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PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107862


BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting mainly children less than 5 years of age. Risk factors for cardiac involvement and resistance to treatment are insufficiently studied in non-Japanese children. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for resistance to treatment and coronary artery lesions (CAL) in KD in Spain. METHODS: Retrospective study (May 2011-June 2016) of all patients less than 16 years of age diagnosed with KD included in KAWA-RACE network (84 Spanish hospitals). RESULTS: A total of 625 cases were analyzed, 63% were males, 79% under 5 year-olds and 16.8% younger than 12 months. On echocardiographic examination CAL were the most frequent findings (23%) being ectasia the most common (12%). Coronary aneurysms were diagnosed in 9.6%, reaching 20% in infants under 12 months (p<0.001). A total of 97% of the patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with a median number of days from fever onset to IVIG administration of 7.2. A second dose was given to 15.7% and steroids to 14.5% patients. Only 1.4% patients received infliximab. No deaths were reported. A multivariate analysis identified anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, higher creatinine and procalcitonin as independent risk factors for treatment failure and length under 103 cm, hemoglobin < 10.2 mg/dL, platelets > 900,000 cells/mm3, maximum temperature < 39.5°C, total duration of fever > 10 days and fever before treatment ≥ 8 days as independent risk factors for developing coronary aneurysms. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, children under 12 months develop coronary aneurysms more frequently and children with KD with anemia and leukocytosis have high risk of cardiac involvement. Adding steroids early should be considered in those patients, especially if the treatment is not started before 8 days of fever. A score applicable to non-Japanese children able to predict the risk of aneurysm development and IVIG resistance is necessary.

An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837112


INTRODUCTION: Invasive group A streptococcal disease (iGASD) is a serious infection in children. Several studies have shown an increased incidence in the past years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of iGASD in children, and to determine changes in incidence or severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on children≤16 years evaluated in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Madrid, and diagnosed with iGASD (June 2005-July 2013). An analysis was made of the demographics, symptomatology, microbiology, and treatment. The changes throughout the period studied were evaluated, as well as parameters associated with disease severity. RESULTS: The study included a total of 55 children with iGASD, with 33 (60%) females, and a median age of 48.5 (20.5-88.9) months. The most frequent clinical syndromes were cellulitis/subcutaneous abscess (21.8%), ENT abscess (20%), pneumonia (16.4%), osteoarticular infection (16.4%), and mastoiditis (12.7%). The incidence of iGASD (cases/105 emergencies/year) increased from 5.6 (4.2-7.2) between June 2005-May 2009 to 18.9 (15.1-26) between June 2009-May 2013; P=.057. Surgery and admission to PICU was required by 35 (63.6%) and 10 (18.2%) patients, respectively. Children in PICU were younger (26.5 vs 52.6 months, P=.116), had a higher C-reactive protein (24.5 vs 10.7mg/dl, P<.001) and higher frequency of pneumonia (60 vs 7%, P<.001). In the multivariate analysis, only C-reactive protein was a risk factor for admission to PICU (OR: 1.14 [1.004-1.286], P=.04). There were no sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: An increased incidence of iGASD was observed in the children in this study. Lower age, pneumonia, and higher C-reactive protein were associated with disease severity in this series.

Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27667, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740900


INTRODUCTION: The rate of bacterial infections in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has decreased in recent years, mainly due to penicillin prophylaxis and vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of severe bacterial infection (SBI) in a cohort of children with SCD and to describe low-risk factors for confirmed SBI (CSBI) and acute chest syndrome (ACS). METHODS: This 11-year retrospective cohort study included children with febrile SCD admitted to a reference hospital in Spain. A case-control study was performed comparing patients diagnosed with SBI to those without SBI, and subanalyses for groups with CSBI and ACS were carried out. RESULTS: A total of 316 febrile episodes were analyzed; 69 (21.8%) had confirmed or possible SBI. Thirteen of those had CSBI (4.1%), eight urinary tract infection, and five bacteremia/sepsis. Among the cases of possible SBI, the majority had ACS (54/56; 96.4%). Age >3 years, absence of central venous catheter, hemodynamic stability, and procalcitonin <0.6 ng/ml were low-risk factors for CSBI, whereas normal oxygen saturation and C-reactive protein <3 mg/dl were low-risk factors for ACS, with negative predictive values (NPV) of 98.3%, 97.4%, 96%, 97.2%, 87.5%, and 85.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of children with SCD who were well vaccinated and received adequate prophylaxis, we found a low rate of bacteremia and CSBI. We described several low-risk factors for CSBI and ACS, all of them with a high NPV. These findings may help to develop a risk score to safely select the patients that could be managed with a more conservative approach.

Reumatol Clin ; 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229448


INTRODUCTION: PFAPA syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease whose diagnosis is mainly clinical. Several treatments have been proposed; among them, tonsillectomy could be an effective one. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study. Patients included were diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome, according to the Thomas criteria, in 3 hospitals in Madrid between 2009-2013. RESULTS: Thirty-two cases were included. Median age at onset and at diagnosis were 32 months (IQR 24-44) and 47.5 months (IQR 37-60), respectively. There were increases in leukocytes (13,580/µL [IQR 8,200-16,600] vs. 8,300/µL [IQR 7,130-9,650], P=.005), neutrophils (9,340/µL [IQR 5,900-11,620] vs. 3,660/µL [IQR 2,950-4,580], P=.002) and C-reactive protein (11.0mg/dL [IQR 6.6-12.7] vs. 0.2mg/dL [IQR 0.1-0.6], P=.003) during febrile episodes. In all, 80.8% of patients reported remission of symptoms within 24h after oral corticosteroid therapy. Fourteen patients were tonsillectomized. In 11, the febrile episodes stopped while, in 3, the frequency was reduced; there were 2 cases of postoperative bleeding. The disease was resolved in 56.3% of the patients, at a median age of 60 months (IQR 47-95), with similar duration in patients who were tonsillectomized and those who were not. CONCLUSIONS: We present a large cohort of children with PFAPA syndrome, with clinical and analytical features similar to those described in the literature, and a good response to corticosteroids and a high resolution rate of symptoms after tonsillectomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(24): e3842, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27310962


To assess the safety and efficacy of rilpivirine in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF) as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents we performed a multicenter case series study of HIV-1-infected patients. Inclusion criteria were initiation of therapy with RPV/FTC/TDF before the age of 18. Patients were divided into undetectable viral load (uVL) group, HIV-1 RNA < 20 copies/mL on stable combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and detectable viral load (dVL) group, HIV-1 RNA ≥ 20 copies/mL at RPV/FTC/TDF initiation. Patients were monitored from the date of RPV/FTC/TDF initiation until June 30, 2015, RPV/FTC/TDF discontinuation or failure to follow-up. Seventeen patients (8 in uVL and 9 in dVL group) with age between 11.6 and 17.6 were included. Reasons for switching were toxicity (n = 4) and simplification (n = 4) in uVL; viral failure (n = 8) and cART initiation (n = 1) in the dVL group. After a median follow-up of 90 (uVL) and 40 weeks (dVL), 7/8 (86%) patients maintained and 8/9 (89%) achieved and maintained HIV-1 suppression. Median CD4 count increased from 542 to 780/µL (uVL, P = 0.069) and 480 to 830/µL (dVL, P = 0.051). Five patients (2 in uVL and 3 in dVL) improved their immunological status from moderate to no immunosuppression. Serum lipid profiles improved in both groups; cholesterol dropped significantly in the dVL group (P = 0.008). Grade 1 laboratory adverse events (AEs) were observed in 3 patients. No clinical AEs occurred. Adherence was complete in 9 patients (5 in uVL and 4 in dVL); 1 adolescent interrupted treatment. Once-daily STR with RPV/FTC/TDF may be a safe and effective choice in selected HIV-1-infected adolescents and children.

Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Off-Label , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
Pediatr Dermatol ; 30(6): e161-3, 2013 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22640393


Erythema multiforme is exceptional in newborns, and none of the few available reports has revealed a clear etiologic agent, not even herpes simplex virus. Immunocompetent patients rarely present with cutaneous cytomegalovirus involvement, and few cases of cytomegalovirus-associated erythema multiforme have been described, none of them in newborns. We report the first case of erythema multiforme in a newborn associated with cytomegalovirus infection.

Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Eritema Multiforme/virologia , Dermatoses do Pé/virologia , Dermatoses da Mão/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Eritema Multiforme/imunologia , Eritema Multiforme/patologia , Feminino , Dermatoses do Pé/imunologia , Dermatoses do Pé/patologia , Dermatoses da Mão/imunologia , Dermatoses da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Recém-Nascido