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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520838

RESUMO

To determine the impact of aortic root replacement (ARR) with a stentless bioprosthetic valve on midterm outcomes compared to a stented bioprosthetic valve-graft conduit. This was an observational study of aortic root operations from 2010 to 2018. All patients with a complete ARR for nonendocarditis reasons were included, while patients undergoing valve-sparing root replacements or primary aortic valve replacement or repair were excluded. Of the patients with a complete ARR, bioprosthetic valve implants were included, while mechanical valve implants were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into the stented ARR group and the stentless ARR group. A total of 1:1 nearest neighbor propensity matching was employed to assess the association of stentless valves with short-term and midterm outcomes. A total of 455 patients underwent a complete ARR with a bioprosthetic valve implant for nonendocarditis reasons, of which 212 (46.6%) received a stented valve, while 243 (53.4%) received a stentless valve. After matching, postoperative outcomes were similar across each group (P > 0.05), including operative mortality and adverse neurologic events. Median follow-up for the entire cohort was 4.41 years (95% CI: 4.01, 4.95). At 1 year follow-up, aortic regurgitation ≥ 2+ and ejection fraction were similar across each group (P > 0.05); however, the stentless valve group had lower aortic valve velocity and transvalvular pressure gradient. Finally, reoperations and survival were similar for each group over the study's follow-up (P > 0.05). Stentless valves may provide hemodynamic benefits after ARR; however, the clinical impact of those benefits for survival and reoperation may not yet be evident in the midterm.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) during aortic arch reconstruction with hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) to predict early (<48 hours) adverse neurologic events (ANE; stroke or transient ischemic attack) and operative mortality. METHODS: This was an observational study of aortic arch surgeries requiring HCA from 2010 to 2018. Patients were monitored with electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared according to presence or absence of IONM changes, which were defined as any acute variation in SSEP or EEG, compared with baseline. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of IONM changes with operative mortality and early ANE. RESULTS: A total of 563 patients underwent aortic arch reconstruction with HCA and IONM. Of these, 119 (21.1%) patients had an IONM change, whereas 444 (78.9%) did not. Patients with IONM changes had increased operative mortality (22.7% vs 4.3%) and increased early ANE (10.9% vs 2.9%). In multivariable analysis, SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-14.56; P = .008), whereas EEG changes were not (P = .532). Permanent SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.51-13.77; P = .007), whereas temperature-related SSEP changes were not (P = .997). Finally, any IONM change (either SSEP or EEG) was correlated with operative mortality (OR, 5.82; 95% CI, 2.72-12.49; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal IONM events during aortic arch reconstruction with HCA portend worse neurologic outcomes and operative mortality and have a negative predictive value of 97.1%. SSEP might be more sensitive than EEG for predicting early ANE, especially when SSEP changes are permanent.

3.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3599-3606, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time of day for surgical procedures has been a topic of considerable controversy, with some suggesting that later operating times are associated with worse outcomes. METHODS: All patients who underwent open cardiac surgery from 2011 to 2018 were included. Patients that had ventricular assist devices, heart transplant, transcatheter aortic valves, aortic dissections, and emergent operations were excluded. Primary outcomes included postoperative mortality and survival; secondary outcomes included postoperative complications and readmission. RESULTS: The initial patient population consisted of 7883 patients who underwent index cardiac surgery. Following propensity matching (3:1), there were 2569 patients in the a.m. cohort (7-11 a.m.) and 860 patients in the p.m. cohort (3-11 p.m.). All baseline characteristics were matched to equivalent proportions. Total intensive care unit time following surgery was longer for the a.m. cohort (46.5 vs. 40.0 h; p<.001). Otherwise, there was no significant difference between cohorts including operative mortality (1.83% vs 2.21%; p= .48). On multivariable analysis, p.m. surgery was not significantly associated with 30 days mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.96 [0.60, 1.53]; p= .86] or mortality over the study follow-up (HR: 0.87 [0.73, 1.03]; p= .10]. For propensity-matched cohorts, Kaplan-Meier survival at 30 days (97.9% vs. 97.4%; p= .44), 1 (93.4% vs 93.9%; p= .51), and 5 years (80.9% vs. 80.2%; p= .84) was not significantly different between cohorts. CONCLUSION: Short- and long-term mortality, hospital readmission, and postoperative complications were not significantly different between patients that underwent cardiac surgery starting in the a.m. versus patients who had cases that started in the afternoon.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to report outcomes of hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest and retrograde cerebral perfusion, and secondarily, to report outcomes of this operative approach by type of underlying aortic disease. METHODS: This was an observational study of aortic surgeries from 2010 to 2018. All patients who underwent hemiarch replacement with retrograde cerebral perfusion were included, whereas patients undergoing partial or total arch replacement or concomitant elephant trunk procedures were excluded. Patients were dichotomized into 2 groups by underlying aortic disease; that is, acute aortic dissection (AAD) or aneurysmal degeneration of the aorta. These groups were analyzed for differences in short-term postoperative outcomes, including stroke and operative mortality (Society of Thoracic Surgeons definition). Multivariable Cox analysis was performed to identify variables associated with long-term survival after hemiarch replacement. RESULTS: A total of 500 patients undergoing hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest plus retrograde cerebral perfusion were identified, of whom 53.0% had aneurysmal disease and 47.0% had AAD. For the entire cohort, operative mortality was 6.4%, whereas stroke occurred in 4.6% of patients. Comparing AAD with aneurysm, operative mortality and stroke rates were similar across each group. Five-year survival was 84.4% ± 0.02% for the entire hemiarch cohort, whereas 5-year survival was 88.0% ± 0.02% for the aneurysm subgroup and was 80.5% ± 0.03% for the AAD subgroup. On multivariable analysis, AAD was not associated with an increased hazard of death, compared with aneurysm (P = .790). CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality after hemiarch replacement with hypothermic circulatory arrest plus retrograde cerebral perfusion are acceptably low, and this operative approach may be as advantageous for AAD as it is for aneurysm.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complete revascularization literature is limited by variance in patient cohorts and inconsistent definitions. The objective of the current study was to provide risk-adjusted outcomes for complete revascularization of significant nonmain-branch and main-branch vessel stenoses. METHODS: All patients that underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures were included. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, cumulative incidence function, and Cox regression were used to analyze outcomes. RESULTS: The total population consisted of 3356 patients that underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Eight hundred eighty-nine (26.5%) patients had incomplete and 2467 (73.5%) had complete revascularization. For main-branch vessels, 677 (20.2%) patients had incomplete revascularization and 2679 (79.8%) were completely revascularized. Following risk adjustment with inverse probability treatment weighting, all baseline characteristics were balanced (standardized mean difference, ≤ 0.10). On Kaplan-Meier estimates, survival at 1 year (94.6% vs 92.5%) and 5 years (86.5% vs 82.1%) (P = .05) was significantly better for patients who received complete revascularization. Freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events was significantly higher for the complete revascularization cohort at both 1 year (89.2% vs 84.2%) and 5 years (72.5% vs 66.7%) (P < .001). Complete revascularization (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P = .01) was independently associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Incomplete revascularization of nonmain-branch vessels was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.8; P = .55) or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.24; P = .52). CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical revascularization of all angiographically stenotic vessels in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease is associated with fewer major adverse events. Incomplete revascularization of nonmain-branch vessels is not associated with survival or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.

6.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3631-3638, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242433

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) continues to be the most commonly performed cardiac surgical procedure in the world. The use of multiarterial grafting may confer a long-term survival benefit over the use of vein grafts. However, there is a paucity of data comparing the use of in situ versus free right internal mammary artery (RIMA) in isolated CABG. METHODS: Patients that underwent isolated CABG between 2010 and 2018 where RIMA was used in addition to a left internal mammary artery graft. Patients with prior cardiac surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention were excluded. Propensity matching was used for subanalysis. Mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox multivariable regression. Heart failure-specific readmissions were assessed with cumulative incidence curves with Fine and Gray competing risk regression. RESULTS: A total of 667 patients underwent isolated CABG. Of those, 422 had free RIMA and 245 had in situ RIMA utilized. Mortality was similar between cohorts (p = 0.199) with 5-year mortality rates of 6.6% (free) and 4.1% (in situ). MACCE was similar between cohorts, with 5-year event rates of 33.6% and 33.9% (p = 0.99). RIMA style was not a significant predictor of any outcome. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in long-term mortality, complications, MACCE, or heart failure readmissions when comparing a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing isolated CABG utilizing RIMA as a conduit. These data may allow surgeons to consider using RIMA either as an in situ or a free conduit.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Artéria Torácica Interna , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Anastomose de Artéria Torácica Interna-Coronária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(2): E336-E344, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in aortic dissection (AD) mortality from 2006 to 2017 and assessed the impact of weekday versus weekend presentation upon mortality. METHODS: This observational study analyzed all records in the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database. NEDS aggregates discharge data from 984 hospitals in 36 states and the District of Columbia in the United States of America. All patients with thoracic and thoracoabdominal AD recorded as their principal diagnosis were identified via ICD codes. RESULTS: Patient characteristics (weekday|weekend) count: 26,759|9,640, P = 0.016; age (years): 65.2 ± 15.8|64.7 ± 16.2, P = 0.016; women: 11,318 (42.3%)|4,086 (42.4), P = 0.883; Charlson comorbidity index: 2.3 ± 1.7|2.3 ± 1.6, P = 0.025. There were 36,399 ED visits with diagnosed AD. Annual AD diagnoses increased by 70% from 2006 to 2017. From 2012-2017, patients had lower in-hospital mortality (9.9% versus 11.9%, P < 0.001) compared with 2006-2011. Patients reporting during the weekend had higher in-hospital mortality (11.8% versus 10.4%, P < 0.001) compared with weekdays. On multivariable analysis, year of presentation remained independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with 2012-2017 being associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99, P = 0.031), as compared with 2006-2011. Weekend presentation remained independently associated with worse in-hospital mortality (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.29, P = 0.003) compared with weekday presentation. CONCLUSION: Although AD mortality is decreasing, the patients presenting on the weekend were 13% more likely to die in the hospital compared with patients presenting during the week.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report long-term outcomes after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with or without perioperative blood or blood products. METHODS: All patients who underwent proximal aortic surgery with DHCA from 2011 to 2018 were propensity matched according to baseline characteristics. Primary outcomes included short- and long-term mortality. Stratified Cox regression analysis was performed for significant associations with survival. RESULTS: A total of 824 patients underwent aortic replacement requiring circulatory arrest. After matching, there were 224 patients in each arm (transfusion and no transfusion). All baseline characteristics were well matched, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) <0.1. Preoperative hematocrit (41.0 vs 40.6; SMD = 0.05) and ejection fraction (57.5% vs 57.0%; SMD = 0.08) were similar between the no transfusion and blood product transfusion cohorts. Rate of aortic dissection (42.9% vs 45.1%; SMD = 0.05), hemiarch replacement (70.1% vs 70.1%; SMD = 0.00), and total arch replacement (21.9% vs 23.2%; SMD = 0.03) were not statistically different. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time were higher in the blood product transfusion cohort (P < .001). Operative mortality (9.4% vs 2.7%; P = .003), stroke (7.6% vs 1.3%; P = .001), reoperation rate, pneumonia, prolonged ventilation, and dialysis requirements were significantly higher in the transfusion cohort (P < .001). In stratified Cox regression, transfusion was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 2.62 [confidence interval, 1.47-4.67]; P = .001). One- and 5-year survival were significantly reduced for the transfusion cohort (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent aortic surgery with DHCA, perioperative transfusions were associated with poor outcomes despite matching for preoperative baseline characteristics.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(3): 906-913, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of very early hospital discharge after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on subsequent readmission and survival. METHODS: Adults undergoing isolated CABG from 2011 to 2018 at a single institution were included. Patients were stratified on the basis of their postoperative length of hospital stay: short stay (≤4 days) and nonshort stay (>4 days). The primary outcomes were longitudinal survival and freedom from hospital readmission. Secondary outcomes included rates of postoperative complications. Propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio was performed to generate cohorts with comparable baseline characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 6327 patients underwent CABG during the study period, and a matched cohort of 2286 patients was identified. In matched analysis, the average Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of operative mortality was low in both groups (average, 0.7%). Rates of postoperative complications were low and several complication rates were even lower in the short-stay cohort: stroke (1.14% vs 0.26%; P = .01), renal failure (0.87% vs 0.09%; P = .007), reoperations (1.84% vs 0.26%; P < .001), and new-onset atrial fibrillation (34.21% vs 13.04%; P < .001). Survival was similar between the matched groups at 30 days (99.56% vs 99.21%), 1 year (97.73% vs 97.46%), and 5 years (91.15% vs 92.48%) (all P > .05). Readmission rates were also comparable at all time intervals, and there were no differences in cardiac-related or heart failure-specific readmissions (all P > .05). Risk-adjusted analyses confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that very early discharge within 4 days of isolated CABG is safe and has no substantial impact on subsequent mortality or readmission risk.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(1): 150-158, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reoperative coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery has an established increased operative risk with worse perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, contemporary propensity-matched outcomes are limited in the existing literature. METHODS: All patients who underwent CABG from 2011 to 2017 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania were included. Propensity matching yielded risk-adjusted patient populations. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year mortality and readmission. RESULTS: The total population consisted of 7615 patients who underwent CABG; 7265 of these patients had first-time CABG, and 350 patients had reoperative CABG. After propensity score matching, blood product transfusion (45.5% vs 56.4%; P = .002) and delayed sternal closure (0.2% vs 2.5%; P < .001) remained significantly higher for reoperative CABG. There was no difference in 30-day (5.3% vs 7.5%; P = .19) or 1-year (12.1% vs 14.8%; P = .23) mortality for first-time vs reoperative CABG. Five-year mortality was significantly higher for the reoperative cohort (28.5% vs 38.3%; P = .03). There was no difference in 30-day, 1-year, or 5-year hospital readmissions. On Cox multivariable regression analysis, reoperative CABG was not a predictor of mortality or readmission at 30 days, 1 year, or 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: After propensity score matching, there was no difference in postoperative mortality or readmission for reoperative CABG up to 1-year. This trend continued for 5-year readmissions; however, 5-year mortality was higher for the reoperative cohort. Risk adjustment did not identify reoperative CABG as a risk factor for long-term mortality.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reoperação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(6): 2056-2064.e4, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery bypass grafting is often delayed after acute myocardial infarction to avoid an increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that the timing of coronary artery bypass grafting after acute myocardial infarction may not be consistently associated with postoperative outcomes. METHODS: All patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2011 to 2017 after an acute myocardial infarction were reviewed. A comparative analysis for time from myocardial infarction presentation to coronary artery bypass grafting was performed with primary outcomes including all-cause mortality and readmission. RESULTS: A total of 7048 patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Of these, 2058 patients had acute myocardial infarction with all relevant variables available for analysis. The study population was divided into 2 coronary artery bypass grafting timing cohorts, including less than 24 hours (n = 292) and 24 hours or more (n = 1766). Previous percutaneous coronary intervention, cardiogenic shock, and intra-aortic balloon pump were more prevalent in the less than 24 hours group. Operative mortality was significantly higher in the less than 24 hours cohort (7.19% vs 3.79%; P = .01). Diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, serum creatinine, age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and immunosuppression were significant predictors (P < .05) of mortality. After risk adjustment with propensity scoring, there was no difference between time cohorts for operative mortality (4.15% vs 4.58%; P = .62). New-onset atrial fibrillation occurred more frequently in the 24 hours or more cohort. There was no difference between groups for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event readmissions. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for baseline patient characteristics, there was no statistically significant difference between timing cohorts for mortality or major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event readmissions.

12.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(3): 1022-1031.e5, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate comparative outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: All patients from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2011 to 2018 who had reduced preoperative ejection fraction (<50%) and underwent CABG or PCI for coronary revascularization were included in this study. Patients were risk-adjusted with propensity matching (1:1) and primary outcomes included long-term survival, readmission, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). RESULTS: A total of 2000 patients were included in the current study, consisting of CABG (n = 1553) and PCI (n = 447) cohorts with a mean ejection fraction of 35% ± 9.53%. Propensity matching yielded a 1:1 match with 324 patients in each cohort, controlling for all baseline characteristics. Thirty-day mortality was similar for PCI versus CABG (6.2% vs 4.9%; P = .49). Overall mortality over the study follow-up period (median, 3.23 years; range, 1.83-4.98 years) was significantly higher for the PCI cohort (37.4% vs 21.3%; P < .001). Total hospital readmissions (24.1% vs 12.9%; P = .001), cardiac readmissions (20.4% vs 11.1%; P = .001), myocardial infarction event (7.7% vs 1.8%; P = .001), MACCE (41.4% vs 23.8%; P < .001), and repeat revascularization (6.5% vs 2.6%; P = .02) occurred more frequently in the PCI cohort. Freedom from MACCE at 1 year (74.4% vs 87.0%; P < .001) and 5 years (54.5% vs 74.0%; P < .001) was significantly lower for the PCI cohort. On multivariable cox regression analysis, CABG (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.73; P < .001) was significantly associated with improved survival. Prior liver disease, dialysis, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease were the most significant predictors of mortality. The cumulative incidence of hospital readmission was lower for the CABG cohort (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.71; P < .001). Multivariable cox regression for MACCE (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.58; P < .001) showed significantly fewer events for the CABG cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with reduced ejection fraction who underwent CABG had significantly improved survival, lower MACCE, and fewer repeat revascularization procedures compared with patients who underwent PCI.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Pennsylvania , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated reaction to heparin that provokes a prothrombotic state and causes a decline in platelet count. Data describing outcomes of HIT after cardiac surgery are limited. This study sought to determine the impact of HIT on short-term outcomes after cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was an observational study of cardiac surgeries from 2010 to 2018. Patients with HIT were matched against patients without HIT via 2:1 nearest neighbor propensity matching. Matching was performed to assess the impact of HIT on operative mortality (STS definition) and thromboembolic events (including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and/or acute limb ischemia) - the primary outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Of 11,820 patients undergoing an (STS indexed) cardiac surgery, 131 (1.1%) developed HIT after their index operation. After matching, operative mortality was 21.8% in HIT patients, as compared to 5.3% in non-HIT patients. Thromboembolic events occurred in 29.1% of HIT patients, as compared to 2.9% in non-HIT patients. On sub-analysis, operative mortality was significantly higher for the HIT group without thromboembolic events (16.7%) and the HIT group with thromboembolic events (34.4%), compared to the non-HIT group (5.3%). However, operative mortality was not significantly higher in the HIT group with thromboembolic events, as compared to the HIT group without thromboembolic events, after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon, HIT is a highly morbid and potentially lethal complication, which should reinforce the importance of timely recognition and treatment of this adverse outcome.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral malperfusion and carotid artery dissection in patients with acute type A aortic dissections (TAAD) carry high morbidity and mortality. There are limited data on outcomes of concomitant carotid artery replacement with total arch replacement in the setting of TAAD. METHODS: All patients with acute TAAD who underwent a total arch replacement between 2007 and 2018 were included. Data were retrospectively collected from a prospectively maintained database. Baselines variables were compared, and Kaplan-Meier estimates were used for long-term survival. Cox multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients underwent total arch replacement for acute TAAD. Of these, 111 underwent conventional total arch reconstruction, and 50 had a concomitant carotid artery replacement. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts apart from the carotid replacement cohort having a higher rate of preoperative cerebral malperfusion (48% vs 10.81%, P < .01) and preoperative stroke (28% vs 11.71%, P = .02). There was no difference in (operative) 30-day mortality between the carotid replacement and conventional total arch replacement groups (22% vs 18.9%, P = .81), 1-year mortality (28% vs 27.9%, P = .99), or 5-year mortality (32% vs 29.7%, P = .917). Postoperative stroke was 0% vs 4.5% (P = .301) for the carotid vs conventional total arch replacement cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant carotid artery replacement is a feasible and safe technique to address perioperative cerebral malperfusion, carotid dissection, and neurologic dysfunction associated with carotid artery dissection, with no difference in long-term survival or postoperative stroke when compared with conventional total arch replacement.

15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a known association between need for transfusion and short-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However long-term data are lacking in the contemporary literature. METHODS: All patients who underwent open cardiac surgery from 2010 to 2018 were included, except those undergoing transplant, with a ventricular-assist device, and requiring circulatory arrest. Primary outcome included short- and long-term mortality. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications and hospital readmissions. RESULTS: The total patient population included 14,281 patients with a median follow-up of 4.03 years (range, 2.25-6.1). Outcomes were stratified into patients with (n = 6239) or without (n = 8042) packed red blood cell (PRBC) use. Patients with PRBC transfusions had significantly (P < .001) worse postoperative outcomes compared with those without PRBC use, including higher operative mortality (6.89% vs 0.98%), return to the operating room (17.8% vs 1.61%), pneumonia (7.84% vs 0.98%), stroke (3.22% vs 1.51%), sepsis (2.66% vs 0.20%), renal failure (8.42% vs 1.12%), and dialysis (5.74% vs 0.42%). On multivariate analysis PRBC transfusion was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [[HR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.64; P < .001) and hospital readmission (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21; P < .001). Total units of PRBCs were directly associated with mortality (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.08-1.09; P < .001) and hospital readmissions (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .005). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with perioperative PRBC transfusions have increased operative and long-term mortality and hospital readmissions. Total units of PRBCs transfused were directly associated with mortality and readmissions.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186737

RESUMO

Re-exploration for excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery is a postoperative complication that has been associated with operative mortality and short-term morbidity. However, there is dearth of literature examining its long-term impact. Thus, this study sought to determine the impact of reexploration on long-term mortality in a large, contemporaneous cohort of patients. This was an observational study of open cardiac surgeries between 2010 and 2018, at a single large institution. Patients undergoing first time coronary or valvular surgery (Society of Thoracic Surgeons indexed operations) were identified. Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and multivariable Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the impact of re-exploration on survival. To isolate long-term survival, patients with operative mortality were excluded and survival time was counted from the date of discharge until the date of death. Of the 10,824 patients undergoing first time coronary or valvular surgery, 292 (2.7%) were reexplored for bleeding. After excluding patients with operative mortality and after multivariable risk-adjustment, the reexploration group remained at significantly increased risk of death, as compared to the group not requiring re-exploration (hazards ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.21, 2.09, P = 0.001). Moreover, re-exploration was associated with longer intensive care unit stay, longer total length of hospital stay, as well as increased postoperative complications, such as prolonged ventilation, sepsis, new dialysis requirement, and new onset atrial fibrillation. The morbidity associated with re-exploration for bleeding after cardiac surgery extends into the long-term. This cohort's worse long-term survival is a provocative finding that highlights the long-term impact of excessive bleeding after cardiac surgery.

17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated our institutional experience in forming a surgeon-based committee to discuss and provide consensus opinion on high-risk cardiac surgical cases. METHODS: The committee consisted of 4 surgeons with at least 1 senior surgeon at any given time with a rotating schedule. Patients with a Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality above specified thresholds were mandated for referral to the committee in addition to patients referred at the discretion of the surgeon. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to model survival. RESULTS: A total of 110 consecutive patients were reviewed by the committee. The most common procedure types for referral were isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (47.3%; n = 52) and coronary artery bypass grafting with concomitant aortic valve replacement (19.1%; n = 21). The overall median Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality for referred patients was 5.35% (interquartile range, 4.07%-7.89%). After group discussion, a total of 62 patients were recommended to proceed with surgery (56.4%). Reasons for declining surgery included consensus that an intervention was not indicated (39.6%; n = 19), that an alternative, nonsurgical procedure was recommended (29.2%; n = 14), that there was continued medical management and reevaluation (18.8%; n = 9), and that the patient was deemed at too high a risk for surgery (12.5%; n = 6). Operative mortality in patients proceeding with surgery was 4.6% (n = 2), with an observed-to-expected mortality of 0.86. The 6-month survival after surgery was 92.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a surgeon-based committee to discuss high-risk cases provided a unified voice to referring physicians and facilitated consensus decision-making with acceptable clinical outcomes in a challenging patient cohort.

18.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2725-2733, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated surgical outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE), with particular attention to the impact of intravenous drug use (IVDU). METHODS: Adult patients undergoing surgery for IE between 2011 and 2018 at a single center were included and stratified by IVDU. The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications and hospital readmissions. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression were utilized for unadjusted and risk-adjusted survival analyses, respectively. Cumulative incidence function curves were compared for hospital readmissions. RESULTS: A total of 831 patients (mean age 55 years, 34.4% female) were operated on for IE, including 318 (38.3%) with IVDU. Cultures were most commonly positive for streptococcus (25.2%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (17.7%), enterococcus (14.3%), or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (8.4%). The most common procedures included isolated aortic valve repair/replacement (18.8%), aortic root replacement (15.9%), mitral valve repair/replacement (26.7%), aortic and mitral valve replacement (8.4%), and tricuspid valve repair/replacement (7.6%). Mean follow-up was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and was similar between IVDU and non-IVDU. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that IVDU was not associated with mortality risk. IVDU patients displayed higher rates of all-cause readmission (61.6% vs 53.9%; P = .03), drug-use readmission (15.4% vs 1.4%; P < .001), and recurrent endocarditis readmission (33.0% vs 13.0%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients undergoing surgical treatment of IE are alive at 5-years although readmission rates are high. IVDU is not a risk factor for longitudinal mortality although patients with IVDU are at higher overall readmission risk, driven largely by greater readmissions for drug-use and recurrent endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/mortalidade , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Card Surg ; 35(11): 2950-2956, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stentless porcine xenografts are versatile bioprosthetic valves with the advantage of improved hemodynamics that mimic the function of the native aortic valve. However, these bioprostheses are challenging to implant in the subcoronary position. METHODS: All consecutive patients who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) were included from our institutional database. Cox regression analysis was preformed to determine significant predictors for mid term mortality as well as all cause, cardiac, and heart failure readmission. RESULTS: Patients in the subcoronary stentless group were older and more likely to be female and were likely to have a higher Society of Thoracic Surgery risk of mortality. Survival was superior in the stented AVR cohort at 30-days (96.4% vs 90.5%; P < .001), 1-year (90.5% vs 71.6%; P < .001), and 5-year (74.5% vs 56.9%; P < .001) follow up. Acute kidney injury (16.22% vs 5.22%; P < .001) and blood product transfusion (70.27% vs 44.0%; P < .001) were higher in the stentless group. Multivariable analysis revealed subcoronary stentless implantation as a significant independent risk factor for mortality (hazards ratio: 1.92 [1.35,2.72]; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Stentless porcine xenograft implantation with the Freestyle bioprosthetic in the subcoronary position can be successfully performed in select patients, but its use is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality affecting midterm outcomes. Individual patient selection and surgeon experience are important to ensure favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Stents , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Competência Clínica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Cirurgiões , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 1920-1926, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Redo cardiac surgery carries an inherent risk for adverse short-term outcomes and worse long-term survival. Strategies to mitigate these risks have been numerous, including initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass via peripheral cannulation before resternotomy. This study evaluated the impact of central versus peripheral cannulation on long-term survival after redo cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was an observational study of open cardiac surgeries between 2010 and 2018. Patients undergoing open cardiac surgery that utilized cardiopulmonary bypass, who also had more than equal to 1 prior cardiac surgery, were identified. Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and multivariable Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the impact of peripheral cannulation on survival. To isolate long-term survival, patients with operative mortality were excluded and survival time was counted from the date of discharge until the date of death. RESULTS: Of the 1660 patients with more than equal to 1 prior cardiac surgery, 91 (5.5%) received peripheral cannulation. After excluding patients with operative mortality and after multivariable risk-adjustment, the peripheral cannulation group had significantly increased hazard of death, as compared to the central cannulation group (HR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.30, P = .044). Yet, there were no relevant differences for other postoperative outcomes, including blood product requirement, prolonged ventilation (>24 hours), pneumonia, reoperation for bleeding, stroke, sepsis, and new dialysis requirement. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study reporting the long-term impact of peripheral cannulation for redo cardiac surgery after excluding patients with operative mortality. These data suggest that central cannulation may to be the preferred approach to redo cardiac surgery whenever safe and possible.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/mortalidade , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/mortalidade , Idoso , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Segurança , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
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