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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199047

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has a profound effect on human health and is modulated by food and bioactive compounds. To study such interaction, in vitro batch fermentations are performed with fecal material, and some experimental designs may require that such fermentations be performed with previously frozen stools. Although it is known that freezing fecal material does not alter the composition of the microbial community in 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing studies, it is not known whether the microbial community in frozen samples could still be used for in vitro fermentations. To explore this, we undertook a pilot study in which in vitro fermentations were performed with fecal material from celiac, cow's milk allergic, obese, or lean children that was frozen (or not) with 20% glycerol. Before fermentation, the fecal material was incubated in a nutritious medium for 6 days, with the aim of giving the microbial community time to recover from the effects of freezing. An aliquot was taken daily from the stabilization vessel and used for the in vitro batch fermentation of lentils. The microbial community structure was significantly different between fresh and frozen samples, but the variation introduced by freezing a sample was always smaller than the variation among individuals, both before and after fermentation. Moreover, the potential functionality (as determined in silico by a genome-scaled metabolic reconstruction) did not differ significantly, possibly due to functional redundancy. The most affected genus was Bacteroides, a fiber degrader. In conclusion, if frozen fecal material is to be used for in vitro fermentation purposes, our preliminary analyses indicate that the functionality of microbial communities can be preserved after stabilization.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Congelamento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Leite , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206736

RESUMO

Green tea can influence the gut microbiota by either stimulating the growth of specific species or by hindering the development of detrimental ones. At the same time, gut bacteria can metabolize green tea compounds and produce smaller bioactive molecules. Accordingly, green tea benefits could be due to beneficial bacteria or to microbial bioactive metabolites. Therefore, the gut microbiota is likely to act as middle man for, at least, some of the green tea benefits on health. Many health promoting effects of green tea seems to be related to the inter-relation between green tea and gut microbiota. Green tea has proven to be able to correct the microbial dysbiosis that appears during several conditions such as obesity or cancer. On the other hand, tea compounds influence the growth of bacterial species involved in inflammatory processes such as the release of LPS or the modulation of IL production; thus, influencing the development of different chronic diseases. There are many studies trying to link either green tea or green tea phenolic compounds to health benefits via gut microbiota. In this review, we tried to summarize the most recent research in the area.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química
3.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3186-3209, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089022

RESUMO

Knowledge of the effect of foods on gut microbiota composition and functionality is expanding. To isolate the effect of single foods and/or single nutrients (i.e., fiber, polyphenols), this protocol describes an in vitro batch fermentation procedure to be carried out after an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, this is an extension of the previous protocol described by Brodkorb et al. (2019) for studying in vitro digestion. The current protocol uses an oligotrophic fermentation medium with peptone and a high concentration of fecal inoculum from human fecal samples both to provide the microbiota and as the main source of nutrients for the bacteria. This protocol is recommended for screening work to be performed when many food samples are to be studied. It has been used successfully to study gut microbiota fermentation of different foodstuffs, giving insights into their functionality, community structure or ability to degrade particular substances, which can contribute to the development of personalized nutrition strategies. The procedure does not require a specific level of expertise. The protocol takes 4-6 h for preparation of fermentation tubes and 20 h for incubation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes/métodos , Fermentação , Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805746

RESUMO

The human body is exposed to oxidative damage to cells and though it has some endogenous antioxidant systems, we still need to take antioxidants from our diet. The main dietary source of antioxidants is vegetables due to their content of different bioactive molecules. However, there are usually other components of the diet, such as foods of animal origin, that are not often linked to antioxidant capacity. Still, these foods are bound to exert some antioxidant capacity thanks to molecules released during gastrointestinal digestion and gut microbial fermentation. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of 11 foods of animal origin has been studied, submitted to different culinary techniques and to an in vitro digestion and gut microbial fermentation. Results have shown how dairy products potentially provide the highest antioxidant capacity, contributing to 60% of the daily antioxidant capacity intake. On the other hand, most of the antioxidant capacity was released during gut microbial fermentation (90-98% of the total antioxidant capacity). Finally, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of the studied foods was much higher than that reported by other authors. A possible explanation is that digestion-fermentation pretreatment allows for a higher extraction of antioxidant compounds and their transformation by the gut microbiota. Therefore, although foods of animal origin cannot be compared to vegetables in the concentration of antioxidant molecules, the processes of digestion and fermentation can provide some, giving animal origin food some qualities that could have been previously unappreciated.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371445

RESUMO

The antioxidant capacity of foods is essential to complement the body's own endogenous antioxidant systems. The main antioxidant foods in the regular diet are those of plant origin. Although every kind of food has a different antioxidant capacity, thermal processing or cooking methods also play a role. In this work, the antioxidant capacity of 42 foods of vegetable origin was evaluated after in vitro digestion and fermentation. All foods were studied both raw and after different thermal processing methods, such as boiling, grilling roasting, frying, toasting and brewing. The cooking methods had an impact on the antioxidant capacity of the digested and fermented fractions, allowing the release and transformation of antioxidant compounds. In general, the fermented fraction accounted for up to 80-98% of the total antioxidant capacity. The most antioxidant foods were cocoa and legumes, which contributed to 20% of the daily antioxidant capacity intake. Finally, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of the studied foods was much higher than those reported by other authors since digestion-fermentation pretreatment allows for a higher extraction of antioxidant compounds and their transformation by the gut microbiota.

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