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J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 11(1): 7-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140001


Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health problem. In Colombia, it is estimated that 70% of deaths from violence and 90% of deaths from road traffic accidents are TBI related. In the year 2014, the Ministry of Health of Colombia funded the development of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with severe TBI. A critical barrier to the widespread implementation was identified-that is, the lack of a specific protocol that spans various levels of resources and complexity across the four treatment phases. The objective of this article is to present the process and recommendations for the management of patients with TBI in various resource environments, across the treatment phases of prehospital care, emergency department (ED), surgery, and intensive care unit. Methods Using the Delphi methodology, a consensus of 20 experts in emergency medicine, neurosurgery, prehospital care, and intensive care nationwide developed recommendations based on 13 questions for the management of patients with TBI in Colombia. Discussion It is estimated that 80% of the global population live in developing economies where access to resources required for optimum treatment is limited. There is limitation for applications of CPGs recommendations in areas where there is low availability or absence of resources for integral care. Development of mixed methods consensus, including evidence review and expertise points of good clinical practices can fill gaps in application of CPGs. BOOTStraP (Beyond One Option for Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Stratified Protocol) is intended to be a practical handbook for care providers to use to treat TBI patients with whatever resources are available. Results Stratification of recommendations for interventions according to the availability of the resources on different stages of integral care is a proposed method for filling gaps in actual evidence, to organize a better strategy for interventions in different real-life scenarios. We develop 10 algorithms of management for building TBI protocols based on expert consensus to articulate treatment options in prehospital care, EDs, neurological surgery, and intensive care, independent of the level of availability of resources for care.

Burns ; 44(4): 941-946, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395406


INTRODUCTION: Classically, hyperkalemia has been regarded as a complication in patients with electrical burns. The etiology of hyperkalemia includes metabolic acidosis, destruction of red blood cells, rhabdomyolysis and the development of renal failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hyperkalemia within the first 24h after electrical burn injury and to evaluate the possible association of serum potassium concentration with cutaneous burn size (%TBSA) and serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentration. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted, based on review of medical records of adult patients hospitalized in the first 24h post electrical injury. Serum potassium (K+) levels were divided into low, normal, and high groups, with breakpoints at 3.5mmol/L and 5.0mmol/L and normal 3.6-4.9mmol/L. To assess potential differences according to the time elapsed between the time of the injury and the sampling time, data were grouped as follows: t1: samples obtained in the first 6h post-injury; t2: samples taken at 6-12h; t3: samples taken at 12-24h. RESULTS: 336 patients were studied. The median age was 32 years old (IQR: 25-43). 95.2% of patients were men. Low and normal values of K+ were observed in 13.7% and 85.1%, respectively. The prevalence of hyperkalemia was only 1.2%, and was not related to previously-administered medications or to simple blood gas pH value during admission. CPK>10,000IU/L was observed in 22.6%. No association was found between the serum potassium concentration and either %TBSA burned or the highest CPK value. CONCLUSIONS: First, patients admitted to our burn unit with electrical injury accompanied by significant skin and muscle injury rarely exhibit hyperkalemia. Secondly, the presence of hyperkalemia is independent of the severity of rhabdomyolysis or the extent of the burn.

Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica/epidemiologia , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Rabdomiólise/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Superfície Corporal , Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiólise/sangue , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Adulto Jovem
Burns Trauma ; 4: 8, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27574678


BACKGROUND: Burns are one of the most severe traumas that an individual can suffer. The World Health Organization (WHO) affirms that injuries related to burns are a global public health problem mainly in low- and middle-income countries. The first step towards reducing any preventable injury is based on accurate information. In Colombia, the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn injuries are unknown. The objectives were establishing the causes, high-risk populations, mortality rate, and tendencies of burn deaths. METHODS: Observational, analytical, population-based study based on official death certificate occurred between 2000 and 2009. All codes of the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) related to burns were included. The mortality rates were standardized using the WHO world average age weights 2000-2025. To determine the tendency, an average annual percent change (AACP) was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 5448 deaths due to burns were identified; 78.4 % were men. The crude and adjusted burn mortality rate was 1.270 and 1.302 per 100,000, respectively. The AACP was -5.25 %. Electrical injury caused the greatest number of deaths (49.5 %), followed by fire and lightning injuries. A total of 1197 (22.1 %) children were under 15 years old. The causes of deaths were different among age groups. 59.4 % deaths occurred outside health institutions. CONCLUSIONS: This study is a first step in identifying the main causes of death and groups with higher mortality rates. Electricity is the main cause of deaths due to burn injury. Further research is required in order to generate awareness among government and community for reducing the number of injuries and burn deaths in our country.

Burns ; 41(7): 1587-92, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059049


BACKGROUND: Burns represent a serious problem around the world especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, causes and mortality rate of burn deaths in the Colombian pediatric population as well as to guide future education and prevention programs. METHODS: We conducted an observational, analytical, retrospective population-based study. It was based upon official death certificate data using diagnosis codes for burns (scalds, thermal, electrical, intentional self-harm and not specified), that occurred between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Official death certificates of the pediatric population of up to 15 years of age were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. RESULTS: A total of 1197 fatal pediatric injuries related to burns were identified. The crude and adjusted mortality rate for burns in the pediatric population in Colombia during the length of the study was 0.899 and 0.912 per 100,000, respectively. The mortality rate tended to decrease (-5.17% annual) during the duration of the study. Children under 5 years of age were the most affected group (59.5%). Almost half of them died before arriving at a health facility (47.1%). Fire is the principal cause of death attributable to burns in Colombia, followed by electric burns and hot liquids. CONCLUSIONS: This is a first step study in researching the epidemiological features of pediatric deaths after burns. The Public Health's strategies should be oriented toward community awareness about these kind of injuries, and to teach children and families about risk factors and first aid.

Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Unidades de Queimados/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimaduras/etiologia , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
J Burn Care Res ; 34(3): e209-12, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22929530


Lightning strikes cause injuries in multiple systems and organs. Early recognition of lightning injury syndromes and anticipation of harmful complications can improve outcomes for these patients. The author has presented a case report of a patient who was struck by lightning and exhibited extensive soft tissue injury with myoglobinuria. He was treated with delayed fasciotomy and had evidence of severe muscle injury with markedly elevated creatine kinase levels that gradually improved with aggressive fluid infusion. The patient did not require alkalinization of urine, mannitol, or dialysis, and his renal function remained normal.

Lesões por Ação do Raio/complicações , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Desbridamento , Hidratação , Humanos , Lesões por Ação do Raio/terapia , Masculino , Rabdomiólise/terapia