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1.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 54, 2022 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to antibody response in immunosuppressed patients such as hematological patients has not yet been established. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective multicenter registry-based cohort study conducted from December 2020 to December 2021 by the Spanish transplant and cell therapy group was used to analyze the relationship of antibody response at 3-6 weeks after full vaccination (2 doses) with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in 1394 patients with hematological disorders. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 165 days after complete immunization, 37 out of 1394 (2.6%) developed breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection at median of 77 days (range 7-195) after full vaccination. The incidence rate was 6.39 per 100 persons-year. Most patients were asymptomatic (19/37, 51.4%), whereas only 19% developed pneumonia. The mortality rate was 8%. Lack of detectable antibodies at 3-6 weeks after full vaccination was the only variable associated with breakthrough infection in multivariate logistic regression analysis (Odds Ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.6, p = 0.012). Median antibody titers were lower in cases than in non-cases [1.83 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (range 0-4854.93) vs 730.81 BAU/mL (range 0-56,800), respectively (p = 0.007)]. We identified 250 BAU/mL as a cutoff above which incidence and severity of the infection were significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the benefit of developing an antibody response in these highly immunosuppressed patients. Level of antibody titers at 3 to 6 weeks after 2-dose vaccination links with protection against both breakthrough infection and severe disease for non-Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Hematológicas , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod ; 15(1): 6, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass occurs concurrently with the secretion of a diverse collection of proteins, together functioning as a catalytic system to liberate soluble sugars from insoluble composite biomaterials. How different fungi respond to different substrates is of fundamental interest to the developing biomass saccharification industry. Among the cornerstones of fungal enzyme systems are the highly expressed cellulases (endo-ß-glucanases and cellobiohydrolases). Recently, a cyclophellitol-derived activity-based probe (ABP-Cel) was shown to be a highly sensitive tool for the detection and identification of cellulases. RESULTS: Here we show that ABP-Cel enables endo-ß-glucanase profiling in diverse fungal secretomes. In combination with established ABPs for ß-xylanases and ß-D-glucosidases, we collected multiplexed in-gel fluorescence activity-based protein profiles of 240 secretomes collected over ten days from biological replicates of ten different basidiomycete fungi grown on maltose, wheat straw, or aspen pulp. Our results reveal the remarkable dynamics and unique enzyme fingerprints associated with each species substrate combination. Chemical proteomic analysis identifies significant arsenals of cellulases secreted by each fungal species during growth on lignocellulosic biomass. Recombinant production and characterization of a collection of probe-reactive enzymes from GH5, GH10, and GH12 confirm that ABP-Cel shows broad selectivity towards enzymes with endo-ß-glucanase activity. CONCLUSION: Using small-volume samples with minimal sample preparation, the results presented here demonstrate the ready accessibility of sensitive direct evidence for fungal enzyme secretion during early stages of growth on complex lignocellulosic substrates.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35445415

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant breakthrough infections in nursing home residents following vaccination with Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine were characterized. In total, 201 participants (median age, 87 years; range, 64-100; 133 female) from two nursing homes in the Valencian community (Spain) were included. SARS-CoV-2-Spike (S) antibody responses were determined by a lateral flow immunocromatography (LFIC) assay and by quantitative electrochemiluminescent assay in LFIC-negative participants. SARS-CoV-2-S-IFNγ T cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in 10 participants. Nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Vaccine breakthrough COVID-19 due to the Delta variant occurred in 39 residents (median age, 87 years; range, 69-96; 31 female) at a median of 6.5 months after vaccination (nine requiring hospitalization). Breakthrough infections occurred at a higher rate (p < 0.0001) in residents who had not been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (naïve) (33/108; 18%) than in those with prior diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection (experienced) (6/93; 6.4%), and were more likely (p < 0.0001) to develop in residents who tested negative by LFIC (20/49) at 3 months after vaccination as compared to their LFIC-positive counterparts (19/142). Among LFIC-negative residents, a trend towards lower plasma anti-RBD antibody levels was noticed in those developing breakthrough infection (p = 0.16). SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads in nasopharyngeal specimens were lower in SARS-CoV-2-experienced residents (p < 0.001) and in those testing positive by LFIC (p = 0.13). The frequency of SARS-CoV-2-S-reactive T cells at 3 months was similar in LFIC-negative residents with (n = 7) or without (n = 3) breakthrough infection. Prior history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and detection of S-reactive antibodies by LFIC at 3 months is associated with a lower risk of Delta-variant breakthrough infection in nursing home residents at midterm after Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccination.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314856

RESUMO

A third Comirnaty® vaccine dose increased SARS-CoV-2-receptor binding domain antibody levels (median of 93-fold) and neutralizing antibody titers against Wuhan-Hu-1 (median, 57-fold), Beta (median, 22-fold), Delta, (median, 43-fold) and Omicron (median, 8-fold) variants, particularly in SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals, but had a negligible impact on S-reactive T-cell immunity in nursing home residents.

6.
Transplantation ; 106(5): e251-e261, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttransplant mineral and bone diseases are causes of fractures, and their association with cardiovascular events is being studied. METHODS: We analyzed the evolution of biochemical, histological, and imaging parameters pre- and 1 y post-renal transplantation in 69 patients and correlated mineral and bone findings with coronary calcifications. At inclusion and after 12 mo, clinical data and echocardiographic findings were recorded, and laboratory evaluations, radiography of the pelvis and hands, and bone biopsy were performed. Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography was performed during the second evaluation. RESULTS: Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 and sclerostin decreased in all patients, parathyroid hormone levels decreased in 89.8% of patients, bone alkaline phosphatase levels decreased in 68.1% of patients, and alpha-Klotho levels increased in 65.2% of patients. More than half of the patients presented with renal osteodystrophy at both biopsies, but histological findings improved: a significant transition from high to normal or low turnover and no significant differences in volume, mineralization defect, or cortical porosity at the 2 evaluations. Alpha-Klotho, sclerostin, and bone alkaline phosphatase shifts affect bone changes. Neither echocardiographic findings nor vascular calcification scores differed between the 2 points. Both the pretransplant period (dialysis vintage, sclerostin, and low bone volume at baseline) and the maintenance of abnormalities in the posttransplant period (high turnover posttransplant) were the most reliable predictors of the severity of the coronary calcification percentile. CONCLUSIONS: Renal transplantation improved bone and mineral abnormalities. The pretransplant period determines the severity of calcification.


Assuntos
Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica , Transplante de Rim , Fosfatase Alcalina , Densidade Óssea , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Minerais , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Diálise Renal
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3788, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260713

RESUMO

Immunosenescence may impact the functionality and breadth of vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses. The ability of sera to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) from Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon variants of concern (VOCs) relative to the ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 strain was compared in Comirnaty COVID-19-vaccinated elderly nursing home residents, either SARS-CoV-2 naïve (n = 22) or experienced (n = 8), or SARS-CoV-2 naïve younger individuals (n = 18) and non-vaccinated individuals who recovered from severe COVID-19 (n = 19). In all groups, except that including SARS-CoV-2-experienced nursing home residents, some participants lacked NtAb against one or more VOCs, mainly the Beta variant (15-20%). Serum NtAb titers were lowest against the Beta variant followed by Gamma, Delta and Epsilon variants. Overall, fold change reduction in NtAb titers relative to the ancestral strain was greatest for the Beta variant (6.7-19.4) followed by Gamma (4.8-16.0), Epsilon (2.9-13.4), and Delta (3.5-6.5) variants, although subtle differences were observed for Beta, Epsilon and Delta variants across comparison groups. In summary, older age, frailty, and concurrence of co-morbidities had no major impact on the serum NtAb activity profile against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Casas de Saúde , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(2)2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205882

RESUMO

Fungal spores are universal atmospheric components associated to allergic reactions. Alternaria (Ascomycota) is considered the most allergenic spore taxa. Alt a 1 is the major allergen of Alternaria and is present also in other Pleosporales. In this study, standard Hirst-based sampling and analyzing methods for measuring spore daily concentrations of Alternaria, Curvularia, Drechslera-Helminthosporium, Epicoccum, Leptosphaeria, Pithomyces, Pleospora and Stemphylium (all included in the taxon Pleosporales) have been used as well as two high-volume samplers, Burkard Cyclone (2017) and MCV CAV-A/mb (2019-2020), and ELISA kits for measuring the allergen. The detection and quantification of Alt a 1 was only possible in the samples from the MCV sampler. Although Alt a 1 was better correlated with Alternaria spores than with Pleosporales spores, the three of them showed high correlations. It is shown that there is a high and significant correlation of Alt a 1 with temperature, a negative correlation with relative humidity and no correlation with precipitation. The aerobiological monitoring of these three elements ensures the best information for understanding the affectation to allergy sufferers, but, if this is not possible, as a minimum public health service aimed at the detection, treatment and prevention of allergies, the study of the airborne Alternaria spores should be ensured.

9.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 657-662, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We compared the performance of an in-house-developed flow cytometry assay for intracellular cytokine staining (FC-ICS) and a commercially-available cytokine release assay (the QuantiFERON® SARS-CoV-2 Test [QF]) for detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2-Spike (S)-reactive-IFN-γ-producing T cells after COVID-19 vaccination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample included 141 individuals (all male; median age, 42 years; 20-72) who had been fully vaccinated with the Comirnaty® COVID-19 vaccine (at a median of 114 days; 34-145). Prior to vaccination, 91 were categorized as being SARS-CoV-2-naïve and 50 as SARS-CoV-2-experienced. A whole blood-based FC-ICS using 15-mer overlapping peptides encompassing the entire SARS-CoV-2 S protein was used for enumeration of virus-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The QF test (Ag1 for CD4+ T cells and Ag2 for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in combination) was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions. RESULTS: The FC-ICS and the QF assays returned significantly discordant qualitative results in both the entire cohort (P<0.001 with QF Ag1 and QF Ag2) and in SARS-CoV-2-naïve participants alone (P=0.005 and P=0.01, respectively). Discrepant results mostly involved FC-ICS positive/QF negative specimens. Overall, no correlation was found either between SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ- CD4+ T-cell frequencies and IFN-γ levels measured in the QF Ag1 tube (P=0.78) or between the sum of SARS-CoV-2 IFN-γ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies and IFN-γ levels quantified in the QF Ag2 tube. CONCLUSION: The data suggest a greater sensitivity for the FC-ICS assay than the QF test, and urge caution when comparing SARS-CoV-2 T-cell immune responses assessed using different analytical platforms.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Citocinas , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Coloração e Rotulagem , Vacinação
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054376, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Develop a novel algorithm to categorise alcohol consumption using primary care electronic health records (EHRs) and asses its reliability by comparing this classification with self-reported alcohol consumption data obtained from the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The UKB, a population-based cohort with participants aged between 40 and 69 years recruited across the UK between 2006 and 2010. PARTICIPANTS: UKB participants from Scotland with linked primary care data. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Create a rule-based multiclass algorithm to classify alcohol consumption reported by Scottish UKB participants and compare it with their classification using data present in primary care EHRs based on Read Codes. We evaluated agreement metrics (simple agreement and kappa statistic). RESULTS: Among the Scottish UKB participants, 18 838 (69%) had at least one Read Code related to alcohol consumption and were used in the classification. The agreement of alcohol consumption categories between UKB and primary care data, including assessments within 5 years was 59.6%, and kappa was 0.23 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.24). Differences in classification between the two sources were statistically significant (p<0.001); More individuals were classified as 'sensible drinkers' and in lower alcohol consumption levels in primary care records compared with the UKB. Agreement improved slightly when using only numerical values (k=0.29; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.31) and decreased when using qualitative descriptors only (k=0.18;95% CI 0.16 to 0.20). CONCLUSION: Our algorithm classifies alcohol consumption recorded in Primary Care EHRs into discrete meaningful categories. These results suggest that alcohol consumption may be underestimated in primary care EHRs. Using numerical values (alcohol units) may improve classification when compared with qualitative descriptors.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escócia/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 172, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) colonization rate in hematological patients hospitalized for any cause using a multi-body-site surveillance approach, and determine the extent to which this screening strategy helped anticipate MDRB bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: Single-center retrospective observational study including 361 admissions documented in 250 adult patients. Surveillance cultures of nasal, pharyngeal, axillary and rectal specimens (the latter two combined) were performed at admission and subsequently on a weekly basis. Blood culture samples were incubated in an automated continuous monitoring blood culturing instrument (BACTEC FX). RESULTS: In total, 3463 surveillance cultures were performed (pharyngeal, n = 1201; axillary-rectal, n = 1200; nasal, n = 1062). MDRB colonization was documented in 122 out of 361 (33.7%) admissions corresponding to 86 patients (34.4%). A total of 149 MDRB were isolated from one or more body sites, of which most were Gram-negative bacteria, most frequently non-fermenting (n = 83) followed by Enterobacterales (n = 51). BSI were documented in 102 admissions (28%) involving 87 patients. Overall, the rate of BSI caused by MDRB was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in the presence of colonizing MDRB (16 out of 47 admissions in 14 patients) than in its absence (9 out of 55 admissions in 9 patients). Colonization by any MDRB was independently associated with increased risk of MDRB-BSI (HR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.38-9.90; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: MDRB colonization is a frequent event in hematological patients hospitalized for any reason and is associated with an increased risk of MDRB BSI. The data lend support to the use of MDRB colonization surveillance cultures for predicting the occurrence of MDRB BSI in this cohort.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Sepse , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 586, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022478

RESUMO

The performance of a laboratory-developed IgG/IgA flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCI) using Jurkat T cells stably expressing full-length native S protein was compared against Elecsys electrochemiluminiscent (ECLIA) Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA), and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG chemiluminiscent assay (CLIA) (Diasorin S.p.a, Saluggia, IT) for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A total of 225 serum/plasma specimens from 120 acute or convalescent COVID-19 individuals were included. Overall, IgG/IgA-FCI yielded the highest number of positives (n = 179), followed by IgA-FCI (n = 177), Roche ECLIA (n = 175), IgG-FCI (n = 172) and Diasorin CLIA (n = 154). For sera collected early after the onset of symptoms (within 15 days) IgG/IgA-FCI also returned the highest number of positive results (52/72; 72.2%). Positive percent agreement between FCI and compared immunoassays was highest for Roche ECLIA, ranging from 96.1 (IgG/IgA-FCI) to 97.7% (IgG-FCI), whereas negative percent agreement was higher between FCI and Diasosin CLIA, regardless of antibody isotype. The data suggest that FCI may outperform Roche ECLIA and Diasorin CLIA in terms of clinical sensitivity for serological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
J Clin Virol ; 148: 105082, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Torque teno virus (TTV) DNA load in plasma directly associates with the net state of immunosuppression and inflammation in different clinical settings, including transplantation and chronic inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether plasma TTV DNA load may predict the occurrence of certain infectious events and overall mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 50 patients (median age, 65.5 years) were recruited. TTV DNA load was quantitated in serial plasma specimens by real-time PCR. Serum levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) in paired specimens were available. Nosocomial bloodstream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia and overall mortality were the clinical outcomes. RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 38 patients (76%). A weak inverse correlation (Rho=-0.28; P = 0.004) was observed between TTV DNA loads and ALC. No direct correlation was found between TTV DNA load and serum levels of any of the above biomarkers. Patients with detectable TTV DNA had an increased risk of subsequently developing infectious events (HR 9.28; 95% CI, 1.29-69.5; P = 0.03). A trend (P = 0.05) towards higher TTV DNA area under a curve between days 7 and 17 after ICU admission (AUC7-17) was observed in patients who died, as compared to survivors. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that plasma TTV DNA load monitoring may be helpful for predicting the occurrence of severe nosocomial infections and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Torque teno virus , Carga Viral , Idoso , Estado Terminal , DNA Viral , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Torque teno virus/genética
17.
Med J Aust ; 216(5): 255-263, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689329

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are different in children and adolescents compared with adults. Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appears to be less common in children, with milder disease overall, severe complications may occur, including paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS-TS). Recognising the distinct needs of this population, the National COVID-19 Clinical Evidence Taskforce formed a Paediatric and Adolescent Care Panel to provide living guidelines for Australian clinicians to manage children and adolescents with COVID-19 and COVID-19 complications. Living guidelines mean that these evidence-based recommendations are updated in near real time to give reliable, contemporaneous advice to Australian clinicians providing paediatric care. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: To date, the Taskforce has made 20 specific recommendations for children and adolescents, including definitions of disease severity, recommendations for therapy, respiratory support, and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis for COVID-19 and for the management of PIMS-TS. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THE GUIDELINES: The Taskforce currently recommends corticosteroids as first line treatment for acute COVID-19 in children and adolescents who require oxygen. Tocilizumab could be considered, and remdesivir should not be administered routinely in this population. Non-invasive ventilation or high flow nasal cannulae should be considered in children and adolescents with hypoxaemia or respiratory distress unresponsive to low flow oxygen if appropriate infection control measures can be used. Children and adolescents with PIMS-TS should be managed by a multidisciplinary team. Intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids, with concomitant aspirin and thromboprophylaxis, should be considered for the treatment of PIMS-TS. The latest updates and full recommendations are available at www.covid19evidence.net.au.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
18.
Am J Hematol ; 97(1): 30-42, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695229

RESUMO

This is a multicenter prospective observational study that included a large cohort (n = 397) of allogeneic (allo-HSCT; (n = 311) and autologous (ASCT) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (n = 86) recipients who were monitored for antibody detection within 3-6 weeks after complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination from February 1, 2021, to July 20, 2021. Most patients (n = 387, 97.4%) received mRNA-based vaccines. Most of the recipients (93%) were vaccinated more than 1 year after transplant. Detectable SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were observed in 242 (78%) of allo-HSCT and in 73 (85%) of ASCT recipients. Multivariate analysis in allo-HSCT recipients identified lymphopenia < 1 × 109 /ml (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.16-0.69, p = .003), active graft versus host disease (GvHD; OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.98, p = .04) and vaccination within the first year of transplant (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.15-0.9, p = .04) associated with lower antibody detection whereas. In ASCT, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.44, p = .003) and active corticosteroid therapy (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.02-0.87, p = .03) were associated with lower detection rate. We report an encouraging rate of SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies detection in these severe immunocompromised patients. Lymphopenia, GvHD, the timing of vaccine, and NHL and corticosteroids therapy should be considered in allo-HSCT and ASCT, respectively, to identify candidates for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies monitoring.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transplant Rev (Orlando) ; 36(1): 100669, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688126

RESUMO

The immune system plays a key role in the host defense against viral pathogens. A signaling cascade is activated upon infection involving a variety of molecules such as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), interleukins or antiviral interferons. Long-term immunosuppression after solid organ transplantation (SOT) mainly abrogates adaptive T-cell-mediated responses, thus highlighting the relative contribution of innate immunity. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes coding for PRRs or soluble mediators have been associated with differential susceptibility to viral infections among SOT recipients. A protective effect against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or disease has been attributed to certain SNPs in TLR9 or IFNL3 genes, whereas the opposite effect has been attributed to genetic polymorphisms in TLR2, MBL2, DC-SIGN, IL10 or IFNG. The presence of SNPs in other molecules not directly involved in innate or adaptive immune responses such as aquaporins or pregnane X appear to modulate the risk of CMV or BK polyomavirus infection, respectively. Little information is available on the genetic determinants of the post-transplant susceptibility to herpesviruses causing clinical infection (herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus) or the replication kinetics of components of the human blood virome used as immune surrogates (Torque teno virus). The present review critically summarizes the current knowledge on how SNP genotyping would be useful to stratify SOT recipients according to the individual risk of viral infection and proposes next research steps. Genetic susceptibility testing may improve personalized medicine and contribute to minimize the risk of viral infection after SOT.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Herpes Simples , Lectina de Ligação a Manose , Transplante de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Herpes Simples/etiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplantados
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 63(3): 538-550, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668835

RESUMO

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, different vaccines in front of SARS-CoV-2 have been approved and administered in different vulnerable populations. As patients with cancer were excluded from pivotal trials of vaccination, little is known on their immunogenic response to these vaccines, particularly in patients with severely impaired immune system. In response to that uncertainty, the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy launched an initiative aimed to provide recommendations for vaccination of the main hematological conditions. This document is based on the available information on COVID-19 outcomes, prior knowledge on vaccination in hematological patients, recent published data on serological response in oncohematological patients and expert opinions. New information about SARS-CoV-2 vaccination will be gathered in the near future, providing new scientific grounds to delineate the most adequate management of vaccination in patients with hematological diseases. The current limited data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in hematological patients represents a major limitation of this expert consensus opinion. In fact, the speed in which this field evolves may reduce their validity in the near future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hematologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
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