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1.
Actas urol. esp ; 44(5): 340-344, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-1662

RESUMO

Actualmente es necesaria una formación específica en Andrología dentro de la formación en Urología. Dicha formación, tanto en el programa MIR como una vez terminada la especialidad, debe ser dirigida y multidisciplinar. De hecho, el programa de formación andrológica del urólogo no termina con su periodo de residencia. Los avances en conocimientos relacionados con la infertilidad, la reproducción, la medicina sexual y la cirugía reconstructiva requieren un alto grado de dedicación y un esfuerzo permanente de formación continuada. El campo de la Andrología ha evolucionado significativamente tanto en Europa como en los Estados Unidos en los últimos 30 años. Aunque los programas de formación andrológica en estas 2regiones comparten algunos aspectos comunes, también existen diferencias sustanciales. Se revisan en este capítulo los modelos formativos en nuestro entorno internacional, así como el desarrollo habitual en España, para así entender la importancia de la formación médico-quirúrgica andrológica para los residentes de Urología


Nowadays, sub-specialty expertise in andrology is required within the Urology training program. These practices -during the MIR (Medical Intern Residency) program and once the specialty studies are over- should be performed under supervision and have a multidisciplinary nature. In fact, the urologist's andrology training program does not finish with his residency period. The unceasingly increasing knowledge related to infertility, reproduction, sexual medicine and reconstructive surgery require a high level of dedication and engagement with continuing education. The field of Andrology has evolved significantly in Europe and in the United States in the past 30 years. Although the andrology training programs in these 2 regions share some common aspects, there are also substantial differences between them. This chapter includes a review of the Spanish training programs and those in our international environment, with the objective to comprehend the importance of andrology medical-surgical training for Urology residents

2.
Actas Urol Esp ; 44(5): 340-344, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245595

RESUMO

Nowadays, sub-specialty expertise in andrology is required within the Urology training program. These practices -during the MIR (Medical Intern Residency) program and once the specialty studies are over- should be performed under supervision and have a multidisciplinary nature. In fact, the urologist's andrology training program does not finish with his residency period. The unceasingly increasing knowledge related to infertility, reproduction, sexual medicine and reconstructive surgery require a high level of dedication and engagement with continuing education. The field of Andrology has evolved significantly in Europe and in the United States in the past 30 years. Although the andrology training programs in these 2regions share some common aspects, there are also substantial differences between them. This chapter includes a review of the Spanish training programs and those in our international environment, with the objective to comprehend the importance of andrology medical-surgical training for Urology residents.

3.
Cancer Lett ; 477: 49-59, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142919

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children, is poor and no strategies have been identified to improve their dismal prognosis. Alpha-9 integrin (ITGA9) plays a particularly crucial role in cancer progression and invasiveness. Despite the consensus on the remarkable pro-oncogenic potential of this protein, the miRNA-mediated regulation of ITGA9 has barely been studied to date. In the present study, miR-7 and miR-324-5p were selected as the best candidates after a screening to find ITGA9 regulators, and their effects on cell proliferation and invasion in RMS are described and characterized for the first time. Interestingly, the overexpression of both miRNA produced a clear impairment of cell proliferation, while miR-7 also induced a remarkable drop in cell invasion. Furthermore, the stable overexpression of both miRNA was found to reduce tumor growth in orthotopic RMS models and miR-7 was able to impair metastatic lung colonization. Consequently, we conclude that miR-7 and miR-324-5p show anti-oncogenic and anti-metastatic potential, thereby opening up the possibility of being used as novel therapeutic tools to avoid RMS progression.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108450, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753544

RESUMO

Liquid porcine plasma is an animal origin raw material for the manufacturing process of spray-dried porcine plasma that is used in pig nutrition worldwide. In previous studies we found that the application of ultraviolet light C (UV-C) in liquid plasma that was inoculated with a variety of bacteria or viruses of importance in the swine industry can be considered as redundant safety steps because in general achieve around 4 logs reduction for most of these pathogens. However, the final validation of the UV-C light as safety feature should be conducted with commercial liquid plasma and using the pig bioassay model. As a first objective, the potential infectivity of a raw liquid plasma product collected from an abattoir was tested by means of a swine bioassay. We used Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), a ubiquitous virus that has been systematically detected by PCR in porcine plasma at abattoirs as selection criteria for commercial liquid plasma lot. As a second aim of the study, the effects of different doses of UV-C irradiation on the selected raw liquid plasma were assayed in the animal bioassay. Moreover, other swine infecting agents, including Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), were also determined in the original plasma and monitored in the inoculated animals. Pigs negative for PCV-2 and PRRSV genome and antibodies were allotted to one of five groups (6 to 8 pigs/ group) and injected intra-peritoneally with 10 mL of their assigned inoculum at 50 d of age. Negative control pigs (group 1) were injected with PBS. Positive control pigs (group 5) were injected with a PCV-2 inoculum. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were injected with liquid porcine plasma that had been subjected to 0 (raw plasma), 3000 or 9000 J/L UV-C irradiation, respectively. Group 2 pigs (0 J/L UV-C) got infection by PRRSV but no PCV-2 infection or seroconversion. However, one pig from group 2 seroconverted to Rotavirus A (RVA) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and three group 2 pigs seroconverted to Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Groups 1, 3 and 4 pigs showed no evidence of infection or seroconversion associated with the tested viruses or any other pathogens found in the liquid plasma before UV-C irradiation. Group 5 pigs developed PCV-2 infectivity as expected. UV-C irradiation of liquid plasma at 3000 and 9000 J/L was effective in preventing PRRSV and other pathogens transmission. Moreover, raw liquid plasma was non-infectious for PCV-2 in naïve pigs.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Circovirus/efeitos da radiação , Plasma/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Circovirus/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Suínos
5.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 109(10): e1-e4, dic. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175858

RESUMO

Las metástasis cutáneas aparecen en el 0,6-10,4% de los pacientes con tumores malignos y representan hasta el 2% de los tumores cutáneos. En algunos casos representan la primera manifestación de una neoplasia no conocida. Además pueden poner de manifiesto la progresión metastásica del tumor primario. Las metástasis de localización acral son particularmente raras. En la mayoría de los casos aparecen secundariamente a afectación ósea. Aunque la clínica es variable, generalmente se confunden con un proceso infeccioso o inflamatorio, retrasándose el diagnóstico. Cuando se localizan en los dedos de la mano la causa más frecuente es el carcinoma de pulmón, mientras que las localizadas en los dedos de los pies suelen deberse a tumores del tracto genitourinario. El estudio dermatopatológico en estos casos es fundamental para establecer el diagnóstico y orientar hacia el origen del tumor primario. Presentamos 2 casos clínicos de metástasis digital acral. El primero de ellos representa el primer caso de la literatura de metástasis acral de mioepitelioma maligno (carcinoma mioepitelial) de mama y el otro una metástasis acral como manifestación inicial de carcinoma de pulmón


Cutaneous metastases appear in 0.6% to 10.4% of malignant tumors and account for 2% of all cutaneous tumors. Metastasis to the skin may arise from progression of a known primary tumor or provide the first sign of an unsuspected one. Acral metastases are particularly unusual. Most derive from bone tumors. Clinical signs vary and the lesions generally resemble infection or inflammation, leading to diagnostic delays. When metástasis involves the fingers, the primary tumor is usually lung carcinoma. In contrast, toe involvement usually derives from a tumor in the genitourinary tract. A pathologic diagnosis in these cases is necessary and will suggest the location of the primary tumor. We report 2 cases of metástasis to the fingers. One is the first report of acral metástasis of a myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast. The other concerns acral metástasis as the first sign of lung carcinoma


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Dedos/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Mioepitelioma/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Amputação , Diagnóstico Diferencial
7.
Actas Dermosifiliogr ; 109(10): e1-e4, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724431

RESUMO

Cutaneous metastases appear in 0.6% to 10.4% of malignant tumors and account for 2% of all cutaneous tumors. Metastasis to the skin may arise from progression of a known primary tumor or provide the first sign of an unsuspected one. Acral metastases are particularly unusual. Most derive from bone tumors. Clinical signs vary and the lesions generally resemble infection or inflammation, leading to diagnostic delays. When metástasis involves the fingers, the primary tumor is usually lung carcinoma. In contrast, toe involvement usually derives from a tumor in the genitourinary tract. A pathologic diagnosis in these cases is necessary and will suggest the location of the primary tumor. We report 2 cases of metástasis to the fingers. One is the first report of acral metástasis of a myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast. The other concerns acral metástasis as the first sign of lung carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Dedos/patologia , Mioepitelioma/secundário , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
9.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 26(2): 276-284, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adipokines have been reported to play a role in the development, progression and severity of knee osteoarthritis but the influence of the different adipokines are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different synovial fluid adipokines with pain and disability knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with systematic inclusion of 115 symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis female patients with ultrasound-confirmed joint effusion. Age, physical exercise, symptoms duration and different anthropometric measurements were collected. Radiographic severity was evaluated according to Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Pain and disability were assessed by WOMAC-total, -pain, -function subscales and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain and function scales. Seven adipokines and three inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA in synovial fluid. Partial Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and corresponding 95% confidence interval were used as a measure of association. RESULTS: Leptin, osteopontin and inflammatory factors, especially TNF-alpha, were associated to pain and function. After adjustment for potential confounders including inflammatory factors and all adipokines, an association was found for adiponectin with pain (PCC 0.240 [0.012, 0.444]) and for resistin and visfatin with function (PCC 0.336 [0.117, 0.524] and -0.262 [-0.463, -0.036]). No other adipokines or inflammatory markers were statistically and independently associated. An association between physical exercise and pain and disability remained after adjustment, whereas an attenuation of the influence of anthropometric measurements was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Different patterns of association between synovial fluid adipokines were observed regarding pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis patients. Specifically, adiponectin was associated to pain while resistin and visfatin were mainly related to function.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(11): 566, 2017 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038984

RESUMO

Samples of one lichen species, Parmotrema crinitum, and one bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides, were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at four sites differently affected by anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lanthanum, lead, sulfur, titanium, zinc, and zirconium were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The environmental diagnosis was established by examining compositional changes via perturbation vectors, an underused family of methods designed to circumvent the problem of closure in any compositional dataset. The perturbation vectors between the reference site and the other three sites were similar for both species, although body concentration levels were different. At each site, perturbation vectors between lichens and bromeliads were approximately the same, whatever the local pollution level. It should thus be possible to combine these organisms, though physiologically different, for air quality surveys, after making all results comparable with appropriate correction. The use of perturbation vectors seems particularly suitable for assessing pollution level by biomonitoring, and for many frequently met situations in environmental geochemistry, where elemental ratios are more relevant than absolute concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Tillandsia/química , Brasil
11.
Br J Cancer ; 117(9): 1314-1325, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children. The Hedgehog (HH) pathway is known to develop an oncogenic role in RMS. However, the molecular mechanism that drives activation of the pathway in RMS is not well understood. METHODS: The expression of HH ligands was studied by qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Functional and animal model studies were carried out with cells transduced with shRNAs against HH ligands or treated with HH-specific inhibitors (Vismodegib and MEDI-5304). Finally, the molecular characterisation of an off-target effect of Vismodegib was also made. RESULTS: The results showed a prominent expression of HH ligands supporting an autocrine ligand-dependent activation of the pathway. A comparison of pharmacologic Smoothened inhibition (Vismodegib) and HH ligand blocking (MEDI-5304) is also provided. Interestingly, a first description of pernicious off-target effect of Vismodegib is also reported. CONCLUSIONS: The clarification of the HH pathway activation mechanism in RMS opens a door for targeted therapies against HH ligands as a possible alternative in the future development of better treatment protocols. Moreover, the description of a pernicious off-target effect of Vismodegib, via unfolded protein response activation, may mechanistically explain its previously reported inefficiency in several ligand-dependent cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Physiol Behav ; 171: 192-198, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069463

RESUMO

Pre-training administration of scopolamine (SCP) resembles situations of cholinergic dysfunction, leading to memory impairment of mice trained in an inhibitory avoidance task. We suggest here that SCP does not impair memory formation, but acquisition is affected in a way that reduces the strength of the stored memory, thus making this memory less able to control behavior when tested. Hence, a memory trace is stored, but is poorly expressed during the test. Although weakly expressed, this memory shows extinction during successive tests, and can be strengthened by using a reminder. Our results indicate that memories stored under cholinergic dysfunction conditions seem absent or lost, but are in fact present and experience common memory processes, such as extinction, and could be even recovered by using appropriate protocols.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/toxicidade , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Escopolamina/toxicidade , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia
15.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 19(1): 44-50, ene. 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159117

RESUMO

The use of preclinical models is essential in translational cancer research and especially important in pediatric cancer given the low incidence of each particular type of cancer. Cell line cultures have led to significant advances in cancer biology. However, cell lines have adapted to growth in artificial culture conditions, thereby undergoing genetic and phenotypic changes which may hinder the translational application. Tumor grafts developed in mice from patient tumor tissues, generally known as patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), are interesting alternative approaches to reproducing the biology of the original tumor. This review is focused on highlighting the interest of PDX models in pediatric cancer research and supporting strategies of personalized medicine. This review provides: (1) a description of the background of PDX in cancer, (2) the particular case of PDX in pediatric cancer, (3) how PDX can improve personalized medicine strategies, (4) new methods to increase engraftment, and, finally, (5) concluding remarks (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Modelos Animais , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Biópsia/métodos , Análise de Dados/métodos , RNA/efeitos adversos , RNA/genética , DNA/análise
16.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 174(3): 423-430, 2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522045

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to identify the influence of radon (gas and progeny) on the ambient dose equivalent rate measured at the reference station ESMERALDA, where continuous measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate (every 10 min) combined with activity concentration measurements of radon gas and radon progeny as well as meteorological parameters have been collected. This study has been performed using a correlation study based on a principal components analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Produtos de Decaimento de Radônio
17.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 19(1): 44-50, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718156

RESUMO

The use of preclinical models is essential in translational cancer research and especially important in pediatric cancer given the low incidence of each particular type of cancer. Cell line cultures have led to significant advances in cancer biology. However, cell lines have adapted to growth in artificial culture conditions, thereby undergoing genetic and phenotypic changes which may hinder the translational application. Tumor grafts developed in mice from patient tumor tissues, generally known as patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), are interesting alternative approaches to reproducing the biology of the original tumor. This review is focused on highlighting the interest of PDX models in pediatric cancer research and supporting strategies of personalized medicine. This review provides: (1) a description of the background of PDX in cancer, (2) the particular case of PDX in pediatric cancer, (3) how PDX can improve personalized medicine strategies, (4) new methods to increase engraftment, and, finally, (5) concluding remarks.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
19.
Pharm. care Esp ; 19(1): 27-34, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-160644

RESUMO

Introducción: El dolor óseo es un síntoma debilitante que puede aparecer en un gran número de trastornos tanto malignos como no malignos y existen indicios que la prevalencia va a aumentar en las próximas décadas. El objetivo de esta revisión es recopilar y resumir la evidencia disponible sobre el tratamiento farmacológico actual del dolor óseo tanto en patologías de origen oncohematológico como de origen no maligno. Método: Para responder al objetivo de nuestro trabajo se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura publicada en las principales bases de datos hasta el 31 de abril de 2016. Resultados: Los fármacos antirresortivos, como los bifosfonatos, y aquellos que estimulan la formación del hueso, como la teriparatida, junto a analgésicos, como los AINEs y lo opioides, son actualmente la base farmacológica para tratar el dolor óseo (dependiendo de qué patología se trate). Existen nuevas hipótesis sobre diferentes mecanismos que pueden estar relacionados con la génesis del dolor, con el consecuente desarrollo de nuevas moléculas con distintos y novedosos mecanismos de acción. Conclusiones: Es necesario que se desarrollen más estudios que aclaren aspectos inciertos relacionados con el tratamiento del dolor óseo y permita el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos. Los farmacéuticos deben de estar actualizados sobre el arsenal terapéutico disponible en la actualidad para el tratamiento del dolor óseo como el primer paso para llevar a cabo una atención farmacéutica de calidad


Introduction: Bone pain is a debilitating symptom that can appear in many malignant and non-malignant disorders. There are indications that its prevalence will increase in the coming decades. The aim of this review is to collect and summarize the available evidence on the current drug treatment in oncohaematological bone pain and the one that has a non-malignant origin. Methods: To meet the objective of our work an exhaustive search of the literature published in major databases until April 31, 2016 was made. Results: Currently, Antiresorptive drugs, such as bisphosphonates and those that stimulate bone formation, such as teriparatide together with analgesics, such as NSAIDs and opioids constitute the pharmacological basis for treating bone pain (depending on every pathology case). There are new hypotheses about different mechanisms that may be related to the genesis of pain, with the consequent development of new and novel molecules with different mechanisms of action. Conclusions: To clarify some aspects related to the treatment of bone pain and to develop new drugs, other studies are necessary. Pharmacists must be updated on the therapeutic arsenal available at present for the treatment of bone pain as the first step to carry out a quality pharmaceutical care


Assuntos
Humanos , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Doenças Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Nociceptores
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