Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699840

RESUMO

About 40% of asthmatics experience remission of asthma symptoms. A better understanding of biological pathways leading to asthma remission may provide insight into new therapeutic targets for asthma. As an important mechanism of gene regulation, investigation of DNA methylation provides a promising approach. Our objective was to identify differences in epigenome wide DNA methylation levels in bronchial biopsies between subjects with asthma remission and subjects with persistent asthma or healthy controls.We analysed differential DNA methylation in bronchial biopsies from 26 subjects with persistent asthma, 39 remission subjects and 70 healthy controls, using the limma package. The comb-p tool was used to identify differentially methylated regions. DNA methylation of CpG-sites was associated to expression of nearby genes from the same biopsies to understand function.Four CpG-sites and 42 regions were differentially methylated between persistent asthma and remission. DNA methylation at two sites was correlated in cis with gene expression at ACKR2 and DGKQ, respectively. Between remission subjects and healthy controls 1163 CpG-sites and 328 regions were differentially methylated. DNA methylation was associated with expression of a set of genes expressed in ciliated epithelium.CpGs differentially methylated between remission and persistent asthma identify genetic loci associated with resolution of inflammation and airway responsiveness. Despite the absence of symptoms, remission subjects have a DNA methylation profile that is distinct from that of healthy controls, partly due to changes in cellular composition, with a higher gene expression signal related to ciliated epithelium in remission versus healthy controls.

3.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1153-1163, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209336

RESUMO

Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange and form an interface with the environment, which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single-cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in healthy lungs, and lower airways in asthmatic lungs. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In the lower airways of patients with asthma, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report the presence of pathogenic effector type 2 helper T cells (TH2) in asthmatic lungs and find evidence for type 2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell-cell interactions identifies a shift from airway structural cell communication in healthy lungs to a TH2-dominated interactome in asthmatic lungs.

4.
Pharmacol Ther ; 201: 8-24, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075356

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition, which is highly prevalent worldwide. Although no cure is currently available, it is well recognized that some asthma patients can spontaneously enter remission of the disease later in life. Asthma remission is characterized by absence of symptoms and lack of asthma-medication use. Subjects in asthma remission can be divided into two groups: those in clinical remission and those in complete remission. In clinical asthma remission, subjects still have a degree of lung functional impairment or bronchial hyperresponsiveness, while in complete asthma remission, these features are no longer present. Over longer periods, the latter group is less likely to relapse. This remission group is of great scientific interest due to the higher potential to find biomarkers or biological pathways that elicit or are associated with asthma remission. Despite the fact that the definition of asthma remission varies between studies, some factors are reproducibly observed to be associated with remitted asthma. Among these are lower levels of inflammatory markers, which are lowest in complete remission. Additionally, in both groups some degree of airway remodeling is present. Still, the pathological disease state of asthma remission has been poorly investigated. Future research should focus on at least two aspects: further characterisation of the small airways and airway walls in order to determine histologically true remission, and more thorough biological pathway analyses to explore triggers that elicit this phenomenon. Ultimately, this will result in pharmacological targets that provide the potential to steer the course of asthma towards remission.

6.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 61(1): 31-41, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995076

RESUMO

Lung disease accounts for every sixth death globally. Profiling the molecular state of all lung cell types in health and disease is currently revolutionizing the identification of disease mechanisms and will aid the design of novel diagnostic and personalized therapeutic regimens. Recent progress in high-throughput techniques for single-cell genomic and transcriptomic analyses has opened up new possibilities to study individual cells within a tissue, classify these into cell types, and characterize variations in their molecular profiles as a function of genetics, environment, cell-cell interactions, developmental processes, aging, or disease. Integration of these cell state definitions with spatial information allows the in-depth molecular description of cellular neighborhoods and tissue microenvironments, including the tissue resident structural and immune cells, the tissue matrix, and the microbiome. The Human Cell Atlas consortium aims to characterize all cells in the healthy human body and has prioritized lung tissue as one of the flagship projects. Here, we present the rationale, the approach, and the expected impact of a Human Lung Cell Atlas.

7.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 10-29, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930166

RESUMO

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Pediatria/tendências , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Distribuição Tecidual/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12426, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127367

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the inflammatory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanism by which cigarette smoke (CS) induces chronic lung inflammation is still largely unknown. We hypothesize that immunogenic airway epithelial cell death is involved in the initiation of the inflammatory response. We previously identified CFLAR, the gene encoding the cell death regulator protein c-FLIP, to be associated with CS-induced release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Here, we investigated the effect of CS on expression levels of CFLAR in bronchial biopsies from smokers and non-smokers and CFLAR transcript isoform-expression in a dataset of air-liquid interface-differentiated bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, CFLAR was down-regulated by siRNA in lung epithelial A549 cells, followed by investigation of the effects on apoptosis, necrosis and DAMP release. CS exposure significantly decreased CFLAR expression in bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, we observed a shift in relative abundance of the isoforms c-FLIPS and c-FLIPL transcripts in bronchial biopsies of current smokers compared to non-smokers, consistent with a shift towards necroptosis. In vitro, down-regulation of CFLAR increased apoptosis at baseline as well as CS extract-induced necrosis and DAMP release. In conclusion, CS exposure decreases CFLAR expression, which might increase susceptibility to immunogenic cell death.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 51(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519908

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation of IL1RL1 protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association between IL1RL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations of IL1RL1 SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNA IL1RL1 methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association of IL1RL1 CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101).IL1RL1 asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated with IL1RL1 methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10-16) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10-56). IL1RL1 methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associated IL1RL1 SNPs strongly regulate IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither these IL1RL1-methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma.

11.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 313(3): L559-L580, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596295

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by unresolved neutrophilic airway inflammation and is caused by chronic exposure to toxic gases, such as cigarette smoke (CS), in genetically susceptible individuals. Recent data indicate a role for damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in COPD. Here, we investigated the genetics of CS-induced DAMP release in 28 inbred mouse strains. Subsequently, in lung tissue from a subset of strains, the expression of the identified candidate genes was analyzed. We tested whether small interfering RNA-dependent knockdown of candidate genes altered the susceptibility of the human A549 cell line to CS-induced cell death and DAMP release. Furthermore, we tested whether these genes were differentially regulated by CS exposure in bronchial brushings obtained from individuals with a family history indicative of either the presence or absence of susceptibility for COPD. We observed that, of the four DAMPs tested, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) showed the highest correlation with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Genetic analyses identified 11 candidate genes governing either CS-induced or basal dsDNA release in mice. Two candidate genes (Elac2 and Ppt1) showed differential expression in lung tissue on CS exposure between susceptible and nonsusceptible mouse strains. Knockdown of ELAC2 and PPT1 in A549 cells altered susceptibility to CS extract-induced cell death and DAMP release. In bronchial brushings, CS-induced expression of ENOX1 and ARGHGEF11 was significantly different between individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible for COPD. Our study shows that genetic variance in a mouse model is associated with CS-induced DAMP release, and that this might contribute to susceptibility for COPD.


Assuntos
Alarminas/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Linhagem Celular , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179125, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms explaining the co-existence of asthma, eczema and rhinitis (allergic multimorbidity) are largely unknown. We investigated the mechanisms underlying multimorbidity between three main allergic diseases at a molecular level by identifying the proteins and cellular processes that are common to them. METHODS: An in silico study based on computational analysis of the topology of the protein interaction network was performed in order to characterize the molecular mechanisms of multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. As a first step, proteins associated to either disease were identified using data mining approaches, and their overlap was calculated. Secondly, a functional interaction network was built, allowing to identify cellular pathways involved in allergic multimorbidity. Finally, a network-based algorithm generated a ranked list of newly predicted multimorbidity-associated proteins. RESULTS: Asthma, eczema and rhinitis shared a larger number of associated proteins than expected by chance, and their associated proteins exhibited a significant degree of interconnectedness in the interaction network. There were 15 pathways involved in the multimorbidity of asthma, eczema and rhinitis, including IL4 signaling and GATA3-related pathways. A number of proteins potentially associated to these multimorbidity processes were also obtained. CONCLUSIONS: These results strongly support the existence of an allergic multimorbidity cluster between asthma, eczema and rhinitis, and suggest that type 2 signaling pathways represent a relevant multimorbidity mechanism of allergic diseases. Furthermore, we identified new candidates contributing to multimorbidity that may assist in identifying new targets for multimorbid allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Comorbidade , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Rinite/etiologia , Rinite/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1559: 137-168, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063043

RESUMO

Allergic asthma, caused by inhaled allergens such as house dust mite or grass pollen, is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, associated with an eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, as well as airway hyper responsiveness and remodeling. The inhaled allergens trigger a type-2 inflammatory response with involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells, resulting in high production of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Consequently, renewed allergen exposure results in a classic allergic response with a distinct early and late phase, both resulting in bronchoconstriction and shortness of breath. Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that is capable of modifying the immunological process underlying allergic responses including allergic asthma and both subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) as well as sublingual AIT (SLIT) have proven clinical efficacy in long term suppression of the allergic response. Although these treatments are very successful for rhinitis, application of AIT in asthma is hampered by variable efficacy, long duration of treatment, and the risk of severe side-effects. A more profound understanding of the mechanisms by which AIT achieves tolerance to allergens in sensitized individuals is needed to improve its efficacy. Mouse models have been very valuable as a preclinical model to characterize the mechanisms of desensitization in AIT and to evaluate novel approaches for improved efficacy. Here, we present a rapid and reproducible mouse model for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this model, mice are sensitized with two injections of allergen absorbed to aluminum hydroxide to induce allergic sensitization, followed by subcutaneous injections (SCIT) or sublingual administrations (SLIT) of the allergen as immunotherapy treatment. Finally, mice are challenged by three intranasal allergen administrations. We will describe the protocols as well as the most important read-out parameters including measurement of invasive lung function measurements, serum immunoglobulin levels, isolation of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and preparation of cytospins. Moreover, we describe how to restimulate lung single cell suspensions, perform flow cytometry measurements to identify populations of relevant immune cells, and perform ELISAs and Luminex assays to measure the cytokine concentrations in BALF and lung tissue.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Asma/terapia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Animais , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Misturas Complexas/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina E/biossíntese , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
14.
Respirology ; 22(2): 401-404, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27679416

RESUMO

Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) was significantly increased, while serum levels of the soluble form of the decoy receptor for advanced glycation end-product (sRAGE) were decreased during exacerbation. Together, these data indicate that increased DAMP signalling contributes to activation of neutrophils during COPD exacerbations.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão , Transdução de Sinais , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0163967, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The asthma gene PCDH1 encodes Protocadherin-1, a putative adhesion molecule of unknown function expressed in the airway epithelium. Here, we characterize the localization, differential expression, homotypic adhesion specificity and function of PCDH1 in airway epithelial cells in asthma. METHODS: We performed confocal fluorescence microscopy to determine subcellular localization of PCDH1 in 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) grown at air-liquid interface. Next, to compare PCDH1 expression and localization in asthma and controls we performed qRT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy in PBECs and immunohistochemistry on airway wall biopsies. We examined homotypic adhesion specificity of HEK293T clones overexpressing fluorescently tagged-PCDH1 isoforms. Finally, to evaluate the role for PCDH1 in epithelial barrier formation and repair, we performed siRNA knockdown-studies and measured epithelial resistance. RESULTS: PCDH1 localized to the cell membrane at cell-cell contact sites, baso-lateral to adherens junctions, with increasing expression during epithelial differentiation. No differences in gene expression or localization of PCDH1 isoforms expressing the extracellular domain were observed in either PBECs or airway wall biopsies between asthma patients and controls. Overexpression of PCDH1 mediated homotypic interaction, whereas downregulation of PCDH1 reduced epithelial barrier formation, and impaired repair after wounding. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PCDH1 is localized to the cell membrane of bronchial epithelial cells baso-lateral to the adherens junction. Expression of PCDH1 is not reduced nor delocalized in asthma even though PCDH1 contributes to homotypic adhesion, epithelial barrier formation and repair.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Brônquios/citologia , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Idoso , Asma/genética , Brônquios/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 311(5): L881-L892, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27612964

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated whether CS-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release or DAMP-mediated inflammation contributes to susceptibility for COPD. Samples, including bronchial brushings, were collected from young and old individuals, susceptible and nonsusceptible for the development of COPD, before and after smoking, and used for gene profiling and airway epithelial cell (AEC) culture. AECs were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or specific DAMPs. BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice were intranasally exposed to LL-37 and mitochondrial (mt)DAMPs. Functional gene-set enrichment analysis showed that CS significantly increases the airway epithelial gene expression of DAMPs and DAMP receptors in COPD patients. In cultured AECs, we observed that CSE induces necrosis and DAMP release, with specifically higher galectin-3 release from COPD-derived compared with control-derived cells. Galectin-3, LL-37, and mtDAMPs increased CXCL8 secretion in AECs. LL-37 and mtDAMPs induced neutrophilic airway inflammation, exclusively in mice susceptible for CS-induced airway inflammation. Collectively, we show that in airway epithelium from COPD patients, the CS-induced expression of DAMPs and DAMP receptors in vivo and the release of galectin-3 in vitro is exaggerated. Furthermore, our studies indicate that a predisposition to release DAMPs and subsequent induction of inflammation may contribute to the development of COPD.


Assuntos
Alarminas/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Catelicidinas/sangue , Morte Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética
17.
Eur Respir J ; 47(3): 783-91, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869670

RESUMO

Therapeutic options to treat virus-induced asthma exacerbations are limited and urgently needed. Therefore, we tested Pim1 kinase as potential therapeutic target in human rhinovirus (HRV) infections. We hypothesised that inhibition of Pim1 kinase reduces HRV replication by augmenting the interferon-induced anti-viral response due to increased activity of the janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway.Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from healthy individuals and moderate-to-severe asthmatic volunteers were infected with HRV-16 with or without a specific Pim1 inhibitor; viral replication and induction of anti-viral responses were measured using RT-qPCR. Viral titres were measured by 50% tissue culture infective dose and release of interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and RANTES protein assessed by ELISA. Phosphorylation of STAT-1 was determined using western blotting.Viral replication was reduced in ALI cultures of healthy and asthmatic PBECs treated with the Pim1 inhibitor. Using cultures from healthy donors, enhanced STAT-1 phosphorylation upon inhibition of Pim1 kinase activity resulted in increased mRNA expression of interferon-ß, interleukin-29, IP-10 and RANTES 12 h after infection and increased protein levels of IP-10 and RANTES 24 h after infection.We have identified Pim1 kinase as novel target to reduce viral replication in ALI cultures of PBECs. This may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in virus-induced asthma exacerbations.


Assuntos
Asma/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Rhinovirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL5/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo
18.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 310(4): L377-86, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719146

RESUMO

Recent data indicate a role for airway epithelial necroptosis, a regulated form of necrosis, and the associated release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DAMPs can activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), triggering innate immune responses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced epithelial necroptosis and DAMP release initiate airway inflammation in COPD. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and necrotic cell death (membrane integrity by propidium iodide staining) and DAMP release (i.e., double-stranded DNA, high-mobility group box 1, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial DNA, ATP) were analyzed. Subsequently, BEAS-2B cells were exposed to DAMP-containing supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells, and the release of proinflammatory mediators [C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8), IL-6] was evaluated. Furthermore, mice were exposed to CS in the presence and absence of the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1, and levels of DAMPs and inflammatory cell numbers were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CSE induced a significant increase in the percentage of necrotic cells and DAMP release in BEAS-2B cells. Stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells induced a significant increase in the release of CXCL8 and IL-6, in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent fashion. In mice, exposure of CS increased the levels of DAMPs and numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was statistically reduced upon treatment with necrostatin-1. Together, we showed that CS exposure induces necrosis of bronchial epithelial cells and subsequent DAMP release in vitro, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, CS exposure induces neutrophilic airway inflammation that is sensitive to necroptosis inhibition.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Necrose/induzido quimicamente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/metabolismo
19.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 309(7): L725-35, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209277

RESUMO

Genetic studies have identified Protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) and Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog-3 (SMAD3) as susceptibility genes for asthma. PCDH1 is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and has been found to interact with SMAD3 in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) overexpression assays. Here, we test whether PCDH1 and SMAD3 interact at endogenous protein levels in bronchial epithelial cells and evaluate the consequences thereof for transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced gene transcription. We performed Y2H screens and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments of PCDH1 and SMAD3 in HEK293T and 16HBE14o(-) (16HBE) cell lines. Activity of a SMAD3-driven luciferase reporter gene in response to TGF-ß1 was measured in BEAS-2B cells transfected with PCDH1 and in 16HBE cells transfected with PCDH1-small-interfering RNA (siRNA). TGF-ß1-induced gene expression was quantified in BEAS-2B clones overexpressing PCDH1 and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) transfected with PCDH1-siRNA. We confirm PCDH1 and SMAD3 interactions by Y2H and by co-IP in HEK293T cells overexpressing both proteins, and at endogenous protein levels in 16HBE cells. TGF-ß-induced activation of a SMAD3-driven reporter was reduced by exogenous PCDH1 in BEAS2B cells, whereas it was increased by siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous PCDH1 in 16HBE cells. Overexpression of PCDH1 suppressed expression of TGF-ß target genes in BEAS-2B cells, whereas knockdown of PCDH1 in human PBECs increased TGF-ß-induced gene expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PCDH1 binds to SMAD3 and regulates its activation by TGF-ß signaling in bronchial epithelial cells. We propose that PCDH1 and SMAD3 act in a single pathway in asthma susceptibility that affects sensitivity of the airway epithelium to TGF-ß.


Assuntos
Brônquios/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Brônquios/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Proteína Smad3/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA