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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1227: 81-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072500

RESUMO

Gremlin is a member of the TGF-ß superfamily that can act as a BMP antagonist, and recently, has been described as a ligand of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Gremlin shares properties with the Notch signaling pathway. Both participate in embryonic development and are reactivated in pathological conditions. Gremlin is emerging as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker of renal diseases. Here we review the role of the Gremlin-VEGFR2 axis in renal damage and downstream signaling mechanisms, such as Notch pathway.

2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 654-662, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184793

RESUMO

Las enfermedades endocrinas están experimentando un importante incremento de su prevalencia, debido a causas de diversa índole, entre ellas la epidemia de obesidad y de desnutrición, el envejecimiento de la población, pero también el efecto de los disruptores endocrinos, entre otros. Por otra parte, las nuevas tecnologías, tanto a nivel de analítica molecular y genética, de imagen y de nuevos dispositivos terapéuticos, obligan a que la comunidad profesional endocrina en España tenga que estar en constante formación. La conexión con los pacientes a través de sus asociaciones, cada vez más activas, y con la sociedad civil en general, el compromiso profesional y la demanda de diversos colectivos sociales de una atención moderna y equitativa, y a llevar a cabo investigación que facilite la consecución de avances para los pacientes, obligan al especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición, y a la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), a posicionarse y dar respuesta a todos estos retos. En el presente documento, la SEEN expone sus propuestas y su estrategia hasta el 2022


Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Estratégias , Endocrinologia/tendências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Medicina/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha
3.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNA (miRNA) analysis is a growing research field. However, it usually requires an endogenous control or housekeeping (HK) in order to normalize expression of specific miRNAs throughout different samples. Unfortunately, no adequate HK for circulating miRNA analysis is still known in the colorectal cancer (CRC) context whereas several have been suggested. Hence, our aims were to validate the previously suggested miR-1228-3p as HK for CRC studies, to compare its suitability with the widely used miR-16-5p, and to evaluate the influence of hemolysis on both miRNAs. METHODS: We analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) the expression of miR-1228-3p, miR-16-5p and the spike-in cel-miR-39 in a set of 297 plasmas (92 CRC, 101 advanced adenomas -AA-, and 100 controls) and 213 serum samples (59 CRC, 74 AA and 80 controls). We also analyzed both miRNAs depending on the hemolysis degree in 7 plasmas and 31 serums. RESULTS: Levels of miR-1228-3p and miR-16-5p did not show significant differences between groups although miR-16-5p exhibited more variability in plasma and serum samples. Importantly, the combination of cel-miR-39 and miR-1228-3p was the most stable one. Moreover, we observed that miR-16-5p was significantly influenced by hemolysis in contrast with miR-1228-3p that exhibited no correlation with this confounding factor in both biofluids. CONCLUSION: MiR-1228-3p has been validated as an adequate endogenous control for circulating miRNA analysis in CRC and AA liquid biopsies.

5.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557724

RESUMO

Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent manifestation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Bone and renal complications are common. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the best timing for surgery is controversial and predictors of persistence and recurrence are not well known. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and the surgical outcomes, after surgery and in the long-term, of the patients with MEN1 and primary hyperparathyroidism included in the Spanish Registry of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas (REGMEN). 89 patients (49 men and 40 women, 34.2 + 13 years old) were included. 64 out of the 89 underwent surgery: a total parathyroidectomy was done in 13 patients, a subtotal parathyroidectomy in 34 and a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy in 15. Remission rates were higher after a total or a subtotal parathyroidectomy than after a less than subtotal (3/4 and 20/22 vs. 7/12, p<0.05), without significant differences in permanent hypoparathyroidism (1/5, 9/23 and 0/11, N.S.). After a median follow-up of 111 months, 20 of the 41 operated patients with long-term follow-up had persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. We did not find differences in disease-free survival rates between different techniques, patients with or without permanent hypoparathyroidism and patients with different mutated exons, but a second surgery was more frequent after a less than subtotal parathyroidectomy.

6.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-17, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549907

RESUMO

Purpose: Cognitive instrumental activities of daily living are particularly related to executive functions, such as scheduling appointments, monthly payments, managing the household economy, shopping or taking the bus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the available tests for the assessment of executive functions with ecological validity to predict individuals' functioning.Materials and methods: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PsyCInfo and IEEE Xplore until May 2019, in addition to a manual search. The PRISMA criteria and the Covidence platform were used to select articles and extract data.Results: After applying the search selection criteria, 76 studies were identified. They referred to 110 tools to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Those that have received most attention are related to menu preparation and shopping. Performance-based measures are the most widely used traditional methods. Most tests were aimed at the adult population with acquired brain damage, cognitive impairment or dementia. There was a predominance of tests based on the Multiple Errands Test paradigm.Conclusions: In recent years, it has increased the number of tools that assess the instrumental activities of daily living based on technologies such as personal or environmental sensors and serious games.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAssessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living through performance-based measures is especially useful for the early detection of dysfunctions or preclinical disability.Difficulties in performing instrumental activities of daily living are closely associated with deficits in executive functions and prospective memory.Activities of Daily Living can be understood as multitasks.The use of virtual reality-based tests was shown to be sensitive to the detection of cognitive deficits in Activities of Daily Living.An advantage of using virtual reality in assessments is that it can help to predict the level of personal autonomy in patients who are in an institutional environment and could be a first approximation to the real environment.

7.
Endocrine ; 66(2): 405-415, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism has been studied in registries and in surgical series with highly variable and imprecise results. However, the frequency of this hormonal deficiency in the clinical practice of endocrinologists is not known with accuracy. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoparathyroidism in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy in Spain. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicentre and nation-wide protocol including all patients with total thyroidectomy who were seen in the endocrinology clinic of the participant centers from January to March 2018. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism was evaluated at discharge of surgery, 3-6 months after surgery, 12 months after surgery and at last visit. Twenty hospitals participated in the study. RESULTS: Of 1792 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, 866 (48.3%) developed postoperative hypoparathyroidism at discharge of surgery. Most of them recover parathyroid function over time. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism at 3-6 months, 12 months and at last visit was 22.9%, 16.7% and 14.5%, respectively. The risk of developing definitive hypoparathyroidism was related to the presence of parathyroid tissue at histology, lymph node dissection, and two-stage thyroidectomy. Patients with thyroid cancer, with higher postoperative calcium levels and treated by expert surgical teams exhibited lower risk of developing permanent hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism recover parathyroid function, the prevalence of permanent disease in clinical practice is non negligible (14.5%). Postoperative calcium, extent and timing of surgery, the presence of cancer, expert surgical team, and parathyroid tissue at histology are predictors of permanent hypoparathyroidism.

8.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(10): 654-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272927

RESUMO

Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336739

RESUMO

Co-based amorphous microwires presenting the giant magnetoimpedance effect are proposed as sensing elements for high sensitivity biosensors. In this work we report an experimental method for contactless detection of stress, temperature, and liquid concentration with application in medical sensors using the giant magnetoimpedance effect on microwires in the GHz range. The method is based on the scattering of electromagnetic microwaves by FeCoSiB amorphous metallic microwires. A modulation of the scattering parameter is achieved by applying a magnetic bias field that tunes the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic microwires. We demonstrate that the OFF/ON switching of the bias activates or cancels the amorphous ferromagnetic microwires (AFMW) antenna behavior. We show the advantages of measuring the performing time dependent frequency sweeps. In this case, the AC-bias modulation of the scattering coefficient versus frequency may be clearly appreciated. Furthermore, this modulation is enhanced by using arrays of microwires with an increasing number of individual microwires according to the antenna radiation theory. Transmission spectra show significant changes in the range of 3 dB for a relatively weak magnetic field of 15 Oe. A demonstration of the possibilities of the method for biomedical applications is shown by means of wireless temperature detector from 0 to 100 °C.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Imãs , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Micro-Ondas , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5673-5692, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216007

RESUMO

CONTEXT: SDHB mutations are found in an increasing number of neoplasms, most notably in paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas (PPGLs). SDHB-PPGLs are slow-growing tumors, but ∼50% of them may develop metastasis. The molecular basis of metastasis in these tumors is a long-standing and unresolved problem. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify gene methylation changes relevant for metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in diverse clinical and genetic PPGL subtypes, and validated protocadherin γ-C3 (PCDHGC3) gene promoter methylation in metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. RESULTS: We define an epigenetic landscape specific for metastatic SDHB-PPGLs. DNA methylation levels were found significantly higher in metastatic SDHB-PPGLs than in SDHB-PPGLs without metastases. One such change included long-range de novo methylation of the PCDHA, PCDHB, and PCDHG gene clusters. High levels of PCDHGC3 promoter methylation were validated in primary metastatic SDHB-PPGLs, it was found amplified in the corresponding metastases, and it was significantly correlated with PCDHGC3 reduced expression. Interestingly, this epigenetic alteration could be detected in primary tumors that developed metastasis several years later. We also show that PCDHGC3 down regulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by promoting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a map of the DNA methylome episignature specific to an SDHB-mutated cancer and establish PCDHGC3 as a putative suppressor gene and a potential biomarker to identify patients with SDHB-mutated cancer at high risk of metastasis who might benefit from future targeted therapies.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairments in social cognition have been described in several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Given the importance of the relationship between social cognition and functioning and quality of life in these disorders, there is a growing interest in social cognition remediation interventions. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic mapping review to describe the state of the art in social cognition training and remediation interventions. METHODS: Publications from 2006 to 2016 on social cognition interventions were reviewed in four databases: Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed and Embase. From the initial result set of 3229 publications, a final total of 241 publications were selected. RESULTS: The study revealed an increasing interest in social cognition remediation interventions, especially in the fields of psychiatry and psychology, with a gradual growth in the number of publications. These were frequently published in high impact factor journals and underpinned by robust scientific evidence. Most studies were conducted on schizophrenia, followed by autism spectrum disorders. Theory of mind and emotional processing were the focus of most interventions, whilst a limited number of studies addressed attributional bias and social perception. Targeted interventions in social cognition were the most frequent practice in the selected papers, followed by non-specific treatment interventions and broad-based interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Research in social cognition remediation interventions is growing. Further studies are needed on attributional bias and social perception remediation programs, while the comparative efficacy of different interventions also remains unclear.

12.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 144, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of oxidative stress in pigs have been measured in serum/plasma samples. However, blood collection in pigs can be highly stressful to the animals. Saliva is a biological fluid with several advantages in pigs over blood, since it can be easily collected without stress to the animals, being therefore an ideal sample in this species. The objective of this study was the validation of assays for the evaluation of oxidative stress status in saliva of pigs. For this purpose, three assays commonly used to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC): trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)), one individual antioxidant (uric acid) and two assays to evaluate oxidant concentrations (advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) were measured and validated in porcine saliva. In addition, the possible changes of these assays in sows' saliva during lactation were be studied. RESULTS: The methods had intra- and inter-assays coefficient of variation lower than 15%. They also showed an adequate linearity and recovery, and their detection limits were low enough to detect the analytes in saliva of pigs. Overall the analytical validation tests showed that the assays used in our study are valid and reliable for the evaluation of oxidative stress in porcine saliva. In addition, it was observed that these salivary biomarkers can change in a situation of oxidative stress such as lactation in sows. CONCLUSIONS: All assays for salivary biomarkers of oxidative stress evaluated in this study have demonstrated a high analytical accuracy and low imprecision. In addition, it has been observed that these biomarkers showed significant changes in a situation of oxidative stress such as lactation in sows. Therefore, this study opens a new possibility of using saliva as a non-invasive sample to evaluate oxidative stress in pigs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lactação/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Saliva/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Feminino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Ácido Úrico/análise
13.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(4): e00029, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presents the lowest survival rate of all cancers because only 6% of patients reach five-year survival. Alterations in the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) occur in the tumor of PDAC and in preneoplastic lesions as the called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Here, we aimed at identifying which miRNAs are significantly altered in liquid biopsies from patients with PDAC and IPMN to find new noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC. METHODS: We analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) the expression of 17 circulating miRNAs, previously found to be significantly overexpressed in tissue pancreatic neoplasms, in a set of 182 plasma samples (94 PDAC, 19 IPMN, 18 chronic pancreatitis, and 51 disease-free controls). Then, we analyzed CA19.9 levels in the same plasma set, and we assessed the diagnostic values of differentially expressed miRNAs, CA19.9, and all possible combinations. RESULTS: Of note, 16, 14, and 9 miRNAs were significantly increased in PDAC, IPMN, and chronic pancreatitis, respectively, compared with control plasmas. miR-21-5p, miR-33a-3p, miR-320a, and miR-93-5p showed the highest discriminating capacity for pancreatic neoplasia (PDAC or IPMN) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.86, 0.85, 0.85, and 0.80, respectively. 2-miRNA combinations improved these performances reaching AUC = 0.90 for "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a." Addition of CA19.9 increased the diagnostic potential of miRNA signatures even further achieving an AUC of 0.95 (93% sensitivity and 85% specificity) for the combination of "miR-33a-3p+miR-320a+CA19.9." CONCLUSIONS: Novel signatures combining miRNAs and CA19.9 could be used as noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of PDAC.

14.
J Pathol ; 248(4): 421-437, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982971

RESUMO

Tspan8 exhibits a functional role in many cancer types including pancreatic, colorectal, oesophagus carcinoma, and melanoma. We present a first study on the expression and function of Tspan8 in breast cancer. Tspan8 protein was present in the majority of human primary breast cancer lesions and metastases in the brain, bone, lung, and liver. In a syngeneic rat breast cancer model, Tspan8+ tumours formed multiple liver and spleen metastases, while Tspan8- tumours exhibited a significantly diminished ability to metastasise, indicating a role of Tspan8 in metastases. Addressing the underlying molecular mechanisms, we discovered that Tspan8 can mediate up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of Twist, p120-catenin, and ß-catenin target genes accompanied by the change of cell phenotype, resembling the mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Furthermore, Tspan8+ cells exhibited enhanced cell-cell adhesion, diminished motility, and decreased sensitivity to irradiation. As a regulator of the content and function of extracellular vesicles (EVs), Tspan8 mediated a several-fold increase in EV number in cell culture and the circulation of tumour-bearing animals. We observed increased protein levels of E-cadherin and p120-catenin in these EVs; furthermore, Tspan8 and p120-catenin were co-immunoprecipitated, indicating that they may interact with each other. Altogether, our findings show the presence of Tspan8 in breast cancer primary lesion and metastases and indicate its role as a regulator of cell behaviour and EV release in breast cancer. © 2019 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

16.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(1): e00003, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in biological fluids can facilitate earlier detection of the tumors being then minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers. Circulating miRNAs have also emerged as promising diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In this study, we investigated the performance of a specific signature of miRNA in plasma samples to design a robust predictive model that can distinguish healthy individuals from those with CRC or advanced adenomas (AA) diseases. METHODS: Case control study of 297 patients from 8 Spanish centers including 100 healthy individuals, 101 diagnosed with AA, and 96 CRC cases. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription was used to quantify a signature of miRNA (miRNA19a, miRNA19b, miRNA15b, miRNA29a, miRNA335, and miRNA18a) in plasma samples. Binary classifiers (Support Vector Machine [SVM] linear, SVM radial, and SVM polynomial) were built for the best predictive model. RESULTS: Area under receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.871-0.962) was obtained retrieving a model with a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.90, positive predictive value of 0.94, and negative predictive value of 0.76 when advanced neoplasms (CRC and AA) were compared with healthy individuals. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and validated a signature of 6 miRNAs (miRNA19a, miRNA19b, miRNA15b, miRNA29a, miRNA335, and miRNA18a) as predictors that can differentiate significantly patients with CRC and AA from those who are healthy. However, large-scale validation studies in asymptomatic screening participants should be conducted.

17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 76(3): 324-335, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566197

RESUMO

Importance: Measurement-based care (MBC) is the systematic evaluation of patient symptoms before or during an encounter to inform behavioral health treatment. Despite MBC's demonstrated ability to enhance usual care by expediting improvements and rapidly detecting patients whose health would otherwise deteriorate, it is underused, with typically less than 20% of behavioral health practitioners integrating it into their practice. This narrative review addresses definitional issues, offers a concrete and evaluable operationalization of MBC fidelity, and summarizes the evidence base and utility of MBC. It also synthesizes the extant literature's characterization of barriers to and strategies for supporting MBC implementation, sustainment, and scale-up. Observations: Barriers to implementing MBC occur at multiple levels: patient (eg, concerns about confidentiality breach), practitioner (eg, beliefs that measures are no better than clinical judgment), organization (eg, no resources for training), and system (eg, competing requirements). Implementation science-the study of methods to integrate evidence-based practices such as MBC into routine care-offers strategies to address barriers. These strategies include using measurement feedback systems, leveraging local champions, forming learning collaboratives, training leadership, improving expert consultation with clinical staff, and generating incentives. Conclusions and Relevance: This narrative review, informed by implementation science, offers a 10-point research agenda to improve the integration of MBC into clinical practice: (1) harmonize terminology and specify MBC's core components; (2) develop criterion standard methods for monitoring fidelity and reporting quality of implementation; (3) develop algorithms for MBC to guide psychotherapy; (4) test putative mechanisms of change, particularly for psychotherapy; (5) develop brief and psychometrically strong measures for use in combination; (6) assess the critical timing of administration needed to optimize patient outcomes; (7) streamline measurement feedback systems to include only key ingredients and enhance electronic health record interoperability; (8) identify discrete strategies to support implementation; (9) make evidence-based policy decisions; and (10) align reimbursement structures.

18.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(4): 162-167, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176630

RESUMO

Introducción: El análisis de la fluidez verbal en la vejez ha sido una de las principales estrategias como parte del diagnóstico de la demencia. Así, los estudios han demostrado que, en comparación con ancianos sanos, las personas con demencia muestran un deterioro significativo en fluidez verbal -especialmente en fluidez semántica- incluso después de controlar estadísticamente variables como la edad y el nivel educativo. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio realizado es analizar la ejecución de personas mayores en una tarea de fluidez semántica y relacionarla con su rendimiento en otras tareas cognitivas (memoria de trabajo, atención y una prueba de screening), así como determinar la influencia de variables como el nivel educativo, la edad y el sexo en el rendimiento en la tarea de fluidez. Método: En el estudio han participado un total de 264 personas con una edad media de 79.57 años de la provincia de Granada. Los participantes han sido evaluados con una entrevista estructurada de variables psicosociales, una batería de evaluación neuropsicológica que incluye pruebas de fluidez, memoria, atención, y funcionamiento cognitivo general. Resultados: Los resultados muestran diferencias significativas en fluidez verbal en función del estatus cognitivo de las personas y del rango de edad. Igualmente se observan correlaciones significativas entre la fluidez y el resto de pruebas cognitivas aplicadas, siendo una prueba de screening cognitivo la que mejor predice la ejecución en fluidez. Conclusiones: Los datos obtenidos corroboran la importancia de la utilización de pruebas de fluidez en la evaluación psicológica de las personas mayores


Introduction: The analysis of verbal fluency in old age has been one of the main strategies as part of the diagnosis of dementia. Thus, studies have shown that, compared to healthy elderly people, those with dementia show a significant deterioration in verbal fluency -especially in semantic fluency- even after the statistical control of variables such as age and educational level. Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze the performance of older people in a task of semantic fluency and relate it to their performance in other cognitive tasks (working memory, attention task and a screening test) as well as to determine the influence of variables such as educational level, age and gender in the fluency task performance. Method: A total of 264 people with an average age of 79.57 years from the province of Granada participated in the study. Participants were evaluated with a structured interview of psychosocial variables, a battery of neuropsychological assessment that included tests of fluency, memory, attention, and general cognitive functioning. Results: The results showed significant differences in verbal fluency based on the cognitive status of the persons and the age range. Likewise, significant correlations were observed between fluency and the rest of past cognitive tests, the cognitive screening test being the best predictor of fluency performance. Conclusions: The data obtained corroborate the importance of the use of fluency tests in the psychological assessment of the elderly


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distúrbios da Fala/epidemiologia , Testes de Discriminação da Fala/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção/fisiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Distribuição por Idade
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1195, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386246

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as an important health problem due to the increase number of CKD patients and the absence of an effective curative treatment. Gremlin has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for renal inflammatory diseases, acting via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2). Although many evidences suggest that Gremlin could regulate renal fibrosis, the receptor involved has not been yet clarified. Gremlin, as other TGF-ß superfamily members, regulates tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and, therefore, could contribute to renal fibrosis. In cultured tubular epithelial cells Gremlin binding to VEGFR2 is linked to proinflammatory responses. Now, we have found out that in these cells VEGFR2 is also involved in the profibrotic actions of Gremlin. VEGFR2 blockade by a pharmacological kinase inhibitor or gene silencing diminished Gremlin-mediated gene upregulation of profibrotic factors and restored changes in EMT-related genes. Moreover, VEGFR2 inhibition blocked EMT phenotypic changes and dampened the rate of wound healing in response to Gremlin. The role of VEGFR2 in experimental fibrosis was evaluated in experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction. VEFGR2 inhibition diminished the upregulation of profibrotic genes and EMT changes, as well as the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin and collagens in the obstructed kidneys. Notch pathway activation participates in renal damage progression by regulating cell growth/proliferation, regeneration and inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells, Notch inhibition markedly downregulated Gremlin-induced EMT changes and wound healing speed. These results show that Gremlin regulates the EMT process via VEGFR2 and Notch pathway activation, suggesting that the Gremlin/VEGFR2 axis could be a potential therapeutic target for CKD.

20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 607-616, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301079

RESUMO

This is the first comprehensive study on the input, occurrence, and distribution of artificial sweeteners (ASs) in coastal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving coastal waters. Acesulfame (ACE), aspartame (ASP), cyclamate (CYC), saccharine (SAC), and sucralose (SUC) were monitored for 6 months in Cadiz Bay (SW Spain). ASP was always detected at <0.1 µg L-1 and removal efficiencies were >90% for SAC and CYC. Higher ACE removal efficiencies were observed during warmer months. Persistence of ACE and SUC was observed in both WWTPs and their receiving coastal surface waters, where values up to 0.6 and 3 µg L-1 were measured, respectively. The highest concentrations were measured in a sewage-impacted estuary located in the north of the bay, where conservative behavior was confirmed. The source specificity and recalcitrance of ACE and SUC make them suitable for being used as sewage-pollution markers in coastal environments.


Assuntos
Edulcorantes/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aspartame/análise , Baías , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos , Espanha , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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