Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 194
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Growing evidence suggests that the epigenome may play a role, but most previous studies have been small and adjusted for few covariates. The current study meta-analyzed the association between maternal GDM and cord blood DNA methylation in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven pregnancy cohorts (3,677 mother-newborn pairs [317 with GDM]) contributed results from epigenome-wide association studies, using DNA methylation data acquired by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Associations between GDM and DNA methylation were examined using robust linear regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were performed using METAL. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified by taking the intersection of results obtained using two regional approaches: comb-p and DMRcate. RESULTS: Two DMRs were identified by both comb-p and DMRcate. Both regions were hypomethylated in newborns exposed to GDM in utero compared with control subjects. One DMR (chr 1: 248100345-248100614) was located in the OR2L13 promoter, and the other (chr 10: 135341870-135342620) was located in the gene body of CYP2E1. Individual CpG analyses did not reveal any differentially methylated loci based on a false discovery rate-adjusted P value threshold of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal GDM was associated with lower cord blood methylation levels within two regions, including the promoter of OR2L13, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorder, and the gene body of CYP2E1, which is upregulated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Future studies are needed to understand whether these associations are causal and possible health consequences.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3866, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530803

RESUMO

Particle transfer across the placenta has been suggested but to date, no direct evidence in real-life, human context exists. Here we report the presence of black carbon (BC) particles as part of combustion-derived particulate matter in human placentae using white-light generation under femtosecond pulsed illumination. BC is identified in all screened placentae, with an average (SD) particle count of 0.95 × 104 (0.66 × 104) and 2.09 × 104 (0.9 × 104) particles per mm3 for low and high exposed mothers, respectively. Furthermore, the placental BC load is positively associated with mothers' residential BC exposure during pregnancy (0.63-2.42 µg per m3). Our finding that BC particles accumulate on the fetal side of the placenta suggests that ambient particulates could be transported towards the fetus and represents a potential mechanism explaining the detrimental health effects of pollution from early life onwards.

3.
Environ Res ; 178: 108710, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC) is considered a multifactorial disease, strongly associated with smoking. However, little is known about the role of environmental factors such as ambient air pollution in MC pathophysiology. There is an overlap in components of cigarette smoke and ambient air pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore an independent association between ambient air quality and MC. METHODS: A case-control study was performed. MC cases in South Limburg, the Netherlands, diagnosed between 2000 and 2012, were retrieved from the national pathology registry and matched to non-MC controls from the same area based on age (±2 years) and gender. A stable residential address for ≥3 years was required. Residential land use, proximity to major road, and concentrations of air pollution compounds, were determined using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were corrected for age, gender and smoking status. RESULTS: In total, 345 MC cases (78.6% female) and 583 matched controls (77.2% female) were included. In the univariate analyses, the percentage of urban green within a 500 m buffer and residential proximity to the nearest highway were associated with MC (both p < 0.10). On the multivariable level only a higher age at diagnosis (OR 1.02, 95%-CI 1.01-1.04) and current smoking at index date (OR 4.30; 95%-CI 3.01-6.14) were significantly associated with MC. CONCLUSION: Based on the current findings, ambient air quality does not seem to be an important risk factor for MC, in contrast to the well-known risk factors age and current smoking.

4.
Environ Res ; 177: 108644, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that air pollution is associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Here, we investigate the association between personal exposure to NO2 and perceived stress and mood in a panel of healthy elderly persons. METHODS: In a one-year panel study, we included 20 healthy volunteers (10 male-female couples aged 58-76 years) with air pollution and health parameters measured every two months (120 observations). We measured personal exposure to NO2 in the previous 5 days, perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and positive and negative affect with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). We used linear and Poisson mixed models to evaluate the associations between the health outcomes and NO2 adjusted for age, sex, temperature in the previous 5 days, sunlight in the previous day and physical activity (daily average number of steps on the previous week). Also, the interaction terms between NO2 and physical activity were tested. We report % changes for PSS scores and unit changes (ß) for positive and negative affect, and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), for changes in 10 µg/m3 of NO2. RESULTS: After adjustment, an increase by 10 µg/m3 in NO2 concentrations was associated with a decrease of 1.3 points in the positive affect (95% CI -2.49 to -0.17) and an increase of 0.11 points in the negative affect (95% CI 0.02 to 0.20). The association with positive affect was stronger when physical activity was below median value of 9,362 steps per day (ß = -2.68; CI: 4.87 to -0.49); p-value for interaction was 0.08. No statistically significant associations were observed with perceived stress. CONCLUSION: Short-term exposure to air pollution may produce non-pathological alterations in mood in healthy elderly population.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87001, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length is a molecular marker of biological aging. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether early-life exposure to residential air pollution was associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at 8 y of age. METHODS: In a multicenter European birth cohort study, HELIX (Human Early Life Exposome) ([Formula: see text]), we estimated prenatal and 1-y childhood exposure to nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and proximity to major roads. Average relative LTL was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Effect estimates of the association between LTL and prenatal, 1-y childhood air pollution, and proximity to major roads were calculated using multiple linear mixed models with a random cohort effect and adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: LTL was inversely associated with prenatal and 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposures levels. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in prenatal [Formula: see text] was associated with a [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) change in LTL. Prenatal [Formula: see text] was nonsignificantly associated with LTL ([Formula: see text] per SD increase; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.6). For each SD increment in 1-y childhood [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] exposure, LTL shortened by [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.1), respectively. Each doubling in residential distance to nearest major road during childhood was associated with a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.02, 3.1) lengthening in LTL. CONCLUSION: Lower exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and childhood were associated with longer telomeres in European children at 8 y of age. These results suggest that reductions in traffic-related air pollution may promote molecular longevity, as exemplified by telomere length, from early life onward. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4148.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261612

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient NO2 and benzene, toluene ethyl-benzene and m+p- and o-xylenes (BTEX) is associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, but limited information is available on the effects of personal exposure to these compounds in South African populations. This 6-month follow-up study aims to determine 7-day personal ambient NO2 and BTEX exposure levels via compact passive diffusion samplers in female participants from Cape Town, and investigate whether exposure levels are associated with cardiovascular risk markers. Overall, the measured air pollutant exposure levels were lower compared to international standards. NO2 was positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and inversely associated with the central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) and mean baseline brachial artery diameter. o-xylene was associated with DBP and benzene was strongly associated with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT). Our findings showed that personal air pollution exposure, even at relatively low levels, was associated with several markers of cardiovascular risk in women residing in the Cape Town region.

7.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352838

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous studies that addressed whether left ventricular hypertrophy is more closely associated with central than peripheral blood pressure (BP) have been inconsistent. Radial artery wave generated by applanation tonometry and calibrated with brachial BP in 162 adult Nigerians were analysed by using generalized transfer function to derive central BP. Materials and methods: We compared the associations of ECG voltages and left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) as continuous and binary variables respectively with central and brachial BP indices. Results: In a multivariable adjusted analysis, 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in brachial systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressures increased the Sokolow-Lyon QRS voltage by 0.34 (CI, 0.21-0.48; p < 0.0001), 0.21 (CI, 0.07-0.36; p < 0.05); 0.22 (CI, 0.9-0.34; p < 0.001) and 0.29 (CI, 0.14-0.43) similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding Sokolow-Lyon QRS increase of 0.26 (0.12-0.40, p < 0.001); 0.14 (0.00-0.28, p < 0.05); 0.24 (0.11-0.39; p < 0.001) and 0.19 (0.05-0.34, p < 0.05) respectively observed for 1 SD increment in central pressures. The odds ratio (OR) relating ECG-LVH to 1 SD increase in brachial systolic, pulse, and mean arterial pressures were 2.62 (CI, 1.49-4.65, p < 0.001); 1.88 (CI, 1.19-2.95, p < 0.01) and 2.16 (CI, 1.22-3.82, p < 0.01) was similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding OR of 2.41 (1.33-4.36, p < 0.01); 2.04 (1.23-3.37, p < 0.01); 2.00 (1.11-3.63, p < 0.001) observed for I SD increment in central pressures. Conclusion: Central and peripheral BP are similarly associated with Sokolow-Lyon ECG voltage and hypertrophy.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

9.
Environ Int ; 130: 104853, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226559

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP) in early life may lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in later life. Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased BP in adults and children, but the contribution of prenatal air pollution exposure has rarely been assessed. In addition, we are not aware of any study on neonatal BP and maternal residential traffic and land use indicators during pregnancy. We investigated the association between newborn BP and prenatal air pollution, traffic and land use indicators, using data from 427 term (gestational age > 36 weeks) births from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. Newborn BP was measured using an automated device within 4 days after birth. Daily maternal residential air pollutants during pregnancy, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were modelled using a high-resolution spatial-temporal model. The association between newborn BP and air pollution during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy was assessed using distributed lag models. Each 5 µg/m3 increment in prenatal PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 2.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.5 to 4.2) higher systolic and a 1.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.2 to 3.5) higher diastolic BP at birth. Overall estimates for PM10 were similar but those for NO2 and BC did not reach significance. Associations between newborn BP and exposures during the last 4 to 5 weeks of pregnancy were significant for all pollutants. An IQR (20.3%) increment in percentage residential greenness in a 5 km radius was associated with a 1.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.5 to 0.1; p = 0.07) lower systolic and a 1.2 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.4 to -0.0; p = 0.05) lower diastolic BP. An IQR (4.1%) increment in percentage industrial area in a 5 km radius was associated with a 1.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.1 to 1.9; p = 0.03) higher diastolic BP. Residential traffic indicators did not significantly associate with newborn BP. Prenatal air pollution exposure, greenness, and industrial area at maternal residence may affect offspring BP from birth onwards.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(10): 5966-5976, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041867

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and telomere length are putative aging biomarkers and are sensitive to environmental stressors, including pollutants. Our objective was to identify, from a set of environmental exposures, which exposure is associated with leukocyte mtDNA content and telomere length in adults. This study includes 175 adults from 50 to 65 years old from the cross-sectional Flemish Environment and Health study, of whom leukocyte telomere length and mtDNA content were determined using qPCR. The levels of exposure of seven metals, 11 organohalogens, and four perfluorinated compounds (PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, PFOS) were measured. We performed sparse partial least-squares regression analyses followed by ordinary least-squares regression to assess the multipollutant associations. While accounting for possible confounders and coexposures, we identified that urinary cadmium (6.52%, 95% confidence interval, 1.06, 12.28), serum hexachlorobenzene (2.89%, 018, 5.68), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (11.38%, 5.97, 17.08) exposure were positively associated ( p < 0.05) with mtDNA content, while urinary copper (-9.88%, -14.82, -4.66) and serum perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (-4.75%, -8.79, -0.54) exposure were inversely associated with mtDNA content. Urinary antimony (2.69%, 0.45, 4.99) and mercury (1.91%, 0.42, 3.43) exposure were positively associated with leukocyte telomere length, while urinary copper (-3.52%, -6.60, -0.34) and serum perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (-3.64%, -6.60, -0.60) showed an inverse association. Our findings support the hypothesis that environmental pollutants interact with molecular hallmarks of aging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , DNA Mitocondrial , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Blood Press ; 28(5): 279-290, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075995

RESUMO

Background: Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) predicts cardiovascular complications, but the association of central arterial properties with blood lead level (BL) is poorly documented. We therefore assessed their association with BL in 150 young men prior to occupational lead exposure, using baseline data of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods: Study nurses administered validated questionnaires and performed clinical measurements. Venous blood samples were obtained after 8-12 h of fasting. The radial, carotid and femoral pulse waves were tonometrically recorded. We accounted for ethnicity, age, anthropometric characteristics, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, smoking and drinking, and total and high-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol, as appropriate. Results: Mean values were 4.14 µg/dL for BL, 27 years for age, 108/79/28 mm Hg for central systolic/diastolic/pulse pressure, 100/10% for the augmentation ratio/index, 1.63 for pressure amplification, 5.94 m/s for aPWV, 27/11 mm Hg for the forward/backward pulse pressure height, and 43% for the reflection index. Per 10-fold BL increase, central diastolic pressure and the augmentation ratio were respectively 5.37 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-9.75) and 1.57 (CI, 0.20-2.94) greater, whereas central pulse pressure and the forward pulse pressure height were 3.74 mm Hg (CI, 0.60-6.88) and 3.37 mm Hg (CI, 0.22-6.53) smaller (p ≤ .036 for all). The other hemodynamic measurements were unrelated to BL. The reflected pulse peak time was inversely correlated with diastolic pressure (r = -0.20; p ≤ .017). Conclusion: At the exposure levels observed in our current study, aPWV, the gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, was not associated with BL. Increased peripheral arterial resistance, as reflected by higher diastolic pressure, might bring reflection points closer to the heart, thereby moving the backward wave into systole and increasing the augmentation ratio in relation to BL.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e011960, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025895

RESUMO

Background Stiffening and calcification of the large arteries are forerunners of cardiovascular complications. MGP (Matrix Gla protein), which requires vitamin K-dependent activation, is a potent locally acting inhibitor of arterial calcification. We hypothesized that the central hemodynamic properties might be associated with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-uc MGP ). Methods and Results In 835 randomly recruited Flemish individuals (mean age, 49.7 years; 45.6% women), we measured plasma dp-uc MGP , using an ELISA -based assay. We derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) from applanation tonometry and calculated forward and backward pulse waves using an automated, pressure-based wave separation analysis algorithm. Aortic PWV (n=657), central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave mean± SD values were 7.34±1.64 m/s, 45.2±15.3 mm Hg, 33.2±10.2 mm Hg, and 21.8±8.6 mm Hg, respectively. The geometric mean plasma concentration of dp-uc MGP was 4.09 µg/L. All hemodynamic indexes increased across tertiles of dp-uc MGP distribution. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, a doubling of dp-uc MGP was associated with higher PWV (0.15 m/s; 95% CI, 0.01-0.28 m/s), central pulse pressure (1.70 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.49-2.91 mm Hg), forward pulse wave (0.93 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.01-1.84 mm Hg), and backward pulse wave (0.71 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.11-1.30 mm Hg). Categorization of aortic PWV by tertiles of its distribution highlighted a decreasing trend of PWV at low dp-uc MGP (<3.35 µg/L) and an increasing trend at high dp-uc MGP (≥5.31 µg/L). Conclusions In people representative for the general population, higher inactive dp-uc MGP was associated with greater PWV , central pulse pressure, forward pulse wave, and backward pulse wave. These observations highlight new avenues for preserving vascular integrity and preventing cardiovascular complications (eg, by improving a person's vitamin K status).

14.
Environ Res ; 173: 174-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People from low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately affected by the global burden of adverse health effects caused by ambient air pollution (AAP). However, data from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are still scarce. We systematically reviewed the literature to describe the existing knowledge on AAP and health outcomes in SSA. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline-OVID, EMBASE and Scopus databases to identify studies of AAP and health outcomes published up to November 15, 2017. We used a systematic review approach to critically analyze and summarize levels of outdoor air pollutants, and data on health effects associated with AAP. We excluded occupational and indoor exposure studies. RESULTS: We identified 60 articles, with 37 only describing levels of AAP and 23 assessing the association between air pollution and health outcomes. Most studies (75%) addressing the relation between AAP and disease were cross-sectional. In general, exposure data were only obtained for selected cities in the framework of temporary international collaborative research initiatives without structural long-term continuation. Measurements of AAP revealed 10-20 fold higher levels than WHO standards. Of the 23 studies reporting health effects, 14 originated from South Africa, and most countries within SSA contributed no data at all. No studies, except from South Africa, were based on reliable morbidity or mortality statistics at regional or country level. The majority of studies investigated self-reported respiratory symptoms. Children and the elderly were found to be more susceptible to AAP. CONCLUSION: AAP and its negative health effects have been understudied in SSA compared with other continents. The limited direct measurements of air pollutants indicate that AAP in SAA cities is high compared with international standards. Efforts are needed to monitor AAP in African cities, to identify its main sources, and to reduce adverse health effects by enforcing legislation.

15.
Microvasc Res ; 124: 25-29, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise-based rehabilitation improves general cardiovascular fitness. The impact on the microvascular system has been studied in less detail. We measured changes in retinal blood vessel diameters, as a proxy for microvascular reactivity, in cardiac patients and we assessed the impact of a rehabilitation program on retinal vessel diameters. DESIGN: Cardiac patients (n = 78) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 32) performed an initial maximal endurance cycling test. Patients then participated in a 12-week rehabilitation program with additional endurance tests being performed six and twelve weeks after the initial test. METHODS: Fundus images were collected immediately before and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after the endurance test. Widths of retinal blood vessels, represented as Central Retinal Arteriolar/Venular Equivalent (CRAE/CRVE) were calculated from the images. RESULTS: At the start of the rehabilitation program, CRAE and CRVE values of the patients changed immediately after the endurance test with respectively -1.90 µm (95% CI: -3.58; -0.22) and -5.32 µm (95% CI: -7.33; -3.30) compared to baseline values. In contrast, CRAE and CRVE values of healthy controls were respectively increased [3.52 µm (95% CI: 2.34; 4.69)] and decreased [-3.17 µm (95% CI: -5.27; -1.07)]. After six and twelve weeks, CRAE responses of patients immediately after endurance test increased respectively with 5.98 µm (95% CI: 4.25; 7.71) and 4.44 µm (95% CI: 3.18; 5.71). These responses were similar to the microvascular reactions observed in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Arteriolar and venular retinal microvascular responses in cardiac patients were different from the ones of healthy controls. Retinal microvascular response of cardiac patients improved during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Cardiopatias/reabilitação , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatação , Vênulas/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Environ Int ; 125: 75-81, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary lead (Pb) is generally considered to have limited use in biomonitoring environmental exposure to lead. Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM BC) is an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived aerosol particles. In urban environments, atmospheric Pb and black carbon may have common sources. We aimed to study the temporal change of urinary Pb (U-Pb) when exposure to outdoor air pollution changes, and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC. METHODS: A panel of 50 young healthy adults [mean (SD) 26.7 (5.2) years], including 17 long-term (>1 year) residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE), 15 and 18 newcomers (arrived <3 weeks) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC), respectively, underwent 8 repeated measurements at 6 weeks intervals. In urine spot samples obtained at 5 time points (T1, T2, T4, T6, T8), 24 trace elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. At each time point, AM BC was quantified as the median surface of black inclusions (in µm2) by means of image analysis of 25 macrophages obtained by induced sputum. Changes in urinary metal concentrations (with and without creatinine correction) and the relationship between U-Pb and AM BC were estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Only U-Pb differed between groups and exhibited significant time trends. Participants from the LMIC group had significantly higher initial U-Pb (1.18 µg/g creat) than the HIC group (0.44 µg/g creat) and BE group (0.45 µg/g creat). In the LMIC group, U-Pb decreased significantly with time by 0.061 µg/g creatinine per 30 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.034, 0.088]. U-Pb remained unchanged in the other two groups. An increase in AM BC of 1 µm2 was associated with an increase in U-Pb of 0.369 µg/g creat (95% CI: 0.145, 0.593). CONCLUSION: This panel study demonstrates that U-Pb may be a valid alternative to blood Pb for biomonitoring changes in exposure to lead, at least at group level. In addition, we identified a positive association between U-Pb and AM BC, a biomarker of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggesting the existence of common sources of Pb and black carbon in urban environments.

17.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 45(3): 298-307, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631878

RESUMO

Objectives Higher than contemporary exposure levels and advanced age of study participants have limited the interpretation of previous studies relating neurocognitive function to lead exposure. We reassessed this association in young American men prior to chronic occupational exposure at lead recycling plants, using baseline measurements of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods We administered the Stroop test (ST) and the digit-symbol test (DST) to 339 men (mean age, 28.6 years; participation rate 82.7%). Whole blood lead (BL) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and related ST and DST test results using multivariable-adjusted regression. Results Average values were 4.26 µg/dL for BL, 1624 ms and 1474 ms for mean reaction time in incongruent and congruent ST trials, and 109 sec for mean total latency in DST. The number of participants with fully correct answers amounted to 281 (82.9%) and 334 (98.5%) in incongruent and congruent ST trials, respectively, and to 198 (58.4%) in the DST. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, there was no association between cognitive performance and BL except for a weak but opposite association in DST; for a 10-fold BL increment, mean total latency was 5.4% (95% confidence interval, -0.4‒11.5%; P=0.066) higher, whereas the error score was 42% (-10‒69%; P=0.096) lower. To exclude an effect of the cumulative lead dose, sensitivity analyses restricted to workers <40, 35 and 30 years were confirmatory. Conclusions At the exposure levels in our current study, we failed to demonstrate a consistent inverse association of BL with neurocognitive performance in young American men.

18.
Environ Res ; 168: 507-513, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477822

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Particulate air pollution is probably causally related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma homocysteine is an established cardiovascular disease risk factor. Recent studies show that exposure to particulate air pollution is associated with plasma homocysteine levels in adults but no studies on the association between prenatal air pollution and neonatal homocysteine levels exist. METHODS: In 609 newborns of the ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON early AGEing) birth cohort, we investigated the association between prenatal particulate matter exposure with a diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and cord plasma homocysteine levels, and in a subset (n = 490) we studied the interaction with 11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes (CAT, COMT, GSTP1, SOD2, NQO1 and HFE), through multiple linear regression. PM2.5 levels were obtained using a high resolution spatial temporal interpolation method. Homocysteine levels were measured by the homocysteine enzymatic assay on a Roche/Hitachi cobas c system. SNPs were assessed on the Biotrove OpenArray SNP genotyping platform. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, cord plasma homocysteine levels were 8.1% higher (95% CI: 1.9 to 14.3%; p = 0.01) for each 5 µg/m³ increment in average PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy. With regard to pregnancy trimesters, there was only an association in the 2nd trimester: 3.6% (95% CI: 0.9% to 6.4%; p = 0.01). The positive association between PM2.5 in and homocysteine was (borderline) statistically significantly modified by genetic variants in MnSOD (p interaction = 0.02), GSTP1 (p interaction = 0.07) and the sum score of the 3 studied SNPs in the CAT gene (p interaction=0.09), suggesting oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism of action. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to particulate air pollution in utero is associated with higher cord blood homocysteine levels, possibly through generating oxidative stress. Increased air pollution-induced homocysteine levels in early life might predispose for cardiovascular and other diseases later in life.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Homocisteína/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Material Particulado , Gravidez
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(1): 30-44, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic experiences are recognized determinants of health, and recent work has shown that social disadvantages in early life may induce sustained biological changes at molecular level that are detectable later in life. However, the dynamics and persistence of biological embedding of socioeconomic position (SEP) remains vastly unexplored. METHODS: Using the data from the ALSPAC birth cohort, we performed epigenome-wide association studies of DNA methylation changes at three life stages (birth, n = 914; childhood at mean age 7.5 years, n = 973; and adolescence at mean age 15.5 years, n = 974), measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Beadchip, in relation to pregnancy SEP indicators (maternal and paternal education and occupation). RESULTS: Across the four early life SEP metrics investigated, only maternal education was associated with methylation levels at birth, and four CpGs mapped to SULF1, GLB1L2 and RPUSD1 genes were identified [false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected P-value <0.05]. No epigenetic signature was found associated with maternal education in child samples, but methylation levels at 20 CpG loci were found significantly associated with maternal education in adolescence. Although no overlap was found between the differentially methylated CpG sites at different ages, we identified two CpG sites at birth and during adolescence which are 219 bp apart in the SULF1 gene that encodes an heparan sulphatase involved in modulation of signalling pathways. Using data from an independent birth cohort, the ENVIRONAGE cohort, we were not able to replicate these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that parental SEP, and particularly maternal education, may influence the offspring's methylome at birth and adolescence.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 636-647, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384069

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) has been suggested to be a surrogate for cellular ageing, and a record of cumulative inflammation and oxidative stress over life. An emerging body of evidence has associated exposure to air pollution to changes in TL. To date there is no available systematic review of literature on this association. We aimed to systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of published studies on the relationship between air pollution and TL in adults. Electronic databases were systematically searched for available English language studies on the association between air pollution and TL published up to 1 July 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted following MOOSE guidelines. The heterogeneity in the reported associations was assessed using Cochran's Q test and quantified as I2 index. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's regression. Our search identified 19 eligible studies including 11 retrospective and eight prospective studies of which, four had excellent quality, ten had good quality and five had fair quality. Meta-analysis result of two studies on long-term exposure to PM2.5 showed an inverse association between these exposures and TL (for 5 µg/m3 PM2.5-0.03 95% CI; -0.05, -0.01). Meta-analysis of short-term exposure to PM2.5 with three studies and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) with two studies revealed a direct association between these exposures and TL (0.03 95% CI; 0.02, 0.04 and 0.10 95% CI; 0.06, 0.15 respectively). No statistically significant relationship between exposure to PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and TL were observed. We observed suggestive evidence for associations between air pollution and TL with potentially different direction of associations for short- and long-term exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA