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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111722, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039790

RESUMO

During the southern summer of 2020, large phytoplankton blooms were detected using satellite technology in Chile (western Patagonia), where intensive salmonid aquaculture is carried out. Some harvesting sites recorded massive fish mortalities, which were associated with the presence of the dinoflagellate species Cochlodinium sp. The bloom included other phytoplankton species, as Lepidodinium chlorophorum, which persistently changed the colour of the ocean to green. These blooms coincided with the government-managed emergency lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Local in situ sampling was slowed down. However, imagery from the Copernicus programme allowed operational monitoring. This study shows the benefits of both Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites in terms of their spectral, spatial and temporal capabilities for improved algal bloom monitoring. These novel tools, which can foster optimal decision-making, are available for delivering early alerts in situations of natural catastrophes and blockages, such as those occurred during the global COVID-19 lockdown.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8743, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457388

RESUMO

The increased frequency of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a major environmental concern worldwide, resulting not only in increased treatment costs for drinking water but also in impacts on tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture and risks to human and animal health. Traditional strategies with ship-based approaches based on field sampling and laboratory analysis have been adopted to assess HABs. However, these methods are labour intensive and costly and do not provide synoptic views of the bloom conditions. Here, we show that the Sentinel-2 twin satellite mission of the Copernicus programme, in combination with in situ data, is a powerful tool that can offer valuable spatiotemporal information about a bloom of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra that occurred on the SW Iberian Peninsula. Using the robust ACOLITE atmospheric correction processor combined with the normalized difference chlorophyll index (NDCI), the enhanced mapping of small blooms can be performed at a 10 m spatial resolution, revealing surface patches and a heterogeneous distribution. This research also demonstrates the improved capabilities of Sentinel-2 compared to those of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-3 for continuous monitoring. The Sentinel-3 and Sentinel-2 missions provide ecosystem observations that allow the environmental community and water managers to evaluate changes in water quality and bloom distribution and that facilitate field-based measurements. Therefore, the value added by the Copernicus products in terms of frequency and synoptic observations is of paramount importance for ecological and management purposes at regional and national scales.

3.
J Nat Prod ; 80(8): 2304-2310, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777571

RESUMO

The biosynthetic potential of marine-sediment-derived Gram-negative bacteria is poorly understood. Sampling of California near-shore marine environments afforded isolation of numerous Gram-negative bacteria in the Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes phyla, which were grown in the laboratory to provide extracts whose metabolites were identified by comparative analyses of LC-mass spectrometry and MSn data. Overall, we developed an assemblage of seven bacterial strains grown in five different media types designed to coax out unique secondary metabolite production as a function of varying culture conditions. The changes in metabolite production patterns were tracked using the GNPS MS2 fragmentation pattern analysis tool. A variety of nitrogen-rich metabolites were visualized from the different strains grown in different media, and strikingly, all of the strains examined produced the same new, proton-atom-deficient compound, 1-methyl-4-methylthio-ß-carboline (1), C13H12N2S. Scale-up liquid culture of Achromobacter spanius (order: Burkholderiales; class: Betaproteobacteria) provided material for the final structure elucidation. The methods successfully combined in this work should stimulate future studies of molecules from marine-derived Gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/química , Nitrogênio/química , Proteobactérias/química , Sais/química , Organismos Aquáticos , California , Carbolinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149603, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992172

RESUMO

Biofilms are a ubiquitous feature of microbial community structure in both natural and host environments; they enhance transmission and infectivity of pathogens and provide protection from human defense mechanisms and antibiotics. However, few natural products are known that impact biofilm formation or persistence for either environmental or pathogenic bacteria. Using the combination of a novel natural products library from the fish microbiome and an image-based screen for biofilm inhibition, we describe the identification of taurine-conjugated bile acids as inhibitors of biofilm formation against both Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Taurocholic acid (1) was isolated from the fermentation broth of the fish microbiome-derived strain of Rhodococcus erythropolis and identified using standard NMR and MS methods. Screening of the twelve predominant human steroidal bile acid components revealed that a subset of these compounds can inhibit biofilm formation, induce detachment of preformed biofilms under static conditions, and that these compounds display distinct structure-activity relationships against V. cholerae and P. aeruginosa. Our findings highlight the significance of distinct bile acid components in the regulation of biofilm formation and dispersion in two different clinically relevant bacterial pathogens, and suggest that the bile acids, which are endogenous mammalian metabolites used to solubilize dietary fats, may also play a role in maintaining host health against bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/fisiologia , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo
5.
Phytochemistry ; 122: 113-118, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26632528

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of two marine cyanobacterial extracts using the H-460 human lung cancer cell line and the OVC-5 human ovarian cancer cell line led to the isolation of three related α-methoxy-ß, ß'-dimethyl-γ-pyrones each containing a modified alkyl chain, one of which was identified as the previously reported kalkipyrone and designated kalkipyrone A. The second compound was an analog designated kalkipyrone B. The third was identified as the recently reported yoshinone A, also isolated from a marine cyanobacterium. Kalkipyrone A and B were obtained from a field-collection of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. from Fagasa Bay, American Samoa, while yoshinone A was isolated from a field-collection of cyanobacteria (cf. Schizothrix sp.) from Panama. One-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments were used to determine the overall structures and relative configurations of the kalkipyrones, and the absolute configuration of kalkipyrone B was determined by (1)H NMR analysis of diastereomeric Mosher's esters. Kalkipyrone A showed good cytotoxicity to H-460 human lung cancer cells (EC50=0.9µM), while kalkipyrone B and yoshinone A were less active (EC50=9.0µM and >10µM, respectively). Both kalkipyrone A and B showed moderate toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ABC16-Monster strain (IC50=14.6 and 13.4µM, respectively), whereas yoshinone A was of low toxicity to this yeast strain (IC50=63.8µM).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Pironas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Estrutura Molecular , Panamá , Pironas/química
6.
J Org Chem ; 80(3): 1312-20, 2015 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25584395

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in antimalarial chemotherapy over the past 30 years, development of resistance to frontline drugs remains a significant challenge that limits efforts to eradicate the disease. We now report the discovery of a new class of antimalarials, salinipostins A-K, with low nanomolar potencies and high selectivity indices against mammalian cells (salinipostin A: Plasmodium falciparum EC50 50 nM, HEK293T cytotoxicity EC50 > 50 µM). These compounds were isolated from a marine-derived Salinospora sp. bacterium and contain a bicyclic phosphotriester core structure, which is a rare motif among natural products. This scaffold differs significantly from the structures of known antimalarial compounds and represents a new lead structure for the development of therapeutic targets in malaria. Examination of the growth stage specificity of salinipostin A indicates that it exhibits growth stage-specific effects that differ from compounds that inhibit heme polymerization, while resistance selection experiments were unable to identify parasite populations that exhibited significant resistance against this compound class.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Células HEK293/química , Malária/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Plasmodium falciparum/química
7.
Org Lett ; 17(2): 262-5, 2015 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560385

RESUMO

Screening of a marine natural products library afforded three new analogues of the tetronic acid containing polyketide abyssomicin family and identified abyssomicin 2 as a selective reactivator of latent HIV virus. Examination of the mode of action of this new latent HIV reactivating agent demonstrated that it functions via a distinct mechanism compared to that of existing reactivating agents and is effective at reactivating latent virus in a subset of primary patient cell lines.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Furanos/química , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Policetídeos/química , Proteína Quinase C/química , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/farmacologia
8.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 58(2): 1092-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24295976

RESUMO

To date, most antibiotics have primarily been developed to target bacteria in the planktonic state. However, biofilm formation allows bacteria to develop tolerance to antibiotics and provides a mechanism to evade innate immune systems. Therefore, there is a significant need to identify small molecules to prevent biofilm formation and, more importantly, to disperse or eradicate preattached biofilms, which are a major source of bacterial persistence in nosocomial infections. We now present a modular high-throughput 384-well image-based screening platform to identify Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm inhibitors and dispersal agents. Biofilm coverage measurements were accomplished using non-z-stack epifluorescence microscopy to image a constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of P. aeruginosa and quantified using an automated image analysis script. Using the redox-sensitive dye XTT, bacterial cellular metabolic activity was measured in conjunction with biofilm coverage to differentiate between classical antibiotics and nonantibiotic biofilm inhibitors/dispersers. By measuring biofilm coverage and cellular activity, this screen identifies compounds that eradicate biofilms through mechanisms that are disparate from traditional antibiotic-mediated biofilm clearance. Screening of 312 natural-product prefractions identified the cyclic depsipeptide natural products skyllamycins B and C as nonantibiotic biofilm inhibitors with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 and 60 µM, respectively. Codosing experiments of skyllamycin B and azithromycin, an antibiotic unable to clear preattached biofilms, demonstrated that, in combination, these compounds were able to eliminate surface-associated biofilms and depress cellular metabolic activity. The skyllamycins represent the first known class of cyclic depsipeptide biofilm inhibitors/dispersers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Corantes Fluorescentes , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/ultraestrutura
9.
PLoS One ; 8(8): e71456, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23977044

RESUMO

Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010-2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous CO2 transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of CO2 (-0.8 and 36.3 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and -1.2 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of CO2 (5.2 mol(C) m(-2) y(-1). Up-scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous CO2 transport (13.1 Gg(C) y(-1)). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net CO2 sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Áreas Alagadas , Ar , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Geografia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pressão Parcial , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
10.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e55523, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23451027

RESUMO

The Strait of Gibraltar replenishes the Mediterranean with Atlantic waters through an intense eastward current known as the Atlantic Jet (AJ). The AJ fertilizes the southwestern Mediterranean and is considered to be the ultimate factor responsible for the comparatively high fish production of this region. Here, we perform an analysis of the available historical catches and catch per unit effort (CPUE), together with a long series of surface currents, kinetic energy and chlorophyll concentration. We show that the high kinetic energy of the AJ increases primary production but also negatively impacts the recruitment of anchovy. We contend that anchovy recruitment in the region is inhibited by the advection and dispersion of larvae and post-larvae during periods of strong advection by the AJ. The inhibitory impact of kinetic energy on anchovy landings is not a transient but rather a persistent state of the system. An exceptional combination of events creates an outbreak of this species in the Alboran Sea. These events depend on the Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange of water masses and, therefore, are highly sensitive to climate changes that are projected, though not always negatively, for fish landings.


Assuntos
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mar Mediterrâneo
11.
PLoS One ; 7(9): e46172, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23029428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is an infectious disease with a large global health burden occurring primarily in Central and Eastern Africa. Most current treatments have poor blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration, which prevent them from targeting the most lethal stage of the infection. In addition, current therapeutics suffer from a variety of limitations ranging from serious side effects to difficulties with treatment administration. Therefore it is of crucial importance to find new treatments that are safe, affordable, and effective against both sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei. METHODS: Semi-synthetic derivatization of the fungally-derived natural product merulin A (1) has led to the discovery of new development candidates for the protozoan parasite T. brucei, the causative agent of HAT. Creation of an initial SAR library based around the merulin scaffold revealed several key features required for activity, including the endoperoxide bridge, as well as one position suitable for further derivatization. Subsequent synthesis of a 20-membered analogue library, guided by the addition of acyl groups that improve the drug-like properties of the merulin A core, resulted in the development of compound 12 with an IC(50) of 60 nM against T. brucei, and a selectivity index greater than 300-fold against HeLa and immortalized glial cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We report the semi-synthetic optimization of the merulin class of endoperoxide natural products as development candidates against T. brucei. We have identified compounds with low nM antiparasitic activities and high selectivity indices against HeLa cells. These compounds can be produced economically in large quantities via a one step derivatization from the microbial fermentation broth isolate, making them encouraging lead candidates for further development.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Peróxidos/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxidos/isolamento & purificação , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tripanossomíase Africana/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 12(2): 1398-421, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22438716

RESUMO

The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status of the aquatic environment. The results showed that several sources of physical forcing, such as wind, tide-associated currents and river discharge were responsible for the spatio-temporal patterns of dissolved oxygen, salinity and turbidity in the estuary. The analysis was conducted under tidal and flood regime, which allowed us to identify river discharge as the main forcing agent of the hydrology inside the estuary. In particular, episodes of elevated turbidity detected by the network, together with episodes of low salinity and dissolved oxygen were closely related to the increase in water supply from a dam located upstream. The network installed provided accurate data that can be rapidly used for research or educational applications and by policy-makers or agencies in charge of the management of the coastal area.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Rios/química , Transdutores , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Sistemas Computacionais , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Espanha , Água/análise
13.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 19(22): 6658-74, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21835627

RESUMO

Coral reefs are among the most productive marine ecosystems and are the source of a large group of structurally unique biosynthetic products. Annual reviews of marine natural products continue to illustrate that the most prolific source of bioactive compounds consist of coral reef invertebrates-sponges, ascidians, mollusks, and bryozoans. This account examines recent milestone developments pertaining to compounds from invertebrates designated as therapeutic leads for biomedical discovery. The focus is on the secondary metabolites, their inspirational structural scaffolds and the possible role of micro-organism associants in their biosynthesis. Also important are the increasing concerns regarding the collection of reef invertebrates for the discovery process. The case examples considered here will be useful to insure that future research to unearth bioactive invertebrate-derived compounds will be carried out in a sustainable and environmentally conscious fashion. Our account begins with some observations pertaining to the natural history of these organisms. Many still believe that a serious obstacle to the ultimate development of a marine natural product isolated from coral reef invertebrates is the problem of compound supply. Recent achievements through total synthesis can now be drawn on to forcefully cast this myth aside. The tools of semisynthesis of complex natural products or insights from SAR efforts to simplify an active pharmacophore are at hand and demand discussion. Equally exciting is the prospect that invertebrate-associated micro-organisms may represent the next frontier to accelerate the development of high priority therapeutic candidates. Currently in the United States there are two FDA approved marine-derived therapeutic drugs and two others that are often cited as being marine-inspired. This record will be examined first followed by an analysis of a dozen of our favorite examples of coral reef invertebrate natural products having therapeutic potential. The record of using complex scaffolds of marine invertebrate products as the starting point for development will be reviewed by considering eight case examples. The potential promise of developing invertebrate-derived micro-organisms as the starting point for further exploration of therapeutically relevant structures is considered. Also significant is the circumstance that there are some 14 sponge-derived compounds that are available to facilitate fundamental biological investigations.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Invertebrados/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Recifes de Corais , Humanos , Invertebrados/metabolismo
14.
Org Lett ; 13(15): 3770-3, 2011 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21699263

RESUMO

Analysis of substrates directly on solid phase resins without the need for separate cleavage conditions remains an outstanding challenge in the field of solid phase synthesis. We now present the first example of simultaneous cleavage and mass spectrometric analysis of peptides from solid supports using direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. We have shown that this method is compatible with a diverse array of solid phase resins and is suitable for analysis of both peptides and organic substrates.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/química
15.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 54(5): 235-241, mayo 2011. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-142943

RESUMO

Introducción: Muchas usuarias del sistema público de salud español contratan además un seguro privado para mejorar los controles ginecológicos y exploraciones rutinarias como mamografía anual. Analizamos retrospectivamente el pronóstico de estas pacientes cuando son diagnosticadas de cáncer de mama y se tratan con cirugía de intención curativa. Material y métodos: Se analizan la supervivencia global y los factores pronósticos de pacientes diagnosticadas de cáncer de mama sin metástasis tratadas con cirugía curativa en el contexto de un tratamiento multidisciplinario, remitidas a una consulta de oncología médica dentro de un sistema sanitario privado extra. Resultados: Entre 1994 y 2009 se analizaron 395 pacientes con cáncer de mama. Treinta y ocho tenían metástasis al diagnóstico y 357 pudieron tratarse con cirugía curativa: conservadora en 265 casos y mastectomía en 92. Con mediana de seguimiento de 64 meses, la tasa de supervivencia a 5 años era 91%: 97% para estadios I, 94% para estadios II, y 77% para estadios III. En las que se diagnosticaron por mamografía sistemática fue del 96 frente al 86% en las que acudieron al ginecólogo por autopalpación de tumor u otros síntomas (p = 0,0159). En el 74% se realizo ́ tratamiento conservador con mejor supervivencia frente al 26% que se realizó mastectomía (p = 0,0024). Pacientes con receptores positivos tuvieron mejor supervivencia que con receptores negativos (p = 0,0264) y este fue el único factor pronóstico independiente en el análisis multivariado de Cox. Conclusiones: Las pacientes con cáncer de mama tratadas con cirugía de intención curativa en un sistema sanitario privado tienen alta tasa de curación probablemente por tener un diagnóstico en fase precoz (AU)


Introduction: Many women enrolled in the Spanish National Health Service also take out private health insurance to improve gynecological follow-up and complementary examinations, such as annual mammograms. We analyzed the cure rate of these patients when diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery with curative intent. Material and methods: Both overall survival and prognosis were analyzed in patients with breast cancer without metastases referred to a private oncology facility and treated with definitive surgery in the context of multidisciplinary treatment. Results: Between 1994 and 2009, 395 patients with breast cancer were analyzed. Thirty- eight had metastases at diagnosis and 357 could be treated with definitive surgery: conservative in 265 patients and mastectomy in the remaining 92. The median follow-up was 64 months and the 5-year survival rate was 91%: 97% for stage I, 94% for stage II and 77% for stage III. In women diagnosed by mammography, the 5-year survival rate was 96% versus 86% for women consulting a gynecologist after self palpation or for other symptoms (p = 0.0159). Treatment was conservative in 74%, with better survival than in the remaining 26% who were treated with mastectomy (p = 0.0024). Survival was greater in patients with positive hormone receptors than in those with negative hormone receptors (p = 0.0264). Hormone receptor status was the only independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox analysis. Conclusions: Patients with breast cancer treated with definitive surgery in a private health insurance system have high cure rate, possibly because they are diagnosed in an early stage (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Hospitais Privados/economia , Hospitais Privados , /normas , Biologia Celular , Doenças Vaginais/metabolismo , Doenças Vaginais/patologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Hospitais Privados/classificação , Hospitais Privados/normas , Biologia Celular/normas , Doenças Vaginais/complicações , Doenças Vaginais/diagnóstico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Peu ; 30(4): 194-201, oct.-dic. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-84777

RESUMO

El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo exponer un caso clínico en el que la paciente presenta fascitis y lipomas plantares con su posterior tratamiento. Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica, haciendo un recordatorio anatómico, funcional y patológico de la aponeurosis plantar. Por otro lado se analizan las características más importantes del lipoma y sus distintos tratamientos. Hay gran variedad de tratamientos para la fascitis plantar pero con la experiencia clínica obtenida, se considera eficaz realizar un tratamiento ortopodológico. Gracias a la incorporación de un soporte plantar se produce un reequilibrio de fuerzas en el pie y esto conlleva una relajación de dicha aponeurosis plantar(AU)


The aim of this work is to present a clinical case of a patient who suffered from plantar fasciitis and plantar lipomas and its treatment. On the one hand, a literature review has been made in order to revise the anatomy, functionality and pathology of the plantar aponeurosis. On the other hand, the most important lipoma features and its different treatments are analysed. There is a wide range of treatments for the plantar fasciitis, but according to our experience, custommade orthoses have been proven to be effectively enough. Due to the custom-made orthoses, the feet experience a rebalancing force that leads to a relaxation of the plantar aponeurosis(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fasciíte Plantar/reabilitação , Lipoma/reabilitação , Lipoma/terapia , Podiatria/métodos , Fasciíte Plantar/cirurgia , Nervo Tibial/patologia , Esporão do Calcâneo/patologia , Esporão do Calcâneo , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 5(11): e13793, 2010 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21072185

RESUMO

A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore) blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp) and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa). Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Cifozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 37(2): 212-223, dic. 2008. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-557446

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar y preparar liposomas convencionales que contengan un fármaco anfifílico. Para ello, se diseñó una formulación de este tipo de liposomas preparados mediante el método de agitación manual. La optimización de la distribución de tamaño liposomal se realizó por dos métodos: sonicación y extrusión. Este último generó liposomas de menor diámetro medio y menor rango de diámetros, siendo el de elección para obtener liposomas de un fármaco anfifílico modelo (diclofenac sódico). Su incorporación se realizó en la membrana lipídica y en el volumen acuoso de los liposomas, y en cada caso se compararon los porcentajes de captura y distribución de tamaños. Ambas determinaciones resultaron similares para los dos tipos de liposomas. También se determinó la cesión de ambos tipos de diclofenac liposomal y se compararon entre ellas con una solución del fármaco libre. Las cesiones de los dos tipos de diclofenac liposomal fueron comparables mientras que ambas difirieron significativamente de la del fármaco libre.


The goal of this work is to design and prepare conventional liposomes containing an amphiphillic drug. Conventional liposomes were prepared by hand shaken method.The liposomal distribution size was optimized by sonication and extrusion. Extrusion produced the lower mean diameter and the lower diameter range, so it was chosen for the preparation of liposomes containing a model amphiphilic drug (sodium diclofenac). The drug encapsulation was performed in the liposomes lipidic bilayer and in the aqueous volume. The capture percentage and size distribution were compared for each case. Both determinations were similar for both kinds of liposomes. The cession was determined for each kind of liposomes containing diclofenac and compared between them and a solution of free drug. The cessions were similar for both liposomal formulation and they were very different from free drug cession.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Nanotecnologia , Sonicação , Diclofenaco
19.
Org Lett ; 10(1): 149-52, 2008 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18072785

RESUMO

A biomimetic synthesis of shimalactone A and B is described. Its key features are an unprecedented acid-catalyzed cyclization of a dienyl beta-ketolactone and a Stille coupling/8pi-6pi electrocyclization cascade to create the oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and bicyclo[4.2.0]octadiene, respectively. The synthesis is convergent and void of protecting groups.


Assuntos
Lactonas/síntese química , Catálise , Emericella/química , Lactonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
20.
In. Llanio Navarro, Raimundo; Perdomo González, Gabriel. Propedéutica clínica y semiología médica. Tomo II. La Habana, Ecimed, 2005. , ilus, tab, graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-45933
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