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1.
Parasitol Int ; 81: 102269, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340657

RESUMO

A comprehensive review of the infection of mammals with the nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymidae) is presented. Mammals, including man, are the definitive hosts for this parasite. Several aspects of the infection with the parasite in mammals other than humans are critically evaluated: geographical distribution, host species recorded so far and the relative importance of the different hosts, location of parasites within the host, prevalence and intensity of the infection, diagnostic methods, pathology induced by the parasites, epidemiology and the methods of control and treatment. The authors provide an updated review about the infection, based on a extensive bibliographic search worldwide, and point out the most relevant aspects of the biology of the parasite as well as several research topics which need to be explored for a better understanding of the biology of this interesting and important parasitic nematode.


Assuntos
Dioctophymatoidea , Infecções por Enoplida , Mamíferos , Animais , Dioctophymatoidea/fisiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(4): 786-788, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186499

RESUMO

A 41-year-old man from Son La Province, Vietnam, sought care for disseminated prurigo-like skin lesions from which nematode larvae were emerging. We morphologically and molecularly identified the larvae as Oxyspirura sp. Our findings confirm this nematode species as a zoonotic pathogen for emerging disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Thelazioidea , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Prurido , Vietnã/epidemiologia
3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(1): 57-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145728

RESUMO

During the mobile clinic activities in Tak Province, Thailand, Paragonimus sp. eggs were found in a fecal sample of a 72-year-old Karen resident. Paragonimus DNA was amplified from the stool sample and identified to P. heterotremus. The patient did not have any symptoms. Apparent pulmonary lesion was not found on the chest X-ray. The patient admitted habitual consumption of semi-cooked or roasted waterfall crabs for several years. The waterfall crabs collected from stream near the village were found negative for Paragonimus metacercariae. In northern Thailand, paragonimiasis remains as one of the public health concerns and should be ruled out for asymptomatic pulmonary patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Paragonimíase/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paragonimus/isolamento & purificação , Tailândia
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(3): 591-598, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675852

RESUMO

Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infection, is a major food-borne trematodiasis in many places of the world, with the central region of Vietnam being reported as a highly endemic area. Stool examination for Fasciola eggs is not a sensitive method, and immunodiagnostic methods are preferable. We investigated various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to evaluate their efficacy for fascioliasis diagnosis. Test sera used are primarily screened using an ELISA kit produced in Vietnam (VN kit; Viet Sinh Chemical Producing & Trading Co. Ltd., Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam): Seropositive individuals having symptoms compatible with fascioliasis were regarded as clinically diagnosed fascioliasis cases. A commercial Fasciola IgG ELISA kit from Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostics, Inc. (USA kit; Woodland Hills, CA), which has been commonly used in Vietnam, was assessed and compared with in-house ELISA systems, including a cystatin-capture (CC) ELISA using crude worm extract (CWE) and an indirect ELISA using a synthetic peptide Ac-TPTCHWECQVGYNKTYDEE-NHMe designed from the F. gigantica cathepsin B (FgCB5) molecule. The USA kit was suitable for routine diagnosis after recalibration of the manufacturer's suggested cutoff point. Cystatin-capture ELISA with CWE provided good sensitivity and specificity with perfect agreement to the results of the USA kit. In dot-blot ELISA, recombinant FgCB5 reacted more strongly with human antisera than did other F. gigantica antigens tested. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the synthetic peptide fragment of the FgCB5 exhibited nearly 80% sensitivity and specificity, but the test results showed low agreement with CC-ELISA or the USA kit. In conclusion, the commercially available Fasciola IgG ELISA kit from the United States and the in-house CC ELISA using CWE are suitable for practical diagnosis for fascioliasis.


Assuntos
Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fasciola/enzimologia , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Catepsina B/química , Catepsina B/imunologia , Cisteína Proteases/química , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(44): e273, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369856

RESUMO

Background: Sparganosis is a larval cestodiasis caused by the plerocercoid of Spirometra spp. Since the first description of human sparganosis in 1924, several hundred cases have been reported in Korea. However, systematic approaches for literature surveys of Korean sparganosis have seldom appeared. Methods: We searched publicly available databases such as PubMed, Research Information Sharing Service, and Korea Medical Citation Index with relevant Medical Subject Headings. Results: At least 438 Korean sparganosis cases have been described from 1924 to 2015. Preoperative diagnosis has been significantly increased since the 1980s due to popularization of serological and imaging diagnostics. Cases were largely detected from fifth decades in general, but cerebral sparganosis was detected in relatively young age groups (third and fourth decades). Sparganosis was prevalent in men (75.9%). Consumption of frog/snake and drinking unfiltered water were found in 63.4% and 16.9% of patients, respectively. Most frequently affected sites were subcutaneous tissues (49.9%), followed by the central nervous system (36.2%). Involvements of visceral organs (7.6%), ocular regions (3.6%), and muscles (2.7%) were noticed. In women, breast sparganosis constituted a large proportion (34.2%). Sparganosis associated with immunocompromised patients has recently been reported. Conclusion: Sparganosis has been continuously reported in Korea during the past 90 years, although its incidence has decreased during the last 20 years. The disease is mostly characterized by subcutaneous nodule, but infection of the worm in vital organs often results in serious illness. Continuous awareness is warranted to monitor sparganosis occurrence and associated clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Esparganose/diagnóstico , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Spirometra , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Água/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(4): 1028-1032, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141392

RESUMO

A 69-year-old male dentist in Caracas, Venezuela, was referred to our Cornea Clinic with a history of pain, photophobia, and blurred vision on his left eye. Routine biomicroscopic examination with a slit lamp showed a worm in the corneal stroma of his left eye. The worm was surgically removed and was identified morphologically as Gnathostoma binucleatum.


Assuntos
Gnathostoma/isolamento & purificação , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Larva/patogenicidade , Fotofobia/parasitologia , Idoso , Animais , Córnea/parasitologia , Córnea/cirurgia , Feminino , Água Doce/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/patogenicidade , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Gnatostomíase/patologia , Gnatostomíase/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Fotofobia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotofobia/patologia , Fotofobia/cirurgia , Texas , Viagem , Venezuela
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(3): 215-227, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996625

RESUMO

Along with globalization of traveling and trading, fish-borne nematodiases seems to be increasing in number. However, apart from occasional and sporadic case reports or mini-reviews of particular diseases in particular countries, an overview of fish-borne nematodiasis among travelers have never been performed. In this review, we gathered fishborne nematodiasis among travelers for recent 25 years by an extensive global literature survey using appropriate keywords, e.g. travelers diseases, human infection, anisakiasis, gnathostomiasis, capillariasis, sushi, sashimi, ceviche, Gnathostoma, Pseudoterranova, Anisakis, Capillaria, etc., as well as various combinations of these key words. The Internet search engines PubMed, Medline, Google and Googler Scholar were used as much as possible, and the references of every paper were checked in order to identify useful and reliable publications. The results showed unexpectedly high incidence of gnathostomiasis and low incidence of anisakidosis. The different incidence values of the infection with several fish-borne zoonotic nematode species are discussed, as well as some epidemiological aspects of the infections. The difficulties of differential diagnosis in non-endemic countries are emphasized. It is concluded that travelers must avoid risky behaviors which can lead to infection and that physicians and health authorities must advice travelers on the risks of eating behaviors during travel.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Animais , Anisaquíase/diagnóstico , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisaquíase/prevenção & controle , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Gnatostomíase/epidemiologia , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Zoonoses
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 328, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Paragonimus require at least three hosts in their life-cycles. The obligatory first intermediate hosts are freshwater snails. In Vietnam, although seven Paragonimus species have been recorded, the natural first intermediate hosts of almost all species have not been confirmed. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate snail hosts of Paragonimus species in Vietnam, and to identify Paragonimus species at intramolluscan stages. METHODS: Freshwater snails were collected from streams in Yen Bai and Quang Tri Provinces, where high prevalences of Paragonimus metacercariae in crab hosts have been reported. Snails were morphologically identified and then examined individually for Paragonimus cercariae using shedding and crushing methods. Chaetomicrocercous cercariae, the morphological class to which Paragonimus cercariae belong, were collected for morphological description and molecular species identification by analyses of ITS2 sequences. The infected snail species were identified based on analyses of nucleotide sequences of the cox1 gene. RESULTS: Three snail species were found to be infected with Paragonimus cercariae at low infection rates, ranging between 0.07-1.0%. The molecular analyses identified them as Sulcospira quangtriensis and 2 species of subfamily Triculinae. In a phylogenetic tree, these two triculine snails were related to the genera Gammatricula and Tricula with low posterior probabilities. Thus we named them as Triculinae sp. 1 and Triculinae sp. 2. Cercariae from the three snail species, Sulcospira quangtriensis, Triculinae sp. 1 and Triculinae sp. 2, were molecularly identified as Paragonimus westermani, P. heterotremus and P. proliferus, respectively. The cercariae of the three species are morphologically similar to each other, but their daughter rediae can be distinguished by the length of the intestine and the number of cercariae per redia. The rediae of P. westermani have a long intestine and each contain 6-8 cercariae. In contrast, those of P. heterotremus and P. proliferus have a short intestine and each redia contain 10-12 and 5-6 cercariae, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Three snail species, Sulcospira quangtriensis, Triculinae sp. 1 and Triculinae sp. 2, serve as the first intermediate hosts of P. westermani, P. heterotremus and P. proliferus, respectively, in Vietnam. The length of the intestine of rediae and the number of cercariae per redia are valuable characteristics for distinguishing between larvae of these Paragonimus species.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/parasitologia , Paragonimíase/parasitologia , Paragonimus/classificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , Geografia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metacercárias , Paragonimus/genética , Paragonimus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Caramujos/classificação , Vietnã/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(4): 1232-1234, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722600

RESUMO

Ocular gnathostomiasis is rather a rare food-borne zoonosis caused by infection with the larvae of several species of genus Gnathostoma and is a representative ocular larva migrans syndrome. In our previous literature survey, we found 73 cases of ocular gnathostomiasis reported up to and including 2009, though additional sporadic cases have been reported in Asia and the Americas since that report. Here, we review 10 additional cases reported since 2010, and also update current findings regarding epidemiological and clinical features in affected patients.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/epidemiologia , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Saúde Global , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 11(2): 180-187, 2017 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Giardiasis is a human health concern worldwide, especially among schoolchildren. Giardia duodenalis genotypes A and B are infective to humans, but their zoonotic potential remains controversial. In Mexico, the most prevalent genotype is A, but B was also detected in southeastern Mexico. In Sinaloa state, northwestern Mexico, giardiasis is highly prevalent, but Giardia genotypes have been poorly studied. METHODOLOGY: This study aimed to investigate the distribution and clinical-epidemiological correlation of G. duodenalis genotypes in schoolchildren and their families and pets in urban and rural areas of Sinaloa state, Mexico. RESULTS: Among 395 schoolchildren (274 urban, 121 rural), 76 (49 urban, 27 rural) were infected with G. duodenalis. In total, 22 families (15 urban, 7 rural) of infected schoolchildren, consisting of 60 family members (41 urban, 19 rural) and 21 pet dogs (15 urban, 6 rural) were examined; 10 family members (5 urban, 5 rural) and 5 pet dogs (3 urban, 2 rural) of 10 families (6 urban, 4 rural) were infected. After PCR-RFLP analyses of vsp417 and gdh genes, genotype prevalence among infected urban schoolchildren was 79.5% AI, 12.8% AII, and 7.7% mixed AI+B. However, only AI genotype was found in family members and pets. In the rural area, only the AI genotype was detected. Genotypes were not correlated with clinical manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: This paper shows the presence of B genotype in northwestern Mexico for the first time. Detection of AI genotype in dogs suggested the possible role of dogs as the reservoir for human giardiasis in Sinaloa, Mexico.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/parasitologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Criança , Cães , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Animais de Estimação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
12.
Parasitology ; 143(12): 1639-46, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440217

RESUMO

Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Paragonimus westermani/classificação , Paragonimus westermani/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Paragonimus westermani/anatomia & histologia , Paragonimus westermani/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vietnã
13.
Trop Med Health ; 44: 19, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27433138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paragonimiasis is one of the foodborn trematodiases and number of the patients was estimated to be about 23 million around the world. To obtain good compliance of people for the surveillance of paragonimiasis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis with unconcentrated urine samples was developed. RESULTS: Paragonimus westermani antigen specific IgG and IgG4 were detected in urine samples from paragonimiasis patients and the levels correlated well with those detected in the paired serum samples. Cross-reactions observed among other trematodiasis and a tuberculosis patient with the antigen specific IgG were much reduced by detecting the antigen specific IgG4; 9.2 % to 2.3 %. CONCLUSIONS: The ELISA with urine samples, which are collected safely and easily, will be a useful tool for a mass-screening of paragonimiasis.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(2): 413-6, 2016 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325806

RESUMO

Gnathostomiasis is a zoonotic parasitosis endemic in many Asian and some Latin American countries. Most human infections are caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum in Asia and Gnathostoma binucleatum in the Americas, and recently, imported cases have been increasing among travelers returning from endemic regions. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis relies largely on serologic tests, with a G. spinigerum-antigen-based immunoblot currently being the diagnostic method of choice. However, we repeatedly experienced that sera from patients with clinically suspected American gnathostomiasis gave negative results in this assay. Therefore, we used homologous methods to prepare G. spinigerum- and G. binucleatum-antigen-based immunoblot assays, and evaluated the cross-reactivity of the two assays. The results show incomplete cross-reactivity between the two assays: the G. spinigerum-antigen-based immunoblot apparently only detects Asian gnathostomiasis caused by G. spinigerum, whereas the G. binucleatum-antigen-based immunoblot is apparently capable of detecting American as well as Asian gnathostomiasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/química , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Gnathostoma/imunologia , Larva/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/biossíntese , Antígenos de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Ásia , Western Blotting/métodos , Reações Cruzadas , Enguias/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/anatomia & histologia , Gnathostoma/classificação , Gnathostoma/isolamento & purificação , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/química , Larva/classificação , Estados Unidos
15.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 110(1): 6-12, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26740357

RESUMO

Paragonimiasis caused by lung flukes (genus Paragonimus) is a neglected disease occurring in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The genus is species-rich, ancient and widespread. Genetic diversity is likely to be considerable, but investigation of this remains confined to a few populations of a few species. In recent years, studies of genetic diversity have moved from isoenzyme analysis to molecular phylogenetic analysis based on selected DNA sequences. The former offered better resolution of questions relating to allelic diversity and gene flow, whereas the latter is more suitable for questions relating to molecular taxonomy and phylogeny. A picture is emerging of a highly diverse taxon of parasites, with the greatest diversity found in eastern and southern Asia where ongoing speciation might be indicated by the presence of several species complexes. Diversity of lung flukes in Africa and the Americas is very poorly sampled. Functional molecules that might be of value for immunodiagnosis, or as targets for medical intervention, are of great interest. Characterisation of these from Paragonimus species has been ongoing for a number of years. However, the imminent release of genomic and transcriptomic data for several species of Paragonimus will dramatically increase the rate of discovery of such molecules, and illuminate their diversity within and between species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Paragonimíase/parasitologia , Paragonimus/genética , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 110(1): 13-20, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26740358

RESUMO

Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis/isolamento & purificação , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Opisthorchis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Opistorquíase/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 115(3): 1123-30, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26614357

RESUMO

Metagonimus Katsurada, 1912 is a genus of small intestinal parasites. The genus comprises eight species, primarily from far-eastern Asia, with two exceptions reported from Europe. Metagonimus yokogawai, the most widespread species, is the main agent responsible for the intestinal disease, metagonimiasis, in Japan and some other East Asian countries. On the basis of the ratio of the size of the ventral and oral suckers, Metagonimus has traditionally been morphologically divided into two groups; however, the genus has not been extensively studied using molecular data. To reveal phylogenetic relationships within Metagonimus based on molecular data, we analyzed six of the seven species present in Asia using samples collected in central Japan. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequence dataset separated the six species into two well-supported clades. One clade comprised M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, M. miyatai, and M. hakubaensis, whereas the other consisted of M. otsurui and M. katsuradai. Genetic distances calculated from 28S rDNA and ITS2 nucleotide sequences and a comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of cox1 gene suggested that M. otsurui and M. katsuradai may have diverged recently. None of the four main morphological characters used to delimit species of Metagonimus (i.e., sucker ratio, positions of the uterus and testes, and distribution of vitelline follicles) was consistent with the distribution of species in the molecular tree.


Assuntos
Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Japão , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 45(5): 1173-81, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25417521

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections occur in many provinces of north-eastern Thailand, knowledge concerning the prevalence of the common S. suis serotypes (1, 1/2, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 14 and 16) among healthy and diseased pigs in upper northeastern Thailand remains limited. This study investigated S. suis isolates from pigs (healthy and diseased) and also from humans using 11 conventional biochemical tests, 16S rDNA PCR and sequence analysis and multiplex PCR genotyping of porcine cps and gdh. Thirty-three isolates were obtained between 2009 and 2012 from blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients from northeastern Thailand previously diagnosed with S. suis infection, based on clinical symptoms and laboratory diagnosis using 11 biochemical tests and PCR detection of 16S rDNA and cps. Eleven S. suis isolates were obtained between 2006 and 2009 from diseased pigs with clinical signs and laboratory diagnoses. In addition, 43 isolates obtained from 741 nasal swab cultures of slaughtered pigs between 2011 and 2012 were included. All three methods showed similar sensitivity in detection of S. suis from clinical and diseased pig specimens, although in healthy pigs, the 11 conventional biochemical methods yielded 2.3% false positives, and the gdh PCR detection method exhibited 31% false negatives. S. suis was present among healthy pigs in 8 of 10 provinces in upper northeastern Thailand, giving an average prevalence of 5.7% (range 1%-17%) using conventional methods together with 16S rDNA PCR assay. False positives by conventional methods were due to species with similar phenotypes, such as viridian streptococci, and are not statistically different from those obtained with the 16S rDNA PCR method, and the false negatives using gdh PCR assay will require further investigation. As S. suis was recovered from both diseased and healthy pigs, raw or undercooked pork products should be considered unsafe for handling or consumption in these regions of Thailand.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Streptococcus suis/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , DNA Bacteriano , DNA Ribossômico , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Suínos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 50(2): 344-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24506422

RESUMO

Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded.


Assuntos
Didelphis/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/fisiologia , Gnatostomíase/veterinária , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gnatostomíase/epidemiologia , Gnatostomíase/imunologia , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
20.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 61(6): 512-22, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651692

RESUMO

Infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Digenea) (Poirier, 1886) causes bile duct injury and periductal fibrosis by chronic overproduction of inflammatory-mediators and eventually results in cholangiocarcinoma development. While extensive research works have been done on O. viverrini infection-associated changes of bile ducts and periductal fibrosis, little attention was paid on morphological and biochemical changes of the bile canaliculi (BC), the origin of bile flow. We aimed to investigate the morphological and functional alterations of BC in the liver of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at one and three months post-infection. Ultrastructural changes of BC showed dilatation of BC and significant reduction of the density of microvilli as early as at one month post-infection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CD10, a BC marker, expression was reduced early as one month post-infection. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding molecules related to bile secretion including bile acid uptake transporters (slc10a1 and slco1a1), bile acid dependent (abcb11) and independent (abcc2) bile flow and bile acid biosynthesis (cyp7a1 and cyp27a1) were significantly decreased at one month post-infection in association with the reduction of bile volume. In contrast, the expression of the mRNA of bile acid regulatory genes (fxr and shp-1) was significantly increased. These changes essentially persisted up to three months post-infection. In conclusion, O. viverrini infection induces morphological and functional changes of BC in association with the decrease of bile volume.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/patologia , Bile/metabolismo , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opisthorchis , Animais , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/parasitologia , Ductos Biliares/ultraestrutura , Cricetinae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Neprilisina/genética , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Opistorquíase/patologia
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