Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 246
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4031, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597559

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is a marker of ageing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an early marker of inflammation caused by oxidative stress. We determined TL and mtDNA content among active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients to assess if these cellular biomarkers differed between artisanal miners and non-miners, and to assess if they were predictive of treatment outcome. We conducted a prospective cohort study from August 2018 to May 2019 involving newly diagnosed PTB patients at three outpatient TB clinics in a rural Democratic Republic of Congo. We measured relative TL and mtDNA content in peripheral blood leukocytes (at inclusion) via qPCR and assessed their association with PTB treatment outcome. We included 129 patients (85 miners and 44 non-miners) with PTB (median age 40 years; range 5-71 years, 22% HIV-coinfected). For each increase in year and HIV-coinfection, TL shortened by - 0.85% (- 0.19 to - 0.52) (p ≤ 0.0001) and - 14% (- 28.22 to - 1.79) (p = 0.02) respectively. Independent of these covariates, patients with longer TL were more likely to have successful TB treatment [adjusted hazard ratio; 95% CI 1.27 for a doubling of leucocyte telomere length at baseline; 1.05-1.44] than patients with a shorter TL. Blood mtDNA content was not predictive for PTB outcome. For a given chronological age, PTB patients with longer telomeres at time of diagnosis were more likely to have successful PTB treatment outcome.

2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 47, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The micronutrient iodine is essential for a healthy intrauterine environment and is required for optimal fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Evidence linking urinary iodine concentrations, which mainly reflects short-term iodine intake, to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is inconclusive. Although the placental concentrations would better reflect the long-term gestational iodine status, no studies to date have investigated the association between the placental iodine load and the risk at GDM. Moreover, evidence is lacking whether placental iodine could play a role in biomarkers of insulin resistance and ß-cell activity. METHODS: We assessed the incidence of GDM between weeks 24 and 28 of gestation for 471 mother-neonate pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. In placentas, we determined the iodine concentrations. In maternal and cord blood, we measured the insulin concentrations, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) for insulin resistance (IR) index, and ß-cell activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of GDM, and the population attributable factor (PAF) was calculated. Generalized linear models estimated the changes in insulin, HOMA-IR, and ß-cell activity for a 5 µg/kg increase in placental iodine. RESULTS: Higher placental iodine concentrations decreased the risk at GDM (OR = 0.82; 95%CI 0.72 to 0.93; p = 0.003). According to the PAF, 54.2% (95%CI 11.4 to 82.3%; p = 0.0006) of the GDM cases could be prevented if the mothers of the lowest tertile of placental iodine would have placental iodine levels as those belonging to the highest tertile. In cord blood, the plasma insulin concentration was inversely associated with the placental iodine load (ß = - 4.8%; 95%CI - 8.9 to - 0.6%; p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of placental iodine are linked with a lower incidence of GDM. Moreover, a lower placental iodine load is associated with an altered plasma insulin concentration, HOMA-IR index, and ß-cell activity. These findings postulate that a mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency could be linked with subclinical and early-onset alterations in the normal insulin homeostasis in healthy pregnant women. Nevertheless, the functional link between gestational iodine status and GDM warrants further research.

3.
Environ Int ; 148: 106365, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that residing close to green space reduce mortality rates. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to residential green space and non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality. METHODS: We linked the Belgian 2001 census to population and mortality register follow-up data (2001-2011) among adults aged 30 years and older residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 2,185,170 and mean follow-up time 9.4 years). Residential addresses were available at baseline. Exposure to green space was defined as 1) surrounding greenness (2006) [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; 2) surrounding green space (2006) [Urban Atlas (UA) and CORINE Land Cover (CLC)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; and 3) perceived neighborhood green space (2001). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale were used to probe into cause-specific mortality (non-accidental, respiratory, COPD, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular). Models were adjusted for several sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, country of birth, education level, employment status, and area mean income). We further adjusted our main models for annual mean (2010) values of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and BC, one at a time), and we additionally explored potential mediation with the aforementioned pollutants. RESULTS: Higher degrees of residential green space were associated with lower rates of non-accidental and respiratory mortality. In fully adjusted models, hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.24) and UA 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.31) were 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99) for non-accidental mortality, and 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.98) and 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) for respiratory mortality. For perceived neighborhood green space, HRs were 0.93 (95%CI 0.92-0.94) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.91-0.98) for non-accidental and respiratory mortality, respectively. The observed lower mortality risks associated with residential exposure to green space were largely independent from exposure to ambient air pollutants. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence for lower mortality risk in associations with long-term residential exposure to green space in most but not all studied causes of death in a large representative cohort for the five largest urban areas in Belgium. These findings support the importance of the availability of residential green space in urban areas.

4.
Environ Int ; 147: 106332, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory conditions such as air pollution might induce biological ageing. However, the available evidence on such an impact in children is still very scarce. We studied in primary schoolchildren the association of ambient residential air pollution exposure with telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNAc), two important targets of the core axis of ageing. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, buccal TL and mtDNAc were repeatedly assessed using qPCR in 197 Belgian primary schoolchildren (mean age 10.3 years) as part of the COGNAC study. At the child's residence, recent (week), sub-chronic (month) and chronic (year) exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) were estimated using a high resolution spatiotemporal model. A mixed-effects model with school and subject as random effect was used while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. RESULTS: An interquartile range (IQR) increment (1.9 µg/m3) in chronic PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 8.9% (95% CI: -15.4 to -1.9%) shorter TL. In contrast to PM2.5, chronic exposure to BC and NO2 was not associated with TL but recent exposure to BC and NO2 showed significant inverse associations with TL: an IQR increment in recent exposure to BC (0.9 µg/m3) and NO2 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 6.2% (95% CI: -10.6 to -1.6%) and 6.4% (95% CI: -11.8 to -0.7%) shorter TL, respectively. Finally, an IQR increment in chronic PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 12.7% (95% CI: -21.7 to -2.6%) lower mtDNAc. However, no significant associations were seen for NO2 and BC or for other exposure windows. CONCLUSION: Chronic exposure to PM2.5 below the EU threshold was associated with child's shorter buccal TL and lower mtDNAc, while traffic-related pollutants (BC and NO2) showed recent effects on telomere biology. Our data add to the literature on air pollution-induced effects of TL and mtDNAc, two measures part of the core axis of cellular ageing, from early life onwards.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103164, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) is considered a biological marker of aging and may indicate age-related disease susceptibility. Adults and children show a fixed ranking and tracking of TL over time. However, the contribution of an individual's initial birth TL to their later life TL is unknown. We evaluated change and tracking of TL from birth to child- and adulthood. METHODS: Telomere length at birth was measured using qPCR in two independent prospective birth cohorts. After a median follow-up period of 4 years in ENVIRONAGE (n = 273) we assessed leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and after 23 years in EFPTS (n = 164) buccal TL was assessed. Correlations and multivariable regression models were applied to study telomere tracking and determinants of TL change from birth onwards. FINDINGS: In children, LTL at the age of 4 correlates with TL at the start of life both in cord blood (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001;) and placenta (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001) and was -11.2% and -33.1% shorter, respectively. In adulthood, buccal TL at the age of 23 correlates with placental TL (r = 0.46, P < 0.0001) and was -35.9% shorter. TL attrition was higher in individuals with longer birth TL. However, based on TL ranking, individuals do not tend to change dramatically from TL rank after 4 or 23 years of follow-up. Finally, longer maternal TL associates with lower telomere attrition in the next generation. INTERPRETATION: The high prediction of newborn TL for later life TL, and stable TL ranking from birth onwards underscores the importance of understanding the initial setting of newborn TL and its significance for later life. FUNDING: European Research Council (ERC-StG310898) and Flemish Scientific Fund (12X9620N).

7.
Environ Int ; 147: 106334, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate intake of iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones and contributes in pregnant women to a healthy brain development and growth in their offspring. To date, some evidence exists that fine particulate air pollution is linked with the fetal thyroid hormone homeostasis. However, possible effects of air pollutants on the placental iodine storage have not been investigated so far. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), NO2, and black carbon and the placental iodine load. METHODS: The current study is part of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort and included 470 mother-newborn pairs. Iodine concentrations were measured in placental tissue. A high-resolution air pollution model was used to estimate the daily exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and black carbon over the entire pregnancy based on the maternal residential addresses. Distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNMs) were used to estimate gestational week-specific associations between placental iodine concentrations and the air pollutants to understand the impact of specific exposure windows. RESULTS: PM2.5 showed a positive association with placental iodine concentration between the 16th and 22nd week of gestation. In contrast, a significant inverse association between PM2.5 and placental iodine concentration was observed in gestational weeks 29-35. The effect estimate, for a 5 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 concentration, was the strongest at week 32 (ß -0.11 µg/kg; 95%CI: -0.18 to -0.03). No associations were observed between placental iodine concentrations and NO2 or black carbon. Assuming causality, we estimated that placental iodine mediated 26% (-0.33 pmol/L; 95%CI: -0.70 to 0.04 pmol/L) of the estimated effect of a 5 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 exposure on cord blood free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. CONCLUSION: In utero exposure to particulate matter during the third trimester of pregnancy is linked with a lower placental iodine load. Furthermore, the effect of air pollution on cord blood FT4 levels was partially mediated by the placental iodine load.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274751

RESUMO

Objectives Lead exposure causes neurocognitive dysfunction in children, but its association with neurocognition in adults at current occupational exposure levels is uncertain mainly due to the lack of longitudinal studies. In the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904), we assessed the two-year responses of neurocognitive function among workers without previous known occupational exposure newly hired at lead recycling plants. Methods Workers completed the digit-symbol test (DST) and Stroop test (ST) at baseline and annual follow-up visits. Blood lead (BL) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (detection limit 0.5 µg/dL). Statistical methods included multivariable-adjusted mixed models with participants modelled as random effect. Results DST was administered to 260 participants (11.9% women; 46.9%/45.0% whites/Hispanics; mean age 29.4 years) and ST to 168 participants. Geometric means were 3.97 and 4.13 µg/dL for baseline BL, and 3.30 and 3.44 for the last-follow-up-to-baseline BL ratio in DST and ST cohorts, respectively. In partially adjusted models, a doubling of the BL ratio was associated with a 0.66% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-1.30; P=0.040] increase in latency time (DST) and a 0.35% (95% CI ­1.63-1.63; P=0.59) decrease in the inference effect (ST). In fully adjusted models, none of the associations of the changes in the DST and ST test results with the blood lead changes reached statistical significance (P≥0.12). Conclusions An over 3-fold increase in blood lead over two years of occupational exposure was not associated with a relevant decline in cognitive performance.

9.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 129, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) and H19 gene cluster plays an important role during pregnancy as it promotes both foetal and placental growth. We investigated the association between cord blood DNA methylation status of the IGF2/H19 gene cluster and maternal fine particulate matter exposure during fetal life. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the association between prenatal PM2.5 exposure and newborn DNA methylation of the IGF2/H19. METHODS: Cord blood DNA methylation status of IGF2/H19 cluster was measured in 189 mother-newborn pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort (Flanders, Belgium). We assessed the sex-specific association between residential PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and the methylation level of CpG loci mapping to the IGF2/H19 cluster, and identified prenatal vulnerability by investigating susceptible time windows of exposure. We also addressed the biological functionality of DNA methylation level in the gene cluster. RESULTS: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure was found to have genetic region-specific significant association with IGF2 and H19 during specific gestational weeks. The association was found to be sex-specific in both gene regions. Functionality of the DNA methylation was annotated by the association to fetal growth and cellular pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study provided evidence that prenatal PM2.5 exposure is associated with DNA methylation in newborns' IGF2/H19. The consequences within the context of fetal development of future phenotyping should be addressed.

10.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 426, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for the production of thyroid hormones, and plays a key role during the gestational period for optimal foetal growth and (neuro-)development. To this day, iodine deficiency remains a global burden. Previous studies indicate that the placenta can store iodine in a concentration-dependent manner and serve as a long-term storage supply, but studies on the determinants of long-term placental iodine load are limited. METHODS: The placental iodine concentrations were determined for 462 mother-neonate pairs from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort (Limburg, Belgium). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were obtained from questionnaires and medical files. Determinants of placental iodine concentration were identified using stepwise multiple regression procedures (p value < 0.15). The biological significance of our findings was investigated by measuring the plasma thyroid hormones in maternal and cord blood of 378 participants. RESULTS: A higher pre-pregnancy BMI, higher gestational weight gain, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy were linked with lower placental iodine storage. Multi-vitamin supplementation during pregnancy and longer gestation were associated with higher levels of placental iodine. Children born during the winter period had on average higher placental iodine levels. Besides, we found a significant positive time trend for placental iodine load over the study period 2013 to 2017. Lastly, we observed positive associations of both the maternal and cord plasma thyroxine concentrations with placental iodine load, emphasizing their biological link. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified some determinants likely presenting a risk of reduced iodine storage during the gestational period of life. Future studies should elucidate the effects of lower placental iodine load on neonatal health, and health later in life.

11.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 17(1): 56, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138843

RESUMO

Fetal development is a crucial window of susceptibility in which exposure may lead to detrimental health outcomes at birth and later in life. The placenta serves as a gatekeeper between mother and fetus. Knowledge regarding the barrier capacity of the placenta for nanoparticles is limited, mostly due to technical obstacles and ethical issues. We systematically summarize and discuss the current evidence and define knowledge gaps concerning the maternal-fetal transport and fetoplacental accumulation of (ultra)fine particles and nanoparticles. We included 73 studies on placental translocation of particles, of which 21 in vitro/ex vivo studies, 50 animal studies, and 2 human studies on transplacental particle transfer. This systematic review shows that (i) (ultra)fine particles and engineered nanoparticles can bypass the placenta and reach fetal units as observed for all the applied models irrespective of the species origin (i.e., rodent, rabbit, or human) or the complexity (i.e., in vitro, ex vivo, or in vivo), (ii) particle size, particle material, dose, particle dissolution, gestational stage of the model, and surface composition influence maternal-fetal translocation, and (iii) no simple, standardized method for nanoparticle detection and/or quantification in biological matrices is available to date. Existing evidence, research gaps, and perspectives of maternal-fetal particle transfer are highlighted.

12.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093954

RESUMO

Background: Air pollution, green space and smoking are known to affect human health. However, less is known about their underlying biological mechanisms. One of these mechanisms could be biological aging. In this study, we explore the mediation of biomarkers of exposure and biological aging to explain the associations between environmental exposures, health behavior and mental health. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study (n = 1168) is a subsample of the Belgian 2018 Health Interview Survey (BHIS). Mental health indicators including psychological and severe psychological distress, life satisfaction, vitality, eating disorders, suicidal ideation, subjective health and depressive and anxiety disorders, demographics and health behavior such as smoking are derived from the BHIS. Urine and blood samples are collected to measure respectively the biomarkers of exposure (urinary black carbon (BC) and (hydroxy)cotinine) and the biomarkers of biological aging (mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNAc) and telomere length (TL)). Recent and chronic exposure (µg/m3) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and BC at the participants' residence are modelled using a high resolution spatial temporal interpolation model. Residential green space is defined in buffers of different size (50 m - 5000 m) using land cover data in ArcGIS 10 software. For the statistical analysis multivariate linear and logistic regressions as well as mediation analyses are used taking into account a priori selected covariates and confounders. Results: As this study combined data of BHIS and laboratory analyses, not all data is available for all participants. Therefore, data analyses will be conducted on different subsets. Data on air pollution and green space exposure is available for all BHIS participants. Questions on smoking and mental health were answered by respectively 7829 and 7213 BHIS participants. For biomarker assessment, (hydroxy) cotinine, urinary BC and the biomarkers of biological aging are measured for respectively 1130, 1120 and 985 participants. Conclusion: By use of personal markers of air pollution and smoking, as well as biological aging, we will gain knowledge about the association between environmental exposures, health behavior, and the mental health status. The results of the study can provide insights on the health of the Belgian population, making it a nationwide interesting study.

13.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(11): 1984-1995, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Replicative senescence is associated with telomere shortening. In native kidneys, obtained prior to transplantation, we recently described and validated a significant association between shorter intrarenal telomere length and renal arteriosclerosis. After renal transplantation, animal experiments suggested that ischaemia-reperfusion injury, acute rejection episodes and cytomegalovirus disease associate with accelerated renal allograft senescence. The association between post-transplant events and replicative senescence has not yet been evaluated in a human setting. METHODS: In a cohort of 134 kidney allograft recipients, we performed protocol-specified renal allograft biopsies at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years after transplantation (n = 579 biopsies). We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure intrarenal relative average telomere length (T/S ratio). The association between donor and recipient demographic factors, post-transplant clinical/histological events, renal allograft histological evolution by 5 years post-transplant and intrarenal telomere length at 5 years after transplantation was studied using multiple regression models. RESULTS: At 5 years after transplantation, shorter intrarenal telomere length was associated with male donor gender, older donor age, donor history of hypertension and donor cardiovascular risk, which confirms the associations observed in native kidneys. Recipient characteristics and post-transplant events like delayed graft function, acute rejection episodes, presence of donor-specific antibodies, cytomegalovirus disease and immunosuppressive regimen did not associate with alterations of intrarenal telomere length at 5 years. Independent of donor age and donor cardiovascular risk, intrarenal arteriosclerosis in protocol biopsies obtained at 5 years after transplantation and progressive arteriosclerosis over time after transplantation associated with shorter telomere length, while this was not the case for other histological lesions. Moreover, telomere attrition augments the association between older donor age and the presence of severe arteriosclerosis. In the group with the oldest donor age and shortest telomere length, there was significantly more severe arteriosclerosis (43%) in protocol biopsies at 5 years after transplantation, compared with other combinations (13-28%) (P = 0.001). Intrarenal arteriosclerosis at 5 years after transplantation did not associate with post-transplant clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that intrarenal telomere length at 5 years after transplantation, as a marker for replicative senescence, associates with renal arteriosclerosis and reflects kidney donor characteristics, but not post-transplant events.

14.
Environ Int ; 145: 106149, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prenatal chemical exposure has frequently been associated with reduced fetal growth although results have been inconsistent. Most studies associate single pollutant exposure to this health outcome, even though this does not reflect real life situations as humans are exposed to many pollutants during their life time. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to a mixture of persistent environmental chemicals and birth weight using multipollutant models. METHODS: We combined exposure biomarker data measured in cord blood samples of 1579 women from four Flemish birth cohorts collected over a 10 years' time period. The common set of available and detectable exposure measures in these cohorts are three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners (138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and the metals cadmium and lead. Multiple linear regression (MLR), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), penalized regression using minimax concave penalty (MCP) and Bayesian Adaptive Sampling (BAS) were applied to assess the influence of multiple pollutants in a single analysis on birth weight, adjusted for a priori selected covariates. RESULTS: In the pooled dataset, a median (P25-P75) birth weight and gestational age of 3420 (3140-3700) grams and 39 (39-40) weeks was observed respectively. The median contaminant levels in cord blood were: 15.8, 26.5, 18.0, 16.9 and 91.5 ng/g lipid for PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180, HCB and p,p'-DDE, respectively, 0.075 µg/L for cadmium and 9.7 µg/L for lead. According to the applied statistical methods for multipollutant assessment, p,p'-DDE and PCB 180 were most consistently associated with birth weight. In addition, PCB 153 was selected when applying MCP and BAS. An inverse association with birth weight was found for the PCB congeners, while an increased birth weight was observed for elevated levels of p,p'-DDE. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing the health risk of combinations of exposure biomarkers reflects better real-world situations and thereby allows more effective risk assessment. Our results add to the existing evidence based on detrimental effects of PCBs on birth weight and indicate a possible increase in birth weight due to p,p'-DDE (while correcting for PCBs).

15.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892695

RESUMO

There is an increasing interest in microRNAs (miRNAs) as they are of utmost importance in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional level. Sex-related susceptibility for non-communicable diseases later in life could originate in early life. Until now, no data on sex-specific miRNA expression are available for the placenta. Therefore, we investigated the difference by sex of newborn's miRNA expression in human placental tissue. Within the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, miRNA and mRNA expression profiling was performed in 60 placentae (50% boys) using Agilent (8 × 60 K) microarrays. The distribution of chromosome locations was studied and pathway analysis of the identified sex-specific miRNAs in the placenta was carried out. Of the total 2558 miRNAs on the array, 597 miRNAs were expressed in over 70% of the samples and were included for further analyses. A total of 142 miRNAs were significantly (FDR<0.05) associated with the newborn's sex. In newborn girls, 76 miRNAs had higher expression (hsa-miR-361-5p as most significant) and 66 miRNAs had lower expression (hsa-miR-4646-5p as most significant) than in newborn boys. In the same study population, placental differentially expressed genes by sex were also identified using a whole genome approach. The placental gene expression revealed 27 differentially expressed genes by comparing girls to boys. Ultimately, we studied the miRNA-RNA interactome and identified 14 miRNA-mRNA interactions as sex-specific. Sex differences in placental m(i)RNA expression may reveal sex-specific patterns already present during pregnancy, which may influence physiological conditions in early or later life. These molecular processes might play a role in sex-specific disease susceptibility in later life.

16.
Placenta ; 101: 159-162, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992125

RESUMO

The placenta can be regarded as a mirror of the events to which the fetus is exposed during development. The placental proteome has been studied with several methodologies differing in sample handling, protein extraction, and processing. We optimized a protocol to analyze the placental proteome by means of label-free nano-LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry with regard to sample treatment, protein extraction, and protein digestion, in order to obtain a high protein concentration for identification of a specific protein signature according to the conditions studied. We recommend mechanical tissue disruption, blood removal prior to protein extraction, and FASP-based or in-gel digestion.

17.
Environ Res ; 189: 109914, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green environments has been associated with various health benefits, but the evidence for positive effects on respiratory health in children is ambiguous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if residential exposure to different types of green space is associated with childhood asthma prevalence in Belgium. METHODS: Asthma prevalence was estimated from sales data of reimbursed medication for obstructive airway disease (OAD) prescribed to children between 2010 and 2014, aggregated at census tract level (n = 1872) by sex and age group (6-12 and 13-18 years). Generalized log-linear mixed effects models with repeated measures were used to estimate effects of relative covers of forest, grassland and garden in the census tract of the residence on OAD medication sales. Models were adjusted for air pollution (PM10), housing quality and administrative region. RESULTS: Consistent associations between OAD medication sales and relative covers of grassland and garden were observed (unadjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.15-0.17; garden, ß = 0.13-0.17). The associations remained significant after adjusting for housing quality and chronic air pollution (adjusted parameter estimates per IQR increase of relative cover, range across four strata: grassland, ß = 0.10-0.14; garden, ß = 0.07-0.09). There was no association between OAD medication sales and forest cover. CONCLUSIONS: Based on aggregated data, we found that living in close proximity to areas with high grass cover (grasslands, but also residential gardens) may negatively impact child respiratory health. Potential allergic and non-allergic mechanisms that underlie this association include elevated exposure to grass pollen and fungi and reduced exposure to environmental biodiversity. Reducing the dominance of grass in public and private green space might be beneficial to reduce the childhood asthma burden and may simultaneously improve the ecological value of urban green space.

18.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1299-1307, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903104

RESUMO

Lead exposure causing hypertension is the mechanism commonly assumed to set off premature death and cardiovascular complications. However, at current exposure levels in the developed world, the link between hypertension and lead remains unproven. In the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02243904), we recorded the 2-year responses of office blood pressure (average of 5 consecutive readings) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure to first occupational lead exposure in workers newly employed at lead recycling plants. Blood lead (BL) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (detection limit 0.5 µg/dL). Hypertension was defined according to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline. Statistical methods included multivariable-adjusted mixed models with participants modeled as a random effect and interval-censored Cox regression. Office blood pressure was measured in 267 participants (11.6% women, mean age at enrollment, 28.6 years) and ambulatory blood pressure in 137 at 2 follow-up visits. Geometric means were 4.09 µg/dL for baseline BL and 3.30 for the last-follow-up-to-baseline BL ratio. Fully adjusted changes in systolic/diastolic blood pressure associated with a doubling of the BL ratio were 0.36/0.28 mm Hg (95% CI, -0.55 to 1.27/-0.48 to 1.04 mm Hg) for office blood pressure and -0.18/0.11 mm Hg (-2.09 to 1.74/-1.05 to 1.27 mm Hg) for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. The adjusted hazard ratios of moving up across hypertension categories for a doubling in BL were 1.13 (0.93-1.38) and 0.84 (0.57-1.22) for office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, respectively. In conclusion, the 2-year blood pressure responses and incident hypertension were not associated with the BL increase on first occupational exposure.

19.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Inteligência , Características de Residência , População Rural/tendências , População Suburbana/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos/psicologia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115261, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745902

RESUMO

Indoor plants can be used to monitor atmospheric particulates. Here, we report the label-free detection of combustion-derived particles (CDPs) on plants as a monitoring tool for indoor pollution. First, we measured the indoor CDP deposition on Atlantic ivy leaves (Hedera hibernica) using two-photon femtosecond microscopy. Subsequently, to prove its effectiveness for using it as a monitoring tool, ivy plants were placed near five different indoor sources. CDP particle area and number were used as output metrics. CDP values ranged between a median particle area of 0.45 × 102 to 1.35 × 104 µm2, and a median particle number of 0.10 × 102 to 1.42 × 10³ particles for the indoor sources: control (greenhouse) < milling machine < indoor smokers < wood stove < gas stove < laser printer. Our findings demonstrate that Atlantic ivy, combined with label-free detection, can be effectively used in indoor atmospheric monitoring studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carvão Mineral , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...