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2.
Int J Med Inform ; 166: 104842, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the number, characteristics, and outcomes of patients identified hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using two different case definitions. PROCEDURES: Electronic Health Record data were evaluated from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 through May 2020 at 52 health systems across the United States. Characteristics of inpatients with positive laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 were compared with those with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 but without a confirmatory lab result. FINDINGS: Of 14,371 inpatients with COVID-19, 6623 (46.1 %) had a positive laboratory result, and n = 7748 (52.9 %) had only a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Compared with clinically diagnosed cases, those with laboratory-confirmed COVID were similar in age and sex, but differed by race, ethnicity, and insurance status. Laboratory-confirmed cases were more likely to receive certain COVID-19 therapies including hydroxychloroquine, anti-IL6 agents and antivirals (p < 0.001). Those with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had lower rates of most complications such as myocardial infarction, but higher overall mortality (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We observed a two-fold difference in the number of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 depending on whether the case definition required laboratory confirmation. Variations in case definitions also led to differences in cohort characteristics, treatments, and outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(8): 844-854, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793094

RESUMO

Importance: Traditional models for predicting in-hospital mortality for patients with heart failure (HF) have used logistic regression and do not account for social determinants of health (SDOH). Objective: To develop and validate novel machine learning (ML) models for HF mortality that incorporate SDOH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective study used the data from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry to identify HF hospitalizations between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2020. The study included patients with acute decompensated HF who were hospitalized at the GWTG-HF participating centers during the study period. Data analysis was performed January 6, 2021, to April 26, 2022. External validation was performed in the hospitalization cohort from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study between 2005 and 2014. Main Outcomes and Measures: Random forest-based ML approaches were used to develop race-specific and race-agnostic models for predicting in-hospital mortality. Performance was assessed using C index (discrimination), regression slopes for observed vs predicted mortality rates (calibration), and decision curves for prognostic utility. Results: The training data set included 123 634 hospitalized patients with HF who were enrolled in the GWTG-HF registry (mean [SD] age, 71 [13] years; 58 356 [47.2%] female individuals; 65 278 [52.8%] male individuals. Patients were analyzed in 2 categories: Black (23 453 [19.0%]) and non-Black (2121 [2.1%] Asian; 91 154 [91.0%] White, and 6906 [6.9%] other race and ethnicity). The ML models demonstrated excellent performance in the internal testing subset (n = 82 420) (C statistic, 0.81 for Black patients and 0.82 for non-Black patients) and in the real-world-like cohort with less than 50% missingness on covariates (n = 553 506; C statistic, 0.74 for Black patients and 0.75 for non-Black patients). In the external validation cohort (ARIC registry; n = 1205 Black patients and 2264 non-Black patients), ML models demonstrated high discrimination and adequate calibration (C statistic, 0.79 and 0.80, respectively). Furthermore, the performance of the ML models was superior to the traditional GWTG-HF risk score model (C index, 0.69 for both race groups) and other rederived logistic regression models using race as a covariate. The performance of the ML models was identical using the race-specific and race-agnostic approaches in the GWTG-HF and external validation cohorts. In the GWTG-HF cohort, the addition of zip code-level SDOH parameters to the ML model with clinical covariates only was associated with better discrimination, prognostic utility (assessed using decision curves), and model reclassification metrics in Black patients (net reclassification improvement, 0.22 [95% CI, 0.14-0.30]; P < .001) but not in non-Black patients. Conclusions and Relevance: ML models for HF mortality demonstrated superior performance to the traditional and rederived logistic regressions models using race as a covariate. The addition of SDOH parameters improved the prognostic utility of prediction models in Black patients but not non-Black patients in the GWTG-HF registry.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 24(8): 607-617, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773565

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current evidence regarding the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on cardiometabolic health, with a focus on strategies to help mitigate adverse effects on population health. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with cardiometabolic disease are particularly vulnerable to worse outcomes with COVID-19 infection. In addition, the pandemic itself has had significant deleterious impact on the cardiometabolic health of the population, including declines in physical activity, increases in smoking and alcohol use, worsening blood pressure and glycemic control, and detrimental effects on mental health. Targeted interventions at the patient and community level will be needed to mitigate the long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on population cardiometabolic health. The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened cardiometabolic health, but there are several opportunities and enhanced tools available to counteract these changes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 8(6): 622-632, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), limited pharmacologic options are available for prevention. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors (CETPis) have been studied primarily as a therapy to reduce cardiovascular disease, but have also been shown to reduce new-onset diabetes. As new trial data have become available, this meta-analysis examines the effect of CETP inhibitors on new-onset diabetes and related glycaemic measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (all articles until 4 March, 2021) for randomised controlled trials (RCT) ≥1-year duration, with at least 500 participants, comparing CETPi to placebo, and that reported data on new-onset diabetes or related glycaemic measures [haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)]. A fixed effects meta-analysis model was applied to all eligible studies to quantify the effect of CETPi therapy on new-onset diabetes. Four RCTs (n = 75 102) were eligible for quantitative analysis of the effect of CETPi on new-onset diabetes. CETPis were found to significantly decrease the risk of new-onset diabetes by 16% (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91; P < 0.001), with low between-trial heterogeneity (I2 = 4.1%). Glycaemic measures were also significantly improved or trended towards improvement in those with and without diabetes across most trials. CONCLUSION: Although RCTs have shown mixed results regarding the impact of CETPi on cardiovascular disease, they have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes with CETPi therapy. Future trials of CETPis and potentially other HDL-raising agents should therefore specify new-onset diabetes and reversal of existing T2DM as secondary endpoints.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(8): 819-836, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210038

RESUMO

There is a need to identify high-risk features that predict early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The authors provide insights to help clinicians identify and address high-risk conditions in the 20- to 39-year age range (young adults). These include tobacco use, elevated blood pressure/hypertension, family history of premature ASCVD, primary severe hypercholesterolemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia, diabetes with diabetes-specific risk-enhancing factors, or the presence of multiple other risk-enhancing factors, including in females, a history of pre-eclampsia or menopause under age 40. The authors update current thinking on lipid risk factors such as triglycerides, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, or lipoprotein (a) that are useful in understanding an individual's long-term ASCVD risk. The authors review emerging strategies, such as coronary artery calcium and polygenic risk scores in this age group, that have potential clinical utility, but whose best use remains uncertain. Finally, the authors discuss both the obstacles and opportunities for addressing prevention in early adulthood.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/terapia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 73: 48-55, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114251

RESUMO

Prior studies have reported improvements in population-level risk factor burden and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes using polypills for CVD risk reduction. However, a comprehensive assessment of the impact of polypills on CVD outcomes, mortality, adherence, and side effects across different settings has not previously been reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the association between polypill therapy and CVD outcomes published before February 2021. The primary outcome of interest was the risk of major adverse CVD events (MACE). Risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes were converted to log RR and pooled using a generic inverse variance weighted random-effects model. Data for continuous outcomes were pooled using random-effects modeling and presented as mean differences with 95% CIs. Eight studies representing 25,584 patients were included for analysis. In the overall pooled analysis, the use of polypills was associated with a non-significant reduction in the risk of MACE (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.02) and significant reductions in the risk of all-cause mortality (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.81-1.00). The reductions in the risk of MACE with polypill use varied by baseline risk and nature of the study population (primary prevention vs. secondary prevention), with the most significant risk reduction among lower-risk cohorts, including within primary prevention populations [RR 0.70 (0.62, 0.79)]. Among measures of CVD risk factors, modest but significant reductions were observed for systolic and diastolic blood pressure [systolic: mean difference 1.99 mmHg (95% CI: -3.07 to -0.91); diastolic: mean difference 1.30 mmHg (95% CI: -2.42 to -0.19), but not for levels of total or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Use of the polypill strategy significantly improved drug adherence (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.11-1.55) with no association between polypill use and rates of adverse events or drug discontinuation. The use of polypill formulations is associated with significant reductions in CVD risk factors and the risk of all-cause mortality and MACE, particularly in the low-risk and primary prevention population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
13.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(4): 383-392, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease events, but effectiveness in routine clinical care has not been well-studied. We used negative control outcomes to assess potential confounding in an observational study of PCSK9i versus ezetimibe or high-intensity statin. METHODS: Using commercial claims, we identified U.S. adults initiating PCSK9i, ezetimibe, or high-intensity statin in 2015-2018, with other lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) use in the year prior (LLT cohort) or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the past 90 days (ASCVD cohort). We compared initiators of PCSK9i to ezetimibe and high-intensity statin by estimating one-year risks of negative control outcomes influenced by frailty or health-seeking behaviors. Inverse probability of treatment and censoring weighted estimators of risk differences (RDs) were used to evaluate residual confounding after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: PCSK9i initiators had lower one-year risks of negative control outcomes associated with frailty, such as decubitus ulcer in the ASCVD cohort (PCSK9i vs. high-intensity statin RD = -3.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -4.6%, -2.5%; PCSK9i vs. ezetimibe RD = -1.3%, 95% CI: -2.1%, -0.6%), with similar but attenuated associations in the LLT cohort. Lower risks of accidents and fractures were also observed for PCSK9i, varying by cohort. Risks were similar for outcomes associated with health-seeking behaviors, although trended higher for PCSK9i in the ASCVD cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Observed associations suggest lower frailty and potentially greater health-seeking behaviors among PCSK9i initiators, particularly those with a recent ASCVD diagnosis, with the potential to bias real-world analyses of treatment effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Adulto , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos
16.
Am Heart J ; 247: 15-23, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902314

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: COVID-19 altered lifestyles and disrupted routine health care. Whether blood pressure (BP) control worsened during COVID-19 is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To understand whether home BP control worsened during COVID-19 across the United States (US) . DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based analysis of home BP data from 72,706 participants enrolled in a digital health hypertension control program. Data was compared before (January 2019 to March 2020) and during (April 2020 to August 2020) COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Monthly mean home BP readings, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were quantified before and during the pandemic. Multivariable adjustments were made for age, sex, race, region, and months enrolled. Home BP readings were also classified based on monthly averages and highest home BP readings into risk groups: Stage 2 HTN: BP> = 135 or DBP> = 85; Uncontrolled HTN: SBP> = 145 or DBP> = 95; or Severely uncontrolled HTN: SBP> = 160 or DBP> = 100). RESULTS: Overall, 72,706 participants were enrolled in a digital health hypertension program between 1/1/2019 and 8/31/2020. Compared with participants pre-COVID-19 (n = 33,440), those during COVID-19 (n = 39,266) were of similar age (mean 53.0 ± 10.7 years vs 53.3 ± 10.8 years); sex (46% vs 50.6% female) and race (29.1% vs 34.2% non-white). Relative to pre-Covid (Apr-Aug 2019) the mean monthly number of home BP readings rose during COVID-19 (Apr-Aug, 2020), from 7.3 to 9.3 per month (P < .001). During COVID-19, participants had higher monthly adjusted mean SBP (131.6 mmHg vs. 127.5 mmHg, P < .001); DBP (80.2 mmHg vs. 79.2 mmHg, P < .001); and MAP (97.4 mmHg vs. 95.3 mmHg; P < .001). Relative to the pre-pandemic period, during COVID-19 the proportion of participants with a mean monthly BP classified as uncontrolled or severely uncontrolled hypertension also rose, 15% vs 19% and 4% vs 5%, respectively CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Based on home BP readings, mean monthly BP rose modestly after COVID-19, despite increased utilization of home monitoring. Further studies are needed to examine the longitudinal effects of the pandemic on cardiovascular disease risk factors, the impact of these on long-term population health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
18.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(6): 832-839, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin associated side effects (SASE) are a leading cause of statin discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient, provider, and facility characteristics associated with SASEs and whether these characteristics impact statin utilization. METHODS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) receiving care across the Veterans Affairs healthcare system from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine (a) factors associated with SASE and (b) factors associated with statin use in those with SASE. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1,225,576 patients with ASCVD. Of these, 171,189 (13.7%) had at least 1 reported SASE since year 2000. The most significant odds for SASEs were observed with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 1.45), White race (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.41, 1.45), hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33, 1.41) and ischemic heart disease (IHD: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.43, 1.47). Lower odds were noted with care at a teaching facility (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88, 0.90). Factors most associated with being on a statin among patients with SASE included having diabetes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15, 1.20), IHD (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.35, 1.43) and a higher number of cardiology visits (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07, 1.09), while female sex was associated with lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61, 0.69). CONCLUSION: There are significant disparities in statin use by sex, ASCVD type, and comorbidities among secondary prevention patients with SASE, which represent areas for improvement in optimizing statin utilization.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
19.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 8: 100250, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485967

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death for both women and men worldwide. In the United States (U.S.), there are significant disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and CVD outcomes among racial and ethnic minority populations, some of whom have the highest U.S. CVD incidence and mortality. Despite this, women and racial/ethnic minority populations remain underrepresented in cardiovascular clinical trials, relative to their disease burden and population percentage. The lack of diverse participants in trials is not only a moral and ethical issue, but a scientific concern, as it can limit application of future therapies. Providing comprehensive demographic data by sex and race/ethnicity and increasing representation of diverse participants into clinical trials are essential in assessing accurate drug response, safety and efficacy information. Additionally, diversifying investigators and clinical trial staff may assist with connecting to the language, customs, and beliefs of study populations and increase recruitment of participants from diverse backgrounds. In this review, a working group for the American Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) reviewed the literature regarding the inclusion of women and individuals of diverse backgrounds into cardiovascular clinical trials, focusing on prevention, and provided recommendations of best practices for improving enrollment to be more representative of the U.S. society into trials.

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