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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(1): 273-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use. METHODS: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded. RESULTS: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID. CONCLUSIONS: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863244

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by life-threatening infections, inflammation, and autoimmunity with an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Few data are available for children, whereas no study has been conducted in adults. Here, we investigated HRQoL and emotional functioning of 19 children and 28 adults enrolled in Italian registry for CGD. PEDsQL and SDQ were used for children and their caregivers, and adults completed the SF-12 questionnaire. Mean scores were compared with norms and with patients affected by chronic diseases. Comparisons were made for CGD patients who underwent or not hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). When compared with norms, CGD children exhibited higher difficulties in social/school areas, peer relationship, and conduct/emotional problems (< 5 years of age), as scored by proxies. Differently, CGD adults reported higher difficulties both in mental and physical area than norms. Only for children, clinical status had a damaging effect on psychosocial and school dimensions, whereas age had a negative impact on social areas. No significant difference was observed between patients treated or not with HSCT. When compared with patients affected by chronic diseases, CGD children and adults both displayed fewer physical disabilities. Differently, in mental scale adults scored lower than those with rheumatology diseases and had similar impairment in comparison with patients with diabetes mellitus and cancer. This study emphasized the impact of CGD on HRQoL since infancy and its decline in adulthood, with emotional difficulties occurring early. HRQoL impairment should be considered in clinical picture of CGD and pro-actively assessed and managed by clinicians.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

4.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(4): 474-479, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic drug monitoring is becoming increasingly important in clinical decision-making in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays do not allow results to be provided in real-time. We sought to compare 2 point-of-care (POC) devices for quantification of serum infliximab concentration with 2 validated ELISA assays in children with IBD. METHODS: We studied 32 serum samples from 19 children with IBD treated with infliximab. Serum samples were collected immediately before drug infusion (trough level). Infliximab was measured using 2 POC infliximab assays, Quantum Blue (POC IFX/QB) and Rida Quick (POC IFX/RQ), and 2 ELISA assays: Lisa-Tracker (used as primary reference), and Promonitor (used as second control). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was assessed for quantitative comparison. Qualitative analysis was also performed to evaluate whether POC assays would correctly classify infliximab serum according to a target window (between 3 and 7 µg/mL). RESULTS: ICC was 0.82 and 0.87 for POC IFX/QB and POC IFX/RQ with the primary reference ELISA assay, respectively; ICC between the 2 ELISA assays was 0.87. Classification of results according to therapeutic intervals showed good agreement between pairs of assays, with kappa of 0.67 and 0.80 for POC IFX/QB and POC IFX/RQ, respectively, with reference ELISA, and 0.81 between the 2 ELISAs. Accuracy of POC assays was better for drug levels <3 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: POC infliximab assays showed good agreement with traditional ELISA assays. POC devices may represent a viable option for real-time therapeutic drug monitoring in children treated with infliximab.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987408

RESUMO

The contribution of candidate genetic variants involved in azathioprine biotransformation on azathioprine efficacy and pharmacokinetics in 111 young patients with inflammatory bowel disease was evaluated. Azathioprine doses, metabolites thioguanine-nucleotides (TGN) and methylmercaptopurine-nucleotides (MMPN) and clinical effects were assessed after at least 3 months of therapy. Clinical efficacy was defined as disease activity score below 10. Candidate genetic variants (TPMT rs1142345, rs1800460, rs1800462, GSTA1 rs3957357, GSTM1, and GSTT1 deletion) were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and pyrosequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models for the association between the candidate variants and the pharmacological variables (azathioprine doses and metabolites). Azathioprine metabolites were measured in 257 samples (median 2 per patient, inter-quartile range IQR 1-3). Clinical efficacy at the first evaluation available resulted better in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease patients (88.0% versus 52.5% responders, p = 0.0003, linear mixed effect model, LME). TGN concentration and the ratio TGN/dose at the first evaluation were significantly higher in responder. TPMT rs1142345 variant (4.8% of patients) was associated with increased TGN (LME p = 0.0042), TGN/dose ratio (LME p < 0.0001), decreased azathioprine dose (LME p = 0.0087), and MMPN (LME p = 0.0011). GSTM1 deletion (58.1% of patients) was associated with a 18.5% decrease in TGN/dose ratio and 30% decrease in clinical efficacy. GSTA1 variant (12.8% of patients) showed a trend (p = 0.049, LME) for an association with decreased clinical efficacy; however, no significant effect on azathioprine pharmacokinetics could be detected. In conclusion, GSTs variants are associated with azathioprine efficacy and pharmacokinetics.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/farmacocinética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Biotransformação , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Metiltransferases/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(4): 547-551, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Available data indicate that liver involvement is present in a significant proportion of children with celiac disease (CD) at the diagnosis (elevated transaminases 15%-57%, autoimmune liver disease 1%-2%). We sought to evaluate prevalence, clinical course, and risk factors for liver involvement in a large cohort of children with CD. METHODS: Children (age 0-18 years) diagnosed with CD from March 2010 to April 2016 were enrolled. Liver involvement was considered to be present when alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were >40 U/L (hypertransaminasemia [HTS]). Patients with HTS were re-evaluated after at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet. RESULTS: CD was diagnosed in 806 patients during the study period; of these, ALT levels were available for 700 patients (86.9%), and were elevated in 27 (3.9%, HTS group); median ALT and aspartate transaminase levels in the HTS group were 57 U/L (interquartile range 49-80 U/L) and 67 U/L (interquartile range 53-85 U/L), respectively. Younger age, malabsorption symptoms, and low hemoglobin or ferritin were significantly more common in the HTS group at univariate analysis. At multivariate analysis, only age ≤4.27 years correlated with risk of liver involvement (odds ratio 3.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-8.66). When retested on a gluten-free diet, all but 3 patients normalized ALT levels; of these, 1 was diagnosed with sclerosing cholangitis. CONCLUSIONS: Liver involvement in celiac children is now less frequent than previously reported, possibly due to changing CD epidemiology. Younger age is the only risk factor. Associated autoimmune liver disease is rare.

7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(1): 37-44, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies have led to a revolution in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, a sizable proportion of patients does not respond to therapy. There is increasing evidence suggesting that treatment failure may be classified as mechanistic (pharmacodynamic), pharmacokinetic, or immune-mediated. Data regarding the contribution of these factors in children with IBD treated with infliximab (IFX) are still incomplete. The aim was to assess the causes of treatment failure in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients treated with IFX. METHODS: This observational study considered 49 pediatric (median age 14.4) IBD patients (34 Crohn disease, 15 ulcerative colitis) treated with IFX. Serum samples were collected at 6, 14, 22 and 54 weeks, before IFX infusions. IFX and anti-infliximab antibodies (AIA) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Disease activity was determined by Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index or Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index. RESULTS: Clinical remission, defined as a clinical score <10, was obtained by 76.3% of patients at week 14 and by 73.9% at week 54. Median trough IFX concentration was higher at all time points in patients achieving sustained clinical remission. IFX levels during maintenance correlated also with C-reactive protein, albumin, and fecal calprotectin. After multivariate analysis, IFX concentration at week 14 >3.11 µg/mL emerged as the strongest predictor of sustained clinical remission. AIA concentrations were correlated inversely with IFX concentrations and directly with adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of therapeutic failure were associated with low serum drug levels. IFX trough levels at the end of induction are associated with sustained long-term response.

8.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 12(8): 797-810, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957083

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have changed the therapeutic approach to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, a considerable proportion of patients either do not primarily respond or lose response to treatment. Despite the long-standing experience in the use of these drugs, still there is the need of identifying the possible predictors of efficacy. Areas covered: We critically review the current knowledge on predictors of response to anti-TNF therapy - both those available in clinical practice and those still under investigation. Multiple factors are involved in treatment success, including disease phenotype and severity, adherence to medications, and pharmacogenomic, pharmacokinetic, and immunologic factors. Literature search was conducted in PubMed using keywords 'inflammatory bowel disease,' 'Crohn's disease,' and 'ulcerative colitis,' matched with 'antitumor necrosis factor,' 'biologic therapy,' 'clinical response,' 'predictors,' and 'efficacy,' Relevant articles were selected for review. Expert commentary: While the role of several factors in clinical practice is clearly established, other investigational markers have been proposed, mostly in small studies, yet for many of them little external validation exists. Therapeutic drug monitoring is emerging as a pivotal strategy to guide decisions in clinical practice. In the near future, novel markers could improve our ability to direct treatment and personalize therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia Biológica , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(5)2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738455

RESUMO

The aim of this research was the identification of novel pharmacogenomic biomarkers for better understanding the complex gene regulation mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid (GC) action in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This goal was achieved by evaluating high-throughput microRNA (miRNA) profiles during GC treatment, integrated with the assessment of expression changes in GC receptor (GR) heterocomplex genes. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that differentially expressed miRNAs could be directly regulated by GCs through investigating the presence of GC responsive elements (GREs) in their gene promoters. Ten IBD paediatric patients responding to GCs were enrolled. Peripheral blood was obtained at diagnosis (T0) and after four weeks of steroid treatment (T4). MicroRNA profiles were analyzed using next generation sequencing, and selected significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In detail, 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed from T0 to T4, 16 of which were upregulated and 2 of which were downregulated. Out of these, three miRNAs (miR-144, miR-142, and miR-96) could putatively recognize the 3’UTR of the GR gene and three miRNAs (miR-363, miR-96, miR-142) contained GREs sequences, thereby potentially enabling direct regulation by the GR. In conclusion, we identified miRNAs differently expressed during GC treatment and miRNAs which could be directly regulated by GCs in blood cells of young IBD patients. These results could represent a first step towards their translation as pharmacogenomic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 12(7): 870-879, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518184

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ocular extraintestinal manifestations [O-EIMs] are known complications of Crohn's disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and inflammatory bowel disease unclassified [IBD-U]. However, data on their prevalence in children are scarce and there are no clear recommendations on what follow-up should be offered. We aimed to review available data on O-EIMs in children. Methods: In January 2018, we performed a systematic review of published English literature using PubMed and EMBASE databases and disease-specific queries. Results: Fifteen studies [7467 patients] reported data on O-EIMs prevalence in children. Overall prevalence of O-EIMs was 0.62-1.82%. Uveitis was the most common O-EIM. Meta-analysis showed that children with CD are at increased risk of O-EIMs as compared with children with UC and IBD-U (odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-4.83). Five studies [357 patients] reported data on ophthalmological screening in asymptomatic children: mild asymptomatic uveitis was identified in a variable proportion of patients [1.06-23.1%], more frequently in male patients with CD and colonic involvement. No evidence of ocular complications from untreated uveitis was detected. A total of 23 case reports [24 patients] were identified. Conclusions: Data on O-EIMs in children are scarce. Prevalence of O-EIMs is lower than in adults but may be underestimated because of the possibility of asymptomatic uveitis; however, the long-term significance of this condition is unknown. Children with CD may be at increased risk of O-EIMs. No recommendations on routine ophthalmological examination can be made, but a low threshold for ophthalmological referral should be maintained. Larger studies in paediatric IBD populations are needed.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Catarata/epidemiologia , Catarata/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Uveíte/etiologia
11.
Paediatr Drugs ; 20(2): 165-171, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents are generally well tolerated, yet they can be associated with serious adverse events (SAEs) in a minority of patients. We examined the incidence of SAEs in a pediatric referral center for chronic rheumatologic and gastroenterological inflammatory disorders. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of SAEs occurring during treatment with anti-TNF-α agents in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 78)  or pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 105) seen at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo" in Trieste, Italy, between June 2001 and February 2016. Only SAEs grade 3-5 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03 and/or requiring definitive therapy discontinuation were reported. RESULTS: Total anti-TNF-α exposure was 390.5 patient-years (PYs). The overall incidence rate of SAEs for etanercept was 4.14/100 PYs. Four patients developed uveitis, two had anxiety disorders, one had a serious zoster infection, and one developed TNF-α antagonist-induced lupus-like syndrome (TAILS). The overall incidence rate of SAEs for infliximab was 22.49/100 PYs. The most common SAEs were anaphylactoid reactions (n = 18), followed by infectious events (n = 9) and TAILS (n = 3). The overall incidence rate of SAEs for adalimumab was 4.71/100 PYs (two infectious SAEs). No malignancies or deaths were observed. A greater incidence rate of infectious SAEs was observed in IBD patients receiving infliximab compared to JIA patients receiving etanercept (8.11 vs 0.52 per 100 PYs). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α therapy was generally well tolerated. SAEs leading to anti-TNF-α discontinuation were rare and non-fatal. Infliximab was associated with the highest incidence of SAEs. Infectious SAEs were more frequently observed in IBD patients treated with infliximab than in JIA patients receiving etanercept.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 122(1): 87-93, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722800

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely employed in inflammatory, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and, despite the introduction of novel therapies, remain the first-line treatment for inducing remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Given the high incidence of suboptimal response, associated with a significant number of side-effects, that are particularly severe in paediatric patients, the identification of subjects that are most likely to respond poorly to GCs is extremely important. Recent evidence suggests that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 could be a potential marker of GC resistance. To address this issue, we evaluated the association between the lncRNA GAS5 and the efficacy of steroids, in terms of inhibition of proliferation, in two cell lines derived from colon and ovarian cancers, to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of these lncRNAs. These cells showed a different sensitivity to GCs and revealed differential expression of GAS5 after treatment. GAS5 was up-regulated in GC-resistant cells and accumulated more in the cytoplasm compared to the nucleus in response to the drug. The functions of GAS5 were assessed by silencing, and we found that GAS5 knock-down reduced the proliferation during GC treatment. Furthermore, for the first time, we measured GAS5 levels in 19 paediatric IBD patients at diagnosis and after the first cycle of GCs, and we demonstrated an up-regulation of the lncRNA in patients with unfavourable steroid response. Our preliminary results indicate that GAS5 could be considered a novel pharmacogenomic marker useful for the personalization of GC therapy.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Testes Farmacogenômicos/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
14.
Children (Basel) ; 4(9)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862659

RESUMO

Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance ("safety netting") remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children.

15.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(7): 701-706, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Complete signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by impairment of intracellular signaling from both type I and type II interferons (IFN). Affected patients are prone to early severe mycobacterial and viral infections, which usually result in death before 18 months of age. We previously reported a patient affected by complete STAT1 deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here, we describe the transplantation procedures and long-term outcomes. METHODS: The patient, who had suffered multiple life-threatening mycobacterial and viral infections in the first years of life, underwent HSCT at 4 years of age from a partially matched (HLA compatibility 8/10) unrelated donor after a myeloablative conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and anti-thymocyte globulin. RESULTS: Hematological reconstitution was detected at d+15, with full donor engraftment demonstrated by molecular analysis of leukocytes. Several complications occurred in the post-transplantation phase, including acute graft versus host disease, posterior reversible encephalopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, bilateral keratoconjunctivitis with complete loss of vision, and chronic lower limb lymphedema. Analysis of STAT1 in CD3+ cells at 90 and 120 days after HSCT by flow cytometry showed normal STAT1 phosphorylation levels in response to IFN-α. CONCLUSIONS: Notably, no severe infections occurred after discharge (day + 90) during a 9-year follow-up, suggesting that normal response to IFNs in hematopoietic cells is sufficient to provide protection in humans.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/deficiência , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(7): 1970-1974, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411391

RESUMO

The phenotypic manifestations of microdeletions in the 19q13.32 region are still poorly known. In this paper we report a patient who presented with hypotonia, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, micrognathia, kyphoscoliosis, and buried penis. Chromosomal microarray revealed an interstitial 327 kb de novo microdeletion in the 19q13.32 region comprising eight genes (ARGHAP35, NPAS1, TMEM160, ZC3H4, SAE1, BBC3, MIR3190, and MIR3191). Previously reported cases of microdeletions in the 19q13.32 region were reviewed and compared to our patient, highlighting the common features of a possible 19q13.32 microdeletion syndrome.

19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(6): 986-990, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on ocular manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children are limited. Some authors have reported a high prevalence of asymptomatic uveitis, yet the significance of these observations is unknown and there are no recommendations on which ophthalmologic follow-up should be offered. METHODS: Children with IBD seen at a single referral center for pediatric gastroenterology were offered ophthalmologic evaluation as part of routine care for their disease. Ophthalmologic evaluation included review of ocular history as well as slit-lamp and fundoscopic examination. Medical records were also reviewed for previous ophthalmologic diagnoses or complaints. RESULTS: Data from 94 children were included (52 boys; median age 13.4 yr). Forty-six patients had a diagnosis of Crohn's disease, 46 ulcerative colitis, and 2 IBD unclassified. Intestinal disease was in clinical remission in 70% of the patients; fecal calprotectin was elevated in 64%. One patient with Crohn's disease had a previous diagnosis of clinically manifest uveitis (overall uveitis prevalence: 1.06%; incidence rate: 0.3 per 100 patient-years). This patient was also the only one who was found to have asymptomatic uveitis at slit-lamp examination. A second patient had posterior subcapsular cataract associated with corticosteroid treatment. No signs of intraocular complications from previous unrecognized uveitis were observed in any patient. CONCLUSIONS: Children with IBD may have asymptomatic uveitis, yet its prevalence seems lower than previously reported, and it was not found in children without a previous diagnosis of clinically manifest uveitis. No ocular complications from prior unrecognized uveitis were observed.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Indução de Remissão
20.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(4): 628-634, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally aggressive, with a high probability of complications and need of surgery. Despite the introduction of highly effective biological drugs, treatment with azathioprine continues to be important even for early-onset IBD; however, in these patients azathioprine response seems to be reduced. This study evaluated azathioprine doses, metabolite concentrations, and their associations with patients' age in children with IBD treated at 6 tertiary pediatric referral centers. METHODS: Azathioprine doses, metabolites, and clinical effects were assessed after at least 3 months of therapy in 17 early-onset (age < 6 yr, cases) and 51 nonearly-onset (aged > 12 and <18 yrs, controls) patients with IBD. Azathioprine dose was titrated on therapeutic efficacy (response and adverse effects). Azathioprine metabolites and thiopurine methyltransferase activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet-vis detection (HPLC-UV) methods. RESULTS: Frequency of patients in remission was similar among early-onset and control groups, respectively (82% and 84%, P value = 0.72). Early-onset patients required higher doses of azathioprine (median 2.7 versus 2.0 mg·kg·d, P value = 1.1 × 10). Different doses resulted in comparable azathioprine active thioguanine nucleotide metabolite concentrations (median 263 versus 366 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes, P value = 0.41) and methylmercaptopurine nucleotide concentrations (median 1455 versus 1532 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes, P value = 0.60). Lower ratios between thioguanine nucleotide metabolites and azathioprine doses were found in early-onset patients (median 98 versus 184 pmol/8 × 10 erythrocytes·mg·kg·d, P value = 0.017). Interestingly, early-onset patients presented also higher thiopurine methyltransferase activity (median 476 versus 350 nmol methylmercaptopurine/mg hemoglobin/h, P-value = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that patients with early-onset IBD present increased inactivating azathioprine metabolism, likely because of elevated activity of the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos/farmacocinética , Azatioprina/farmacocinética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Masculino , Mercaptopurina/análogos & derivados , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Metiltransferases/sangue , Tioguanina/sangue
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