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1.
SLAS Discov ; 25(3): 299-309, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751168

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency syndrome is a rare disease included in the family of mitochondrial diseases, which is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by defective energy production. CoQ10 biosynthesis in humans requires at least 11 gene products acting in a multiprotein complex within mitochondria. The high-throughput screening (HTS) method based on the stabilization of the CoQ biosynthesis complex (Q-synthome) produced by the COQ8 gene overexpression is proven here to be a successful method for identifying new molecules from natural extracts that are able to bypass the CoQ6 deficiency in yeast mutant cells. The main features of the new approach are the combination of two yeast targets defective in genes with different functions on CoQ6 biosynthesis to secure the versatility of the molecule identified, the use of glycerol as a nonfermentable carbon source providing a wide growth window, and the stringent conditions required to mark an extract as positive. The application of this pilot approach to a representative subset of 1200 samples of the Library of Natural Products of Fundación MEDINA resulted in the finding of nine positive extracts. The fractionation of three of the nine extracts allowed the identification of five molecules; two of them are present in molecule databases of natural extracts and three are nondescribed molecules. The use of this screening method opens the possibility of discovering molecules with CoQ10-bypassing action useful as therapeutic agents to fight against mitochondrial diseases in human patients.

2.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480808

RESUMO

Fatty acids and glucose are the main bioenergetic substrates in mammals. Impairment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation causes mitochondrial myopathy leading to decreased physical performance. Here, we report that haploinsufficiency of ADCK2, a member of the aarF domain-containing mitochondrial protein kinase family, in human is associated with liver dysfunction and severe mitochondrial myopathy with lipid droplets in skeletal muscle. In order to better understand the etiology of this rare disorder, we generated a heterozygous Adck2 knockout mouse model to perform in vivo and cellular studies using integrated analysis of physiological and omics data (transcriptomics-metabolomics). The data showed that Adck2+/- mice exhibited impaired fatty acid oxidation, liver dysfunction, and mitochondrial myopathy in skeletal muscle resulting in lower physical performance. Significant decrease in Coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis was observed and supplementation with CoQ partially rescued the phenotype both in the human subject and mouse model. These results indicate that ADCK2 is involved in organismal fatty acid metabolism and in CoQ biosynthesis in skeletal muscle. We propose that patients with isolated myopathies and myopathies involving lipid accumulation be tested for possible ADCK2 defect as they are likely to be responsive to CoQ supplementation.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3904905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379988

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a redox-active lipid, is comprised of a quinone group and a polyisoprenoid tail. It is an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, a cofactor of other mitochondrial dehydrogenases, and an essential antioxidant. CoQ requires a large set of enzymes for its biosynthesis; mutations in genes encoding these proteins cause primary CoQ deficiency, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases. Patients with CoQ deficiency often respond to oral CoQ10 supplementation. Treatment is however problematic because of the low bioavailability of CoQ10 and the poor tissue delivery. In recent years, bypass therapy using analogues of the precursor of the aromatic ring of CoQ has been proposed as a promising alternative. We have previously shown using a yeast model that vanillic acid (VA) can bypass mutations of COQ6, a monooxygenase required for the hydroxylation of the C5 carbon of the ring. In this work, we have generated a human cell line lacking functional COQ6 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We show that these cells cannot synthesize CoQ and display severe ATP deficiency. Treatment with VA can recover CoQ biosynthesis and ATP production. Moreover, these cells display increased ROS production, which is only partially corrected by exogenous CoQ, while VA restores ROS to normal levels. Furthermore, we show that these cells accumulate 3-decaprenyl-1,4-benzoquinone, suggesting that in mammals, the decarboxylation and C1 hydroxylation reactions occur before or independently of the C5 hydroxylation. Finally, we show that COQ6 isoform c (transcript NM_182480) does not encode an active enzyme. VA can be produced in the liver by the oxidation of vanillin, a nontoxic compound commonly used as a food additive, and crosses the blood-brain barrier. These characteristics make it a promising compound for the treatment of patients with CoQ deficiency due to COQ6 mutations.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ácido Vanílico/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/genética , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339582

RESUMO

Transport And Golgi Organization protein 2 (TANGO2) deficiency has recently been identified as a rare metabolic disorder with a distinct clinical and biochemical phenotype of recurrent metabolic crises, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, arrhythmias, and encephalopathy with cognitive decline. We report nine subjects from seven independent families, and we studied muscle histology, respiratory chain enzyme activities in skeletal muscle and proteomic signature of fibroblasts. All nine subjects carried autosomal recessive TANGO2 mutations. Two carried the reported deletion of exons 3 to 9, one homozygous, one heterozygous with a 22q11.21 microdeletion inherited in trans. The other subjects carried three novel homozygous (c.262C>T/p.Arg88*; c.220A>C/p.Thr74Pro; c.380+1G>A), and two further novel heterozygous (c.6_9del/p.Phe6del); c.11-13delTCT/p.Phe5del mutations. Immunoblot analysis detected a significant decrease of TANGO2 protein. Muscle histology showed mild variation of fiber diameter, no ragged-red/cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers and a defect of multiple respiratory chain enzymes and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) in two cases, suggesting a possible secondary defect of oxidative phosphorylation. Proteomic analysis in fibroblasts revealed significant changes in components of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi network and secretory pathways. Clinical presentation of TANGO2 mutations is homogeneous and clinically recognizable. The hemizygous mutations in two patients suggest that some mutations leading to allele loss are difficult to detect. A combined defect of the respiratory chain enzymes and CoQ10 with altered levels of several membrane proteins provides molecular insights into the underlying pathophysiology and may guide rational new therapeutic interventions.

6.
FASEB J ; 33(6): 7578-7587, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892966

RESUMO

Macrophages play a central role in tissue remodeling, repair, and resolution of inflammation. Macrophage polarization to M1 or M2 activation status may determine the progression or resolution of the inflammatory response. We have previously reported that cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) displays both cytoprotective and metabolic activities. The role of CT-1 in inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, we employed recombinant CT-1 (rCT-1) and used CT-1-null mice and myeloid-specific CT-1 transgenic mice to investigate whether CT-1 might play a role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. We observed that CT-1 deficiency was associated with enhanced release of inflammatory mediators and with stronger activation of NF-κB in response to LPS, whereas the inflammatory response was attenuated in CT-1 transgenic mice or by administering rCT-1 to wild-type animals prior to LPS challenge. We found that CT-1 promoted IL-6 expression only by nonhematopoietic cells, whereas LPS up-regulated IL-6 expression in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Notably, rCT-1 inhibited LPS-mediated soluble IL-6R induction. Using IL-6-/- mice, we showed that rCT-1 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IFN-γ response in an IL-6-independent manner. Importantly, we demonstrated that CT-1 primes macrophages for IL-4-dependent M2 polarization by inducing IL-4 receptor expression. Mechanistic analyses showed that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 axis mediates this effect. Our findings support the notion that CT-1 is a critical regulator of inflammation and suggest that rCT-1 could be a molecule with potential therapeutic application in inflammatory conditions.-Carneros, D., Santamaría, E. M., Larequi, E., Vélez-Ortiz, J. M., Reboredo, M., Mancheño, U., Perugorria, M. J., Navas, P., Romero-Gómez, M., Prieto, J., Hervás-Stubbs, S., Bustos, M. Cardiotrophin-1 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and promotes IL-4-induced M2 macrophage polarization.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(1)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634555

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases (MD) are a group of genetic and acquired disorders which present significant diagnostic challenges. Here we report the disease characteristics of a large cohort of pediatric MD patients (n = 95) with a definitive genetic diagnosis, giving special emphasis on clinical muscle involvement, biochemical and histopathological features. Of the whole cohort, 51 patients harbored mutations in nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes and 44 patients had mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. The nDNA patients were more likely to have a reduction in muscle fiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) stains and in SDH-positive blood vessels, while a higher frequency of mtDNA patients had ragged red (RRF) and blue fibers. The presence of positive histopathological features was associated with ophthalmoplegia, myopathic facies, weakness and exercise intolerance. In 17 patients younger than two years of age, RRF and blue fibers were observed only in one case, six cases presented cytochrome c oxidase (COX) reduction/COX-fibers, SDH reduction was observed in five and all except one presented SDH-positive blood vessels. In conclusion, muscle involvement was a frequent finding in our series of MD patients, especially in those harboring mutations in mtDNA genes.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 793, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692599

RESUMO

Identifying diseases displaying chronic low plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) values may be important to prevent possible cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate plasma CoQ concentrations in a large cohort of pediatric and young adult patients. We evaluated plasma CoQ values in 597 individuals (age range 1 month to 43 years, average 11 years), studied during the period 2005-2016. Patients were classified into 6 different groups: control group of healthy participants, phenylketonuric patients (PKU), patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), patients with other inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), patients with neurogenetic diseases, and individuals with neurological diseases with no genetic diagnosis. Plasma total CoQ was measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and ultraviolet detection at 275 nm. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction showed that plasma CoQ values were significantly lower in the PKU and MPS groups than in controls and neurological patients. The IEM group showed intermediate values that were not significantly different from those of the controls. In PKU patients, the Chi-Square test showed a significant association between having low plasma CoQ values and being classic PKU patients. The percentage of neurogenetic and other neurological patients with low CoQ values was low (below 8%). In conclusión, plasma CoQ monitoring in selected groups of patients with different IEM (especially in PKU and MPS patients, but also in IEM under protein-restricted diets) seems advisable to prevent the possibility of a chronic blood CoQ suboptimal status in such groups of patients.

10.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(12): 1835-1843, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945183

RESUMO

Aging is a multifactorial process which affects all animals. Aging as a result of damage accumulation is the most accepted explanation but the proximal causes remain to be elucidated. There is also evidence indicating that aging has an important genetic component. Animal species age at different rates and specific signaling pathways, such as insulin/insulin-like growth factor, can regulate life span of individuals within a species by reprogramming cells in response to environmental changes. Here, we use an unbiased approach to identify novel factors that regulate life span in Drosophila melanogaster. We compare the transcriptome and metabolome of two wild-type strains used widely in aging research: short-lived Dahomey and long-lived Oregon R flies. We found that Dahomey flies carry several traits associated with short-lived individuals and species such as increased lipoxidative stress, decreased mitochondrial gene expression, and increased Target of Rapamycin signaling. Dahomey flies also have upregulated octopamine signaling known to stimulate foraging behavior. Accordingly, we present evidence that increased foraging behavior, under laboratory conditions where nutrients are in excess increases damage generation and accelerates aging. In summary, we have identified several new pathways, which influence longevity highlighting the contribution and importance of the genetic component of aging.

11.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 74(6): 760-769, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010806

RESUMO

Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a hallmark of aging. This phenomenon has been related to a dysregulation of mitochondrial function and proteostasis. Calorie restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to delay aging and preserve function until late in life, particularly in muscle. Recently, we reported the type of dietary fat plays an important role in determining life span extension with 40% CR in male mice. In these conditions, lard fed mice showed an increased longevity compared to mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this article, we analyze the effect of 40% CR on muscle mitochondrial mass, autophagy, and mitochondrial dynamics markers in mice fed these diets. In CR fed animals, lard preserved muscle fibers structure, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and fission/fusion dynamics and autophagy, not only compared to control animals, but also compared with CR mice fed soybean and fish oils as dietary fat. We focus our discussion on dietary fatty acid saturation degree as an essential predictor of life span extension in CR mice.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/ultraestrutura , Animais , Autofagia , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Longevidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
12.
Nutrition ; 57: 133-140, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bioavailability of supplements with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in humans seems to depend on the excipients of formulations and on physiological characteristics of the individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which factors presented in CoQ10 supplements affect the different response to CoQ10 in humans. METHODS: We tested seven different supplement formulations containing 100 mg of CoQ10 in 14 young, healthy individuals. Bioavailability was measured as area under the curve of plasma CoQ10 levels over 48 h after ingestion of a single dose. Measurements were repeated in the same group of 14 volunteers in a double-blind crossover design with a minimum of 4 wk washout between intakes. RESULTS: Bioavailability of the formulations showed large differences that were statistically significant. The two best absorbable formulations were soft-gel capsules containing ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ10) or ubiquinol (reduced CoQ10). The matrix used to dissolve CoQ10 and the proportion and addition of preservatives such as vitamin C affected the bioavailability of CoQ10. Although control measurements documented that all formulations contained 100 mg of either CoQ10 or ubiquinol, some of the participants showed high and others lower capacity to reach high increase of CoQ10 in blood, indicating the participation of individual unknown physiological factors. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of individually adapted selection of best formulations to reach the highest bioavailability of CoQ10 in humans.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Portadores de Fármacos , Lipídeos , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cápsulas , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Solubilidade , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química , Ubiquinona/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(3): 2022-2038, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982984

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main aging-associated neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, synaptic failure, and cognitive decline. It has been a challenge to find disease course-modifying treatments. However, several studies demonstrated that regular physical activity and exercise are capable of promoting brain health by improving the cognitive function. Maternal lifestyle, including regular exercise during pregnancy, has also been shown to influence fetal development and disease susceptibility in adulthood through fetal metabolism programming. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of regular maternal swimming, before and during pregnancy, against amyloid-ß neurotoxicity in the adult offspring. Behavioral and neurochemical analyses were performed 14 days after male offspring received a single, bilateral, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of amyloid-ß oligomers (AßOs). AßOs-injected rats of the sedentary maternal group exhibited learning and memory deficits, along with reduced synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and alterations of mitochondrial function. Strikingly, the offspring of the sedentary maternal group had AßOs-induced behavioral alterations that were prevented by maternal exercise. This effect was accompanied by preventing the alteration of synaptophysin levels in the offspring of exercised dams. Additionally, offspring of the maternal exercise group exhibited an augmentation of functional mitochondria, as indicated by increases in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase enzymes activities. Moreover, maternal exercise during pregnancy induced long-lasting modulation of fusion and fission proteins, Mfn1 and Drp1, respectively. Overall, our data demonstrates a potential protective effect of exercise during pregnancy against AßOs-induced neurotoxicity in the adult offspring brain, by mitigating the neurodegenerative process triggered by Alzheimer-associated AßOs through programming the brain metabolism.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(1): 277-286, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578322

RESUMO

The mitochondrial intramembrane rhomboid protease PARL has been implicated in diverse functions in vitro, but its physiological role in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Parl ablation in mouse causes a necrotizing encephalomyelopathy similar to Leigh syndrome, a mitochondrial disease characterized by disrupted energy production. Mice with conditional PARL deficiency in the nervous system, but not in muscle, develop a similar phenotype as germline Parl KOs, demonstrating the vital role of PARL in neurological homeostasis. Genetic modification of two major PARL substrates, PINK1 and PGAM5, do not modify this severe neurological phenotype. Parl -/- brain mitochondria are affected by progressive ultrastructural changes and by defects in Complex III (CIII) activity, coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis, and mitochondrial calcium metabolism. PARL is necessary for the stable expression of TTC19, which is required for CIII activity, and of COQ4, which is essential in CoQ biosynthesis. Thus, PARL plays a previously overlooked constitutive role in the maintenance of the respiratory chain in the nervous system, and its deficiency causes progressive mitochondrial dysfunction and structural abnormalities leading to neuronal necrosis and Leigh-like syndrome.


Assuntos
Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Doença de Leigh/etiologia , Metaloproteases/deficiência , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença de Leigh/metabolismo , Doença de Leigh/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
J Clin Med ; 7(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309019

RESUMO

Cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) is a membrane-bound NADH-dependent redox enzyme anchored to the mitochondrial outer membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane. Recessive hereditary methaemoglobinaemia (RHM) type II is caused by CYB5R3 deficiency and is an incurable disease characterized by severe encephalopathy with mental retardation, microcephaly, generalized dystonia, and movement disorders. Currently, the etiology of type II RHM is poorly understood and there is no treatment for encephalopathy associated with this disease. Defective CYB5R3 leads to defects in the elongation and desaturation of fatty acids and cholesterol biosynthesis, which are conventionally linked with neurological disorders of type II RHM. Nevertheless, this abnormal lipid metabolism cannot explain all manifestations observed in patients. Current molecular and cellular studies indicate that CYB5R3 deficiency has pleiotropic tissue effects. Its localization in lipid rafts of neurons indicates its role in interneuronal contacts and its presence in caveolae of the vascular endothelial membrane suggests a role in the modulation of nitric oxide diffusion. Its role in aerobic metabolism and oxidative stress in fibroblasts, neurons, and cardiomyocytes has been reported to be due to its ability to modulate the intracellular ratio of NAD⁺/NADH. Based on the new molecular and cellular functions discovered for CYB5R3 linked to the plasma membrane and mitochondria, the conventional conception that the cause of type II RHM is a lipid metabolism disorder should be revised. We hypothesized that neurological symptoms of the disease could be caused by disorders in the synapse, aerobic metabolism, and/or vascular homeostasis rather than in disturbances of lipid metabolism.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1859(11): 1235-1248, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267671

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a redox molecule critical for the proper function of energy metabolism and antioxidant defenses. Despite its essential role in cellular metabolism, the regulation of CoQ10 biosynthesis in humans remains mostly unknown. Herein, we determined that PPTC7 is a regulatory protein of CoQ10 biosynthesis required for human cell survival. We demonstrated by in vitro approaches that PPTC7 is a bona fide protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates the human COQ7. Expression modulation experiments determined that human PPTC7 dictates cellular CoQ10 content. Using two different approaches (PPTC7 over-expression and caloric restriction), we demonstrated that PPTC7 facilitates and improves the human cell adaptation to respiratory conditions. Moreover, we determined that the physiological role of PPTC7 takes place in the adaptation to starvation and pro-oxidant conditions, facilitating the induction of mitochondrial metabolism while preventing the accumulation of ROS. Here we unveil the first post-translational mechanism regulating CoQ10 biosynthesis in humans and propose targeting the induction of PPTC7 activity/expression for the treatment of CoQ10-related mitochondrial diseases.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Drosophila , Inativação Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosforilação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ubiquinona/biossíntese
18.
Biogerontology ; 19(6): 461-480, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143941

RESUMO

Mitochondria are key in the metabolism of aerobic organisms and in ageing progression and age-related diseases. Mitochondria are essential for obtaining ATP from glucose and fatty acids but also in many other essential functions in cells including aminoacids metabolism, pyridine synthesis, phospholipid modifications and calcium regulation. On the other hand, the activity of mitochondria is also the principal source of reactive oxygen species in cells. Ageing and chronic age-related diseases are associated with the deregulation of cell metabolism and dysfunction of mitochondria. Cell metabolism is controlled by three major nutritional sensors: mTOR, AMPK and Sirtuins. These factors control mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics by regulating fusion, fission and turnover through mito- and autophagy. A complex interaction between the activity of these nutritional sensors, mitochondrial biogenesis rate and dynamics exists and affect ageing, age-related diseases including metabolic disease. Further, mitochondria maintain a constant communication with nucleus modulating gene expression and modifying epigenetics. In this review we highlight the importance of mitochondria in ageing and the repercussion in the progression of age-related diseases and metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
20.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 18(6): 491-498, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) deficiency syndromes comprise a growing number of genetic disorders. While primary CoQ deficiency syndromes are rare diseases, secondary deficiencies have been related to both genetic and environmental conditions, which are the main causes of biochemical CoQ deficiency. The diagnosis is the essential first step for planning future treatment strategies, as the potential treatability of CoQ deficiency is the most critical issue for the patients. Areas covered: While the quickest and most effective tool to define a CoQ-deficient status is its biochemical determination in biological fluids or tissues, this quantification does not provide a definite diagnosis of a CoQ-deficient status nor insight about the genetic etiology of the disease. The different laboratory tests to check for CoQ deficiency are evaluated in order to choose the best diagnostic pathway for the patient. Expert commentary: New insights are being discovered about the implication of new proteins in the intricate CoQ biosynthetic pathway. These insights reinforce the idea that next generation sequencing diagnostic strategies are the unique alternative in terms of rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of CoQ deficiency.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Ubiquinona/deficiência , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Debilidade Muscular/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/genética , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
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