's cooperative behavior. Here, we investigated whether prior sociomoral information about trading partners modulates the choice of preschool (4-5 years) and school-age children (7-8 years) to share their own goods in a child-friendly version of the trust game. In this game, the trustee partner can repay the child's initial investment or keep everything and betray the trustor. In two studies, we addressed whether trust is modulated by trustees exhibiting prosocial versus antisocial behaviors (Study 1, "helper and hinderer"), or respect-based versus fear-based power (Study 2, "leader and bully"). Preschoolers trusted the leader reliably more than the bully, and the hinderer reliably less than a neutral agent. The tendency to trust the helper more than the hinderer increased with age as a result of the increased propensity to trust the prosocial agent. Overall, these findings indicate that, by age 5, children understand complex cooperative exchanges and start relying on sociomoral information when deciding whom to trust. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Psychol Res ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586490

RESUMO

Basic visual functions have evolved to allow for rapid detection of dynamic stimuli in our surrounding environment. In particular, looming stimuli are of relevance because they are expected to enter the individual's interpersonal space representing a potential threat. Different studies showed that emotions can modulate the perception of visual looming stimuli and the borders of interpersonal space, defined as the area around the body that individuals maintain between themselves and others during social interactions. Here, we investigated how emotions modulate the perception and the physiological correlates of interpersonal space and whether such indexes change across age and gender. Children and adults were asked to quickly react to emotional looming stimuli while measuring their skin conductance response (SCR). We found that emotional looming stimuli shrink the borders of interpersonal space of males more than females, and that this pattern does not change with age. In addition, adults reacted faster to angry than happy and neutral faces, which is in line with the notion that threatening stimuli capture attention more quickly than other types of emotional stimuli. However, this was not observed in children, suggesting that experience with negative stimuli, rather than the evolutionary meaning they possess, may influence the boundaries of interpersonal space. Overall, our study suggests that interpersonal space is modulated by emotions, but this appears to be modulated by gender and age: while behavioural responses to emotional looming stimuli refine with age, physiological responses are adult-like as early as 5 years of age.

5.
Neuroscience ; 464: 59-66, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659338

RESUMO

The human tactile system is known to discriminate different types of touches, one of these termed 'affective touch', is mainly mediated by slow conducting tactile afferents (CT fibres), which are preferentially activated by slow and gentle strokes. Human infants experience self-generated tactile stimulation during prenatal life, and they receive a large amount of affectionate touches by their caregivers from birth. This early and extended experience with tactile stimulation may likely make infants particularly sensitive to affective touch, and increasing evidence shows that this may indeed be the case. However, infants commonly experience affective touch in the context of social interactions with familiar adults (e.g., while looking at their caregiver), and recent evidence suggests that this helps them assigning affiliative and communicative meaning to the touch they are perceiving. Here we investigated the presence of visual-tactile interactions in 4-5-month-old infants' physiological (i.e., skin conductance) and behavioural (i.e., visual looking times) responses to visual and tactile stimulation of affective/social nature when the sources of both stimulation are not familiar to the infant. To explore whether the modulation of physiological arousal elicited by the socially-relevant bimodal stimulation is specific to infants or extends into adulthood, we also tested a group of adults. Infants (N = 25) and adults (N = 25) were stimulated on their forearm through slow stroking (i.e. affective touch) or tapping (i.e. non-affective touch) during the observation of dynamic images of socially-relevant (i.e., an unfamiliar face) and non-socially-relevant (i.e., a house) stimuli. We found that the simultaneous presentation of socially-relevant visual-tactile stimuli significantly decreased infants' - but not the adults' - electrodermal response, suggesting that infants easily integrate low-level properties of affective touch with socially salient visual information, and that social experience may tune and change sensitivity to affective touch across the life-span.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tato , Adulto , Comunicação , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Lactente , Estimulação Luminosa , Estimulação Física , Prazer
6.
Soc Neurosci ; 15(6): 641-649, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084498

RESUMO

Several adult studies have proved the existence of a shared neural circuit in the somatosensory cortices that responds to both the body being touched and the sight of the body being touched. Despite the fundamental role of touch in infancy, the existence of similar visuo-tactile mirroring processes, supporting both felt and seen touch, still needs an in-depth empirical investigation. To this aim, we explored 8-month-olds mu desynchronization over somatosensory sites in response to felt and observed touch in a live experimental setting. EEG desynchronization (6-8 Hz mu frequency range) was measured during three experimental conditions: i) infants were stroked on their right hand by a parent (Touch condition); ii) infants observed a right hand being stroked (Observation Touch condition); iii) infants observed a right hand moving over the left hand without making contact (Action Control condition). Mu desynchronization of somatosensory sites contralateral to the hand being stroked emerged in response to both Touch and Observation Touch conditions, but not in the Action control condition. Further, greater mu desynchronization was found in the Touch and Observation Touch conditions as compared to the Action control condition. Our results highlight the early involvement of a shared somatosensory system, likely supporting infants' understanding of others' tactile sensations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Observação , Estimulação Luminosa , Estimulação Física , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia
7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520934438, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597723

RESUMO

Bullying at school is a serious social problem that influences the wellbeing of everyone involved, that is, victims, perpetrators, and bystanders. Among the many health and psychological problems that these individuals may develop, emotion dysregulation appears to be a common marker. To date, however, it remains unclear whether bullying experienced during the school years is associated with emotion dysregulation also in adulthood. In this study, by adopting a retrospective approach, we investigated whether involvement in bullying at school-either as a bully, victim, or bystander-could put these individuals at risk of presenting deficits in emotion regulation in adulthood, as assessed with behavioral (explicit) and physiological (implicit) indexes (i.e., skin conductance), and whether the association between the involvement in bullying and emotion regulation was direct or mediated by other factors, such as somatic complaints and sensation seeking. A total of 58 young adults were asked to control their emotional reactions in front of images with strong emotional content, and to explicitly evaluate them with ratings, while their arousal was measured through skin conductance. They also responded to questionnaires about retrospective involvement in bullying, somatic complaints, and sensation seeking. Results revealed that victimization and bystander behavior were directly and negatively associated with emotion regulation as assessed with skin conductance, whereas bullying was positively associated with implicit emotion regulation through the mediation of sensation seeking. Interestingly, emotion regulation as assessed with explicit ratings was not associated with any of the characteristics of the participants. Our study suggests that being directly (as victim) but also indirectly (as bystander) involved in bullying at school time is associated with difficulties in emotional wellbeing in adulthood. Furthermore, it reveals that behavioral and physiological indexes associated with emotion regulation dissociate, suggesting that subtle physiological changes may remain hidden from explicit behavior.

8.
Soc Neurosci ; 15(4): 447-457, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338142

RESUMO

In everyday life, our preferences are governed by influences that we are frequently not aware of. Studies investigating visual subliminal priming have shown that emotions are particularly able to modulate the affective judgments both at a behavioural and neural level. In this study, we investigated whether emotional unconscious learning is a core feature of human development, by testing infants as young as 3 months of age on a subliminal affective priming task, in which infants were primed with subliminal happy and angry faces (Experiment 1) or subliminal neutral and scrambled faces (Experiment 2), followed by two neutral objects. We found that arousal to the neutral objects - as indexed through skin conductance - changed when they were primed with faces displaying emotional valence, and particularly anger, but not when the face had a neutral expression. This change in physiological state only partially corresponded to a change in explicit behaviour - as indexed through looking times - suggesting that emotional unconscious learning likely influences explicit behaviour at later stages of development, when subcortical-to-cortical connections have strengthened.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5378, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214160

RESUMO

Hand size perceptual distortions characterize adult human cognition. Notwithstanding the importance of uncovering how hand size representation develops in humans, studies in this field are still at a preliminary stage. Indeed, it is yet to be understood whether hand size distortions are present and reliable in early childhood and whether they differ from adults' distortions, offering a more in-depth insight into the emergence and development of such representations. We addressed this issue by comparing 4- to 6- year-old children and adults' representation of their own hand size, as assessed with a 2-forced choice visual perceptual task. To test participants' ability to estimate their own hand size, children and adults judged whether pictures of their own hand, resized to appear smaller or bigger than their own hand, matched or not its actual dimension. Results show that children aged 4 to 6 years tend to underestimate their own hand size, while adults underestimate their own hand more weakly. This evidence suggests that body-parts perceptual distortions are already in place in early childhood, and thus represent a characteristic of the human body representation.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3024, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080315

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that body-representations can be altered by dynamic changes in sound. In the so-called "auditory Pinocchio illusion" participants feel their finger to be longer when the action of pulling their finger is paired with a rising pitch. Here, we investigated whether preschool children - an age group in which multisensory body-representations are still fine-tuning - are also sensitive to this illusion. In two studies, sixty adult and sixty child participants heard sounds rising or falling in pitch while the experimenter concurrently pulled or pressed their index finger on a vertical (Experiment 1) or horizontal axis (Experiment 2). Results showed that the illusion was subjected to axis and age: both adults and children reported their finger to be longer in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. However, while in adults the feeling of finger elongation corresponded to a recalibration of the fingertip's felt position upwards, this was not the case in children, who presented a dissociation between the feeling of finger elongation and the perceived fingertip position. Our results reveal that the 'auditory Pinocchio illusion' is constrained to the vertical dimension and suggest that multisensory interactions differently contribute to subjective feelings and sense of position depending on developmental stage.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Ilusões , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12840, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021495

RESUMO

Combining information across different sensory modalities is of critical importance for the animal's survival and a core feature of human's everyday life. In adulthood, sensory information is often integrated in a statistically optimal fashion, so that the combined estimates of two or more senses are more reliable than the best single one. Several studies have shown that young children use one sense to calibrate the others, which results in unisensory dominance and undermines their optimal multisensory integration abilities. In this study we trained children aged 4-5 years with action-like mini games, to determine whether it could improve their multisensory as well as their visuo-spatial skills. Multisensory integration abilities were assessed using a visuo-haptic size discrimination task, while visuo-spatial attention skills were investigated using a multiple object tracking task (MOT). We found that 2-weeks training were sufficient to observe both optimal multisensory integration and visuo-spatial enhancements selectively in the group trained with action-like mini games. This plastic change persisted up to 3 months, as assessed in a follow-up. Our novel findings reveal that abilities that are commonly known to emerge in late childhood can be promoted in younger children through action-like mini games and have long-lasting effects. Our data have clinical implications, in that they suggest that specific trainings could potentially help children with multisensory integration deficits.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos/psicologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Atenção , Pré-Escolar , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processamento Espacial
12.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618937

RESUMO

In this study we investigated, both in childhood and adulthood, the role of action in promoting and shaping the sense of body ownership, which is traditionally viewed as dependent on multisensory integration. By means of a novel action-based version of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which participants could actively self-stroke the rubber hand, with (Version 1) or without visual feedback (Version 2) of their own actions, we showed that self-generated actions promote the emergence of a sense of ownership over the rubber hand in children, while it interferes with the embodiment of the rubber hand in adults. When the movement is missing (Version 3, i.e., mere view of the rubber hand being stroked concurrently with one's own hand), the pattern of results is reversed, with adults showing embodiment of the rubber hand, but children lacking to do so. Our novel findings reveal a dynamic and plastic contribution of the motor system to the emergence of a coherent bodily self, suggesting that the development of the sense of body ownership is shaped by motor experience, rather than being purely sensory.

13.
J Neuropsychol ; 12(3): 463-470, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891265

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on bodily self-consciousness (BSC) using the Rubber Hand Illusion. Patients with MS showed a dissociation between body ownership and self-location: they did report an explicit ownership of the rubber hand, but they did not point towards it, showing a defective ability of localizing body parts in space. This evidence indicates that MS may affect selective components of BSC, whose impairment may contribute to, and even worsen, the functional disability of MS.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Ilusões , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
14.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1994, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187829

RESUMO

Human infants begin very early in life to take advantage of multisensory information by extracting the invariant amodal information that is conveyed redundantly by multiple senses. Here we addressed the question as to whether infants can bind multisensory moving stimuli, and whether this occurs even if the motion produced by the stimuli is only illusory. Three- to 4-month-old infants were presented with two bimodal pairings: visuo-tactile and audio-visual. Visuo-tactile pairings consisted of apparently vertically moving bars (the Barber Pole illusion) moving in either the same or opposite direction with a concurrent tactile stimulus consisting of strokes given on the infant's back. Audio-visual pairings consisted of the Barber Pole illusion in its visual and auditory version, the latter giving the impression of a continuous rising or ascending pitch. We found that infants were able to discriminate congruently (same direction) vs. incongruently moving (opposite direction) pairs irrespective of modality (Experiment 1). Importantly, we also found that congruently moving visuo-tactile and audio-visual stimuli were preferred over incongruently moving bimodal stimuli (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that very young infants are able to extract motion as amodal component and use it to match stimuli that only apparently move in the same direction.

15.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0185821, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023525

RESUMO

Emotions are commonly recognized by combining auditory and visual signals (i.e., vocal and facial expressions). Yet it is unknown whether the ability to link emotional signals across modalities depends on early experience with audio-visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the role of auditory experience at different stages of development for auditory, visual, and multisensory emotion recognition abilities in three groups of adolescent and adult cochlear implant (CI) users. CI users had a different deafness onset and were compared to three groups of age- and gender-matched hearing control participants. We hypothesized that congenitally deaf (CD) but not early deaf (ED) and late deaf (LD) CI users would show reduced multisensory interactions and a higher visual dominance in emotion perception than their hearing controls. The CD (n = 7), ED (deafness onset: <3 years of age; n = 7), and LD (deafness onset: >3 years; n = 13) CI users and the control participants performed an emotion recognition task with auditory, visual, and audio-visual emotionally congruent and incongruent nonsense speech stimuli. In different blocks, participants judged either the vocal (Voice task) or the facial expressions (Face task). In the Voice task, all three CI groups performed overall less efficiently than their respective controls and experienced higher interference from incongruent facial information. Furthermore, the ED CI users benefitted more than their controls from congruent faces and the CD CI users showed an analogous trend. In the Face task, recognition efficiency of the CI users and controls did not differ. Our results suggest that CI users acquire multisensory interactions to some degree, even after congenital deafness. When judging affective prosody they appear impaired and more strongly biased by concurrent facial information than typically hearing individuals. We speculate that limitations inherent to the CI contribute to these group differences.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Percepção Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/congênito , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 161: 161-177, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527749

RESUMO

There has been compelling evidence favoring the idea that human adults similarly represent number and time along a horizontal mental number line (MNL) and mental time line (MTL), respectively. Yet, analogies drawn between the MNL and MTL have been challenged by recent studies suggesting that adults' representations of number and time arise from different spatial frames of reference; whereas the MNL relies on both hand-centered and object-centered coordinates, the MTL appears to be exclusively anchored on object-centered coordinates. To directly test this possibility, here we explored the extent to which visual feedback and proprioceptive feedback affect children's performance in a Number Comparison task (Experiment 1) and a Time Comparison task (Experiment 2), in which participants needed to associate a lateralized key with numerical and temporal words, respectively. Children (5- and 6-year-olds) performed the task with their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline (i.e., manipulation of proprioceptive feedback) and with either visual control over their hands allowed or precluded under blindfolds (i.e., manipulation of visual feedback). Results showed that children were facilitated in associating smaller/larger numbers with the left/right side of the external space, but only when hands were uncrossed and visual feedback was available. On the contrary, blindfolding and crossing their hands over the midline did not affect spatial time mapping, with 6-year-olds showing facilitation in associating words referring to the past/future with the left/right side of the external space irrespective of visual and proprioceptive feedback. This same effect was also present in 5-year-olds despite their difficulty in performing the Time Comparison task. Together, these findings show, for the first time, that-just like adults-young children (a) map temporal events onto space in a rightward direction as they do for numbers and (b) anchor their spatial representation of time and numbers to different spatial frames of reference.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
17.
Psychol Sci ; 28(3): 330-337, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28080303

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the contribution of tactile and proprioceptive cues to the development of the sense of body ownership by testing the susceptibility of 4- to 5-year-old children, 8- to 9-year-old children, and adults to the somatic rubber-hand illusion (SRHI). We found that feelings of owning a rubber hand in the SHRI paradigm, as assessed by explicit reports (i.e., questionnaire), are already present by age 4 and do not change throughout development. In contrast, the effect of the illusion on the sense of hand position, as assessed by a pointing task, was present only in 8- to 9-year-old children and adults; the magnitude of such capture increased with age. Our findings reveal that tactile-proprioceptive interactions contributed differently to the two aspects characterizing the SRHI: Although the contribution of such interactions to an explicit sense of self was similar across age groups, their contribution to the more implicit recalibration of hand position is still developing by age 9.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cognition ; 158: 177-188, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835788

RESUMO

Ordinality is a fundamental aspect of numerical cognition. However, preverbal infants' ability to represent numerical order is poorly understood. In the present study we extended the evidence provided by Macchi Cassia, Picozzi, Girelli, and de Hevia (2012), showing that 4-month-old infants detect ordinal relationships within size-based sequences, to numerical sequences. In three experiments, we showed that at 4months of age infants fail to represent increasing and decreasing numerical order when numerosities differ by a 1:2 ratio (Experiment 1), but they succeed when numerosities differ by a 1:3 ratio (Experiments 2 and 3). Critically, infants showed the same behavioral signature (i.e., asymmetry) described by Macchi Cassia et al. for discrimination of ordinal changes in area: they succeed at detecting increasing but not decreasing order (Experiments 2 and 3). These results support the idea of a common (or at least parallel) development of ordinal representation for the two quantitative dimensions of size and number. Moreover, the finding that the asymmetry signature, previously reported for size-based sequences, extends to numerosity, points to the existence of a common constraint in ordinal magnitude processing in the first months of life. The present findings are discussed in the context of possible evolutionary and developmental sources of the ordinal asymmetry, as well as their implication for other related cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conceitos Matemáticos , Psicologia da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
19.
Cortex ; 84: 124-131, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522603

RESUMO

The ability to rapidly distinguish between positive and negative facial expressions of emotions is critical for adaptive social behaviour. Increasing evidence has shown that emotions can be processed even at an unconscious level in adults. Yet, very little is still known about the early ontogeny of the unconscious processing of emotional signals conveyed by faces. Here, we investigated the processing of subliminally presented face emotional stimuli in infants as young as 3-4 months of age and sought to clarify its neural underpinnings by exploring the role of the autonomic nervous system. Using a visual preference paradigm, Experiment 1 determined the visibility threshold for happy and angry faces and established that infants detected both happy and angry faces at 200- but not at 100 msec. By measuring skin conductance response (SCR), Experiment 2 showed that the autonomic nervous system of infants reacted to both subliminally (100 msec) and supraliminally (200 msec) presented face expressions of emotions, and that SCR were higher for angry than happy facial expressions. Results revealed that 3-4 month-old infants respond to positive and negative emotions even at an unconscious level, but also show that angry faces possess an intrinsic alerting characteristics, suggestive of an adaptive meaning of the physiological response. Findings are discussed in terms of subcortical learning of emotions, and the possibility that the amygdala may be involved in such process.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Ira , Face , Expressão Facial , Felicidade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Inconsciência/fisiopatologia
20.
Multisens Res ; 29(1-3): 93-111, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27311292

RESUMO

Interest in crossmodal correspondences has recently seen a renaissance thanks to numerous studies in human adults. Yet, still very little is known about crossmodal correspondences in children, particularly in sensory pairings other than audition and vision. In the current study, we investigated whether 4-5-year-old children match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of visual objects (audio-visual condition). In addition, we investigated whether this correspondence extends to touch, i.e., whether children also match auditory pitch to the spatial motion of touch (audio-tactile condition) and the spatial motion of visual objects to touch (visuo-tactile condition). In two experiments, two different groups of children were asked to indicate which of two stimuli fitted best with a centrally located third stimulus (Experiment 1), or to report whether two presented stimuli fitted together well (Experiment 2). We found sensitivity to the congruency of all of the sensory pairings only in Experiment 2, suggesting that only under specific circumstances can these correspondences be observed. Our results suggest that pitch-height correspondences for audio-visual and audio-tactile combinations may still be weak in preschool children, and speculate that this could be due to immature linguistic and auditory cues that are still developing at age five.


Assuntos
Percepção da Altura Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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