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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer pathogenesis represents a complex interaction of host genetic determinants, microbial virulence factors and environmental exposures. Our primary aim was to determine the association between occupations/occupational exposures and odds of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pooled-analysis of individual-level data harmonized from 11 studies in the Stomach cancer Pooling Project. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of gastric cancer adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 5279 gastric cancer cases and 12 297 controls were analysed. There were higher odds of gastric cancer among labour-related occupations, including: agricultural and animal husbandry workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.68]; miners, quarrymen, well-drillers and related workers (OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.88); blacksmiths, toolmakers and machine-tool operators (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.89); bricklayers, carpenters and construction workers (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60); and stationary engine and related equipment operators (OR 6.53, 95% CI: 1.41-30.19). The ORs for wood-dust exposure were 1.51 (95% CI: 1.01-2.26) for intestinal-type and 2.52 (95% CI: 1.46-4.33) for diffuse-type gastric cancer. Corresponding values for aromatic amine exposure were 1.83 (95% CI: 1.09-3.06) and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.36-6.26). Exposure to coal derivatives, pesticides/herbicides, chromium, radiation and magnetic fields were associated with higher odds of diffuse-type, but not intestinal-type gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a large pooled analysis, we identified several occupations and related exposures that are associated with elevated odds of gastric cancer. These findings have potential implications for risk attenuation and could be used to direct investigations evaluating the impact of targeted gastric cancer prevention/early detection programmes based on occupation.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 291-306, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overall quality of dietary carbohydrate intake rather than total carbohydrate intake may determine the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: We examined 6- and 12-mo changes in carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and concurrent changes in several CVD risk factors in a multicenter, randomized, primary-prevention trial (PREDIMED-Plus) based on an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention program. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 5373 overweight/obese Spanish adults (aged 55-75 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intake information obtained from a validated 143-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate 6- and 12-mo changes in CQI (categorized in quintiles), based on 4 criteria (total dietary fiber intake, glycemic index, whole grain/total grain ratio, and solid carbohydrate/total carbohydrate ratio). The outcomes were changes in intermediate markers of CVD. RESULTS: During the 12-mo follow-up, the majority of participants improved their CQI by increasing their consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, and nuts and decreasing their consumption of refined cereals, added sugars, and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 6 mo, body weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride levels, triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index, and TyG-WC decreased across successive quintiles of improvement in the CQI. After 12 mo, improvements were additionally observed for HDL cholesterol and for the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Favorable improvements (expressed in common units of SD and 95% CI) for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1 of CQI change were observed for most risk factors, including TyG-WC (SD -0.20; 95% CI -0.26, -0.15), HbA1c (SD -0.16; 95% CI -0.23, -0.10), weight (SD -0.12; 95% CI -0.14, -0.09), systolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.02) and diastolic BP (SD -0.11; 95% CI -0.19, -0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in CQI were strongly associated with concurrent favorable CVD risk factor changes maintained over time in overweight/obese adults with MetS. This trial was registered as ISRCTN 89898870.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(6): 584-592, nov.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4649

RESUMO

Introducción: En España, un tercio de los menores y dos tercios de los adultos padecen exceso de peso, una condición que genera un sobrecoste médico directo de 2000 millones de euros. El entorno alimentario obesogénico causa obesidad al promover el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y de alimentos ultraprocesados. Por ello, proponemos cinco políticas prioritarias con el PODER de revertir la epidemia de obesidad y de enfermedades no transmisibles asociadas a ella, mediante la creación de entornos alimentarios saludables. El PODER de las políticas alimentarias: P (Publicidad): regulación de la publicidad de alimentos y bebidas no saludables dirigida a menores por todos los medios y prohibición de patrocinios de congresos o eventos deportivos y avales de asociaciones científicas o profesionales de la salud. O (Oferta): promoción de una oferta 100% saludable en máquinas expendedoras de centros educativos, sanitarios y deportivos. D (Demanda): implantación de un impuesto, al menos del 20%, a las bebidas azucaradas, acompañado de subvenciones o bajadas de impuestos a alimentos saludables y disponibilidad de agua potable a coste cero en todos los centros y espacios públicos. E (Etiquetado): aplicación efectiva del Nutri-Score mediante el uso de incentivos, regulación y mecanismos de contratación pública. R (Reformulación): reformular los acuerdos de reformulación con la industria con objetivos más ambiciosos y de obligado cumplimiento. Reflexión final: Las cinco intervenciones propuestas, aplicadas con éxito en otros países, contribuirán a concienciar a la población y tendrán un impacto positivo en la salud y en la economía, por una reducción de los costes sanitarios de la obesidad y un aumento de la productividad laboral. Estas medidas deberían formar parte de una gran transformación del sistema alimentario, con políticas agroalimentarias que fomenten una producción sostenible de alimentos saludables


Introduction: In Spain, one third of all children and two-thirds of adults suffer from excess weight, a condition that generates a direct excess medical cost of 2000 million Euros. Obesogenic food environments cause obesity by promoting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods. Accordingly, we propose five priority policies capable of reversing the epidemic of obesity and related non-communicable diseases through the creation of healthy food environments. The power (PODER in Spanish) of food policies: Advertising (Publicidad): regulation of unhealthy food and drink advertisements carried by all media and targeted at children, and prohibition of sponsorships of congresses, conferences or sports events and endorsements by scientific associations or health professionals. Supply (Oferta): promotion of a 100% healthy supply of goods on sale in vending machines sited at educational, health and sports centres. Demand (Demanda): levying a tax of at least 20% on sugar-sweetened beverages, accompanied by subsidies or reduced taxes on healthy foods and availability of drinking water free of charge at all public venues and areas. Labelling (Etiquetado): effective application of the Nutri-Score through the use of incentives, regulation and public-tender mechanisms. Reformulation (Reformulación): revising and redrawing reformulation agreements with the industry, setting more ambitious goals and mandatory compliance. A final thought: These five proposed interventions, all of which have been successfully applied in other countries, will serve to raise population awareness and have a positive impact on health and the economy, through reducing the health care costs of obesity and enhancing work productivity. These measures should form part of a wide-ranging transformation of the food system, with agri-food policies that foster the sustainable production of healthy foods

5.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 72(11): 925-934, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4990

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los beneficios cardiovasculares de la dieta mediterránea se han evaluado bajo supuestos de ingesta total de energía ad libitum (sin restricción de energía). En el presente trabajo se estudia basalmente la cohorte de un gran ensayo en marcha denominado PREDIMED-Plus y la asociación entre la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea hipocalórica según la escala de 17 puntos (MedDiet) de este ensayo con la prevalencia inicial de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). Métodos: Evaluación transversal de los participantes de PREDIMED-Plus (6.874 adultos mayores con sobrepeso/obesidad y síndrome metabólico). Se evaluó a los participantes para determinar la prevalencia de 4 FRCV (hipertensión, obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia). Se estimaron diferencias de medias y razones de prevalencia para FRCV individuales y agrupados con modelos multivariables. Resultados: Una mejor adhesión al patrón MedDiet se asoció significativamente con niveles más bajos de triglicéridos, índice de masa corporal y perímetro abdominal. Comparado con una baja adhesión (≤ 7 puntos en el score de 17 puntos), una mejor adhesión a la MedDiet (11-17 puntos) mostró asociaciones inversas con hipertensión (razón de prevalencia=0,97; IC95%, 0,94-1,00) y obesidad (razón de prevalencia=0,96; IC95% 0,92-1,00), pero se observaron asociaciones positivas con diabetes (razón de prevalencia=1,19; IC95% 1,07-1,32). Comparado con el tercil más bajo de adhesión, las mujeres en el tercil superior mostraron un riesgo menor para la agrupación de 3 o más FRCV (razón de prevalencia=0,91; IC95% 0,83-0,98). Conclusiones: Entre participantes con alto riesgo cardiovascular, la mejor adhesión a MedDiet se asoció a mejores perfiles lipídicos y medidas de adiposidad, y entre las mujeres mostró asociaciones inversas significativas con la agregación de FRCV


Introduction and objectives: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. Results: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (≤ 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio=0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio=1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio=0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). Conclusions: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures

6.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
7.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584199

RESUMO

The consumption of processed meat has been associated with noncardia gastric cancer, but evidence regarding a possible role of red meat is more limited. Our study aims to quantify the association between meat consumption, namely white, red and processed meat, and the risk of gastric cancer, through individual participant data meta-analysis of studies participating in the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Data from 22 studies, including 11,443 cases and 28,029 controls, were used. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled through a two-stage approach based on random-effects models. An exposure-response relationship was modeled, using one and two-order fractional polynomials, to evaluate the possible nonlinear association between meat intake and gastric cancer. An increased risk of gastric cancer was observed for the consumption of all types of meat (highest vs. lowest tertile), which was statistically significant for red (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.00-1.53), processed (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06-1.43) and total meat (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.09-1.55). Exposure-response analyses showed an increasing risk of gastric cancer with increasing consumption of both processed and red meat, with the highest OR being observed for an intake of 150 g/day of red meat (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.56-2.20). This work provides robust evidence on the relation between the consumption of different types of meat and gastric cancer. Adherence to dietary recommendations to reduce meat consumption may contribute to a reduction in the burden of gastric cancer.

8.
Gac Sanit ; 33(6): 584-592, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Spain, one third of all children and two-thirds of adults suffer from excess weight, a condition that generates a direct excess medical cost of 2000 million Euros. Obesogenic food environments cause obesity by promoting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods. Accordingly, we propose five priority policies capable of reversing the epidemic of obesity and related non-communicable diseases through the creation of healthy food environments. THE POWER (PODER IN SPANISH) OF FOOD POLICIES: Advertising (Publicidad): regulation of unhealthy food and drink advertisements carried by all media and targeted at children, and prohibition of sponsorships of congresses, conferences or sports events and endorsements by scientific associations or health professionals. Supply (Oferta): promotion of a 100% healthy supply of goods on sale in vending machines sited at educational, health and sports centres. Demand (Demanda): levying a tax of at least 20% on sugar-sweetened beverages, accompanied by subsidies or reduced taxes on healthy foods and availability of drinking water free of charge at all public venues and areas. Labelling (Etiquetado): effective application of the Nutri-Score through the use of incentives, regulation and public-tender mechanisms. Reformulation (Reformulación): revising and redrawing reformulation agreements with the industry, setting more ambitious goals and mandatory compliance. A FINAL THOUGHT: These five proposed interventions, all of which have been successfully applied in other countries, will serve to raise population awareness and have a positive impact on health and the economy, through reducing the health care costs of obesity and enhancing work productivity. These measures should form part of a wide-ranging transformation of the food system, with agri-food policies that foster the sustainable production of healthy foods.

9.
Hum Reprod ; 34(10): 1866-1875, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560742

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is adherence to an a priori defined diet quality indices [Alternate Healthy Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) or dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)] associated with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Greater adherence to the DASH diet is related to higher sperm counts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies assessing the relationship between dietary intake and male reproductive function have mainly been focused on specific nutrients, food groups or data-driven dietary patterns, but the evidence on a priori defined dietary indices is still scarce. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Cross-sectional study of 209 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Southern Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthy young men aged 18-23 years were included in this study. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and three a priori-defined dietary indices (AHEI-2010, rMED and DASH) were calculated. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between the three dietary indices and semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels accounting for potential confounders and covariates. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We found statistically significant positive associations between the DASH index and sperm concentration (P, trend = 0.04), total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04) and total motile sperm count (P, trend = 0.02). No associations were observed for other semen parameters or male reproductive hormones. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Even though we adjusted for several known and suspected confounders we cannot exclude the possibility of residual or unmeasured confounding or chance findings. Subjects were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influence on their report of diet. Our sample size may be too small to rule out associations with other semen parameters or reproductive hormones. Causal inference is limited, as usual with all observational studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The results suggest that greater adherence to the DASH may help improve sperm counts. This study was carried out on young men from the general population. However, results may differ among other populations (e.g. infertile men). Therefore, further research is needed to confirm these findings and extend these results to other populations. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by Fundación Séneca, grants No 08808/PI/08 and No 19443/PI/14; Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AES), grants No PI10/00985 and No PI13/01237; and grant P30DK046200 from the National Institutes of Health. Authors have no competing interests to declare.

10.
Environ Res ; 174: 135-142, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075694

RESUMO

Early-life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) may adversely impact health later in life. To date, evidence of iAs adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment comes mainly from populations highly exposed to contaminated water with conflicting results. Little is known about those effects among populations with low iAs exposure from food intake. We investigated the cross-sectional association between exposure to iAs and neurodevelopment scores among children living in Spain whose main route of exposure was diet. Arsenic species concentrations in urine from 400 children was determined, and the sum of urinary iAs, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid was used to estimate iAs exposure. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's neuropsychological development at about 4-5 years of age. The median (interquartile range) of children's sum of urinary iAs, MMA, and DMA was 4.85 (2.74-7.54) µg/L, and in adjusted linear regression analyses the natural logarithm transformed concentrations showed an inverse association with children's motor functions (ß, [95% confidence interval]; global scores (-2.29, [-3.95, -0.63])), gross scores (-1.92, [-3.52, -0.31]) and fine scores (-1.54, [-3.06, -0.03]). In stratified analyses by sex, negative associations were observed with the scores in the quantitative index (-2.59, [-5.36, 0.17]) and working memory function (-2.56, [-5.36, 0.24]) only in boys. Our study suggests that relatively low iAs exposure may impair children's neuropsychological development and that sex-related differences may be present in susceptibility to iAs related effects; however, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsenicais , Ácido Cacodílico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
11.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 72(11): 925-934, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The cardiovascular benefits of the Mediterranean diet have usually been assessed under assumptions of ad libitum total energy intake (ie, no energy restriction). In the recently launched PREDIMED-Plus, we conducted exploratory analyses to study the baseline associations between adherence to an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). METHODS: Cross-sectional assessment of all PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) at baseline. The participants were assessed by their usual primary care physicians to ascertain the prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). A 17-point PREDIMED-Plus score was used to measure adherence to the MedDiet. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in means and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. RESULTS: Better adherence to a MedDiet pattern was significantly associated with lower average triglyceride levels, body mass index, and waist circumference. Compared with low adherence (≤ 7 points in the 17-point score), better adherence to the MedDiet (11-17 points) showed inverse associations with hypertension (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.00) and obesity (prevalence ratio=0.96; 95%CI, 0.92-1.00), but positive associations with diabetes (prevalence ratio=1.19; 95%CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with the lowest third of adherence, women in the upper third showed a significantly lower prevalence of the clustering of 3 or more CVRF (prevalence ratio=0.91; 95%CI, 0.83-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Among participants at high cardiovascular risk, better adherence to a MedDiet showed significant inverse associations with CVRF among women, and improved lipid profiles and adiposity measures. This trial was registered in 2014 at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Registry (ISRCTN89898870).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Cooperação do Paciente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Int J Cancer ; 144(12): 2936-2944, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521095

RESUMO

Diets rich in vegetables and fruit have been associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, and there is suggestive evidence that citrus fruits have a protective role. Our study aimed at evaluating and quantifying the association between citrus fruit intake and gastric cancer risk. We conducted a one-stage pooled analysis including 6,340 cases and 14,490 controls from 15 case-control studies from the stomach cancer pooling (StoP) project consortium. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer across study-specific tertiles of citrus fruit intake (grams/week) were estimated by generalized linear mixed effect models, with logistic link function and random intercept for each study. The models were adjusted for sex, age, and the main recognized risk factors for gastric cancer. Compared to the first third of the distribution, the adjusted pooled OR (95% CI) for the highest third was 0.80 (0.73-0.87). The favourable effect of citrus fruits increased progressively until three servings/week and leveled off thereafter. The magnitude of the association was similar between cancer sub-sites and histotypes. The analysis by geographic area showed no association in studies from the Americas. Our data confirm an inverse association between citrus fruits and gastric cancer and provide precise estimates of the magnitude of the association. However, the null association found in studies from America and in some previous cohort studies prevent to draw definite conclusions on a protective effect of citrus fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Citrus , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 54: 125-132, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual participant data pooled analyses allow access to non-published data and statistical reanalyses based on more homogeneous criteria than meta-analyses based on systematic reviews. We quantified the impact of publication-related biases and heterogeneity in data analysis and presentation in summary estimates of the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer. METHODS: We compared estimates obtained from conventional meta-analyses, using only data available in published reports from studies that take part in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, with individual participant data pooled analyses including the same studies. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies from the StoP Project assessed the relation between alcohol intake and gastric cancer, 19 had specific data for levels of consumption and 18 according to cancer location; published reports addressing these associations were available from 18, 5 and 5 studies, respectively. The summary odds ratios [OR, (95%CI)] estimate obtained with published data for drinkers vs. non-drinkers was 10% higher than the one obtained with individual StoP data [18 vs. 22 studies: 1.21 (1.07-1.36) vs. 1.10 (0.99-1.23)] and more heterogeneous (I2: 63.6% vs 54.4%). In general, published data yielded less precise summary estimates (standard errors up to 2.6 times higher). Funnel plot analysis suggested publication bias. CONCLUSION: Meta-analyses of the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer tended to overestimate the magnitude of the effects, possibly due to publication bias. Additionally, individual participant data pooled analyses yielded more precise estimates for different levels of exposure or cancer subtypes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances
14.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 27(3): 197-204, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595756

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is one of the main risk factors for gastric cancer, but the magnitude of the association estimated by conventional systematic reviews and meta-analyses might be inaccurate, due to heterogeneous reporting of data and publication bias. We aimed to quantify the combined impact of publication-related biases, and heterogeneity in data analysis or presentation, in the summary estimates obtained from conventional meta-analyses. We compared results from individual participant data pooled-analyses, including the studies in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, with conventional meta-analyses carried out using only data available in previously published reports from the same studies. From the 23 studies in the StoP Project, 20 had published reports with information on smoking and gastric cancer, but only six had specific data for gastric cardia cancer and seven had data on the daily number of cigarettes smoked. Compared to the results obtained with the StoP database, conventional meta-analyses overvalued the relation between ever smoking (summary odds ratios ranging from 7% higher for all studies to 22% higher for the risk of gastric cardia cancer) and yielded less precise summary estimates (SE ≤2.4 times higher). Additionally, funnel plot asymmetry and corresponding hypotheses tests were suggestive of publication bias. Conventional meta-analyses and individual participant data pooled-analyses reached similar conclusions on the direction of the association between smoking and gastric cancer. However, published data tended to overestimate the magnitude of the effects, possibly due to publication biases and limited the analyses by different levels of exposure or cancer subtypes.


Assuntos
Viés de Publicação , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Viés de Publicação/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco/tendências
15.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 27(2): 124-133, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560662

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking is a known cause of gastric cancer, but several aspects of the association remain imprecisely quantified. We examined the relation between cigarette smoking and the risk of gastric cancer using a uniquely large dataset of 23 epidemiological studies within the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project', including 10 290 cases and 26 145 controls. We estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects models. Compared with never smokers, the ORs were 1.20 (95% CI: 1.09-1.32) for ever, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.99-1.27) for former, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.11-1.40) for current cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, the risk increased with number of cigarettes per day to reach an OR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10-1.58) for smokers of more than 20 cigarettes per day. The risk increased with duration of smoking, to reach an OR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14-1.54) for more than 40 years of smoking and decreased with increasing time since stopping cigarette smoking (P for trend<0.01) and became similar to that of never smokers 10 years after stopping. Risks were somewhat higher for cardia than noncardia gastric cancer. Risks were similar when considering only studies with information on Helicobacter pylori infection and comparing all cases to H. pylori+ controls only. This study provides the most precise estimate of the detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of gastric cancer on the basis of individual data, including the relationship with dose and duration, and the decrease in risk following stopping smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle
16.
Environ Res ; 159: 69-75, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28772151

RESUMO

Inorganic arsenic (i-As) has been related to wide-ranging health effects in children, leading to lifelong concerns. Proportionally, dietary i-As exposure dominates in regions with low arsenic drinking water. This study aims to investigate the relation between rice and seafood consumption and urinary arsenic species during childhood and to assess the proportion of urinary i-As metabolites. Urinary arsenic species concentration in 400 4-year-old children living in four geographical areas of Spain, in addition to repeated measures from 100 children at 7 years of age are included in this study. Rice and seafood products intake was collected from children's parents using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). At 4 years of age, children's urine i-As and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) concentrations increased with rice product consumption (p-value = 0.010 and 0.018, respectively), and urinary arsenobetaine (AsB) with seafood consumption (p = 0.002). Four-year-old children had a higher consumption of both rice and seafood per body weight and a higher urinary %MMA (p-value = 0.001) and lower % dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) (p-value = 0.017). This study suggests increased dietary i-As exposure related to rice product consumption among children living in Spain, and the younger ones may be especially vulnerable to the health impacts of this exposure also considering that they might have a lower i-As methylation capacity than older children. In contrast, seafood consumption did not appear to influence the presence of potentially toxic arsenic species in this population of children.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oryza/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Cancer ; 8(12): 2296-2302, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819433

RESUMO

Objectives: Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. However, several studies have suggested other factors such as alcohol consumption could also play a role through polymorphisms associated with alcohol metabolism. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and lung cancer according to the Ile349Val polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 ADH3 gene. Methods: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study, a total of 402 incident cases of lung cancer and 383 controls were genotyped for the Ile349Val polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Alcohol consumption and other variables were measured using questionnaires in personal interviews. We used multiple logistic regressions to estimate adjusted odd ratios using and 95% confidence intervals. Results: In multivariate analysis, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for the highest category of alcohol consumption (≥30 g/day), although it does not reach statistical significance (OR=1.60, 95% CI: 0.91-2.83). Besides, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed in the highest category of alcohol consumption for the Ile/Val genotype compared with the Ile/Ile genotype (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.04-5.33). Conclusions: This study suggests that beyond smoking consumption, a high consumption of alcohol might increase the risk of lung cancer. No clear association was found between alcohol consumption and lung cancer according to the Ile349Val polymorphism in ADH3 gene.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(3): 878-887, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724645

RESUMO

Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 µg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes.Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y.Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates.Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women (n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 µg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 µg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (ß = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (ß = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (ß = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (ß = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01).Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 µg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 µg/d during pregnancy should be monitored and prevented as much as possible, unless medically prescribed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/efeitos adversos
19.
Int J Cancer ; 141(10): 1950-1962, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28718913

RESUMO

An association between heavy alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk has been recently reported, but the issue is still open to discussion and quantification. We investigated the role of alcohol drinking on gastric cancer risk in the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project," a consortium of epidemiological studies. A total of 9,669 cases and 25,336 controls from 20 studies from Europe, Asia and North America were included. We estimated summary odds-ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by pooling study-specific ORs using random-effects meta-regression models. Compared with abstainers, drinkers of up to 4 drinks/day of alcohol had no increase in gastric cancer risk, while the ORs were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08-1.48) for heavy (>4 to 6 drinks/day) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.29-1.70) for very heavy (>6 drinks/day) drinkers. The risk for drinkers of >4 drinks/day was higher in never smokers (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.35-2.58) as compared with current smokers (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.93-1.40). Somewhat stronger associations emerged with heavy drinking in cardia (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11-2.34) than in non-cardia (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.13-1.45) gastric cancers, and in intestinal-type (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.20-1.97) than in diffuse-type (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.58) cancers. The association was similar in strata of H. pylori infected (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-2.00) and noninfected subjects (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 0.95-3.01). Our collaborative pooled-analysis provides definite, more precise quantitative evidence than previously available of an association between heavy alcohol drinking and gastric cancer risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 148(12): 531-538, jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163700

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: El alcohol y sus metabolitos tienen un papel importante en la carcinogénesis, pudiendo estar este efecto modulado por polimorfismos en genes que codifican enzimas participantes en el metabolismo de alcohol y folato. Por ello, analizamos el efecto que podría tener el consumo de alcohol y los polimorfismos ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1B Arg370Cys, ADH1C Ile349Val, ALDH2 Glu540Lys, CYP2E1 RsaI, CYP2E1 DraI, CYP2E1 TaqI y MTHFR C677T en el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón. Pacientes y método: Se incluyeron 876 casos de cáncer de pulmón y 840 controles del estudio caso-control de base hospitalaria CAPUA. El genotipado de los SNP se realizó mediante la tecnología Sequenom MassArray (iPLEX GOLD). Resultados: Un consumo de alcohol de 0,1-9,9g/día disminuye el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón (ORajustada = 0,71; IC 95% 0,48-1,05), aunque no se alcanza la significación estadística. Un consumo de alcohol ≥ 30g/día y de tabaco ≥ 36 paquetes/año aumenta el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón (ORajustada = 26,68; IC 95% 12,69-56,10). Por otro lado, un consumo elevado de verduras (≥ 116,65g/día) o de frutas (≥ 233,13g/día) disminuye el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón con un consumo de alcohol de 0,1-9,9 g/día (ORajustada = 0,52; IC 95% 0,30-0,89; ORajustada = 0,58; IC 95% 0,33-1,03, respectivamente). Un consumo de alcohol de 10-29,9 g/día en individuos portadores del alelo ADH1B 48His aumenta el riesgo de cáncer de pulmón (ORajustada = 3,32; IC 95% 1,03-10,70). Conclusiones: El alcohol y polimorfismos en genes que participan en el metabolismo del alcohol y del folato están relacionados con el cáncer de pulmón (AU)


Background and objective: Alcohol and its metabolites play an important role in carcinogenesis. This effect could be modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol and folate. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of alcohol consumption and ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1B Arg370Cys, ADH1C Ile349Val, ALDH2 Glu540Lys, CYP2E1 RsaI, CYP2E1 DraI, CYP2E1 TaqI and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of developing lung cancer. Patients and methods: We included 876 lung cancer cases and 840 controls of the CAPUA hospital-based case-control study. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassArray (iPLEX GOLD) technology. Results: An alcohol consumption of 0.1-9.9g/day decreased lung cancer risk (ORadjusted = 0.71; 95% CI 0.48-1.05), although statistical significance was not achieved. A consumption ≥ 30g/day of alcohol and ≥ 36PY of tobacco increases lung cancer risk (ORadjusted = 26.68; 95% CI 12.69-56.10). On the other hand, a high consumption of vegetables (≥ 116.65g/day) and fruits (≥ 233.13g/day) decreases lung cancer risk with an alcohol consumption of 0.1-9.9g/day (ORadjusted = 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.89; ORadjusted = 0.58; 95% CI 0.33-1.03, respectively). An alcohol consumption of 10-29.9 g/day in ADH1B 48His allele-carriers increases lung cancer risk (ORadjusted = 3.32; 95% CI 1.03-10.70). Conclusions: Alcohol and polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol and folate are related to the onset of lung cancer (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Etanol/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Polimorfismo Genético
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