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1.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 88, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play an important role in the energy metabolism and are susceptible to environmental pollution. Prenatal air pollution exposure has been linked with childhood obesity. Placental mtDNA mutations have been associated with prenatal particulate matter exposure and MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy has been associated with BMI in adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that in utero PM2.5 exposure is associated with cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy and early life growth. In addition, the role of cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy in overweight during early childhood is investigated. METHODS: This study included 386 mother-newborn pairs. Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were determined at the maternal residential address. Cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy was determined using Droplet Digital PCR. Associations were explored using logistic regression models and distributed lag linear models. Mediation analysis was performed to quantify the effects of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on childhood overweight mediated by cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy. RESULTS: Prenatal PM2.5 exposure was positively associated with childhood overweight during the whole pregnancy (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.20 to 4.51; p = 0.01), which was mainly driven by the second trimester. In addition, prenatal PM2.5 exposure was associated with cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy from gestational week 9 - 13. The largest effect was observed in week 10, where a 5 µg/m3 increment in PM2.5 was linked with cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.99). Cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy was also linked with childhood overweight (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.15 to 7.50; p = 0.02). The effect of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on childhood overweight was mainly direct (total effect OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.36; natural direct effect OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.36)) and was not mediated by cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy. CONCLUSIONS: Cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy was linked with childhood overweight. In addition, in utero exposure to PM2.5 during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy in newborns. Our analysis did not reveal any mediation of cord blood MT-ND4L10550A>G heteroplasmy in the association between PM2.5 exposure and childhood overweight.


Assuntos
Material Particulado , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Mitocondrial , Feminino , Heteroplasmia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mitocôndrias/química , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Placenta/química , Gravidez
2.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 353, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the concept of prenatal programming as an early factor in the aging process. DNA methylation age (DNAm age), global genome-wide DNA methylation (global methylation), telomere length (TL), and mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNA content) have independently been shown to be markers of aging, but their interrelationship and determinants at birth remain uncertain. METHODS: We assessed the inter-correlation between the aging biomarkers DNAm age, global methylation, TL and mtDNA content using Pearson's correlation in 190 cord blood samples of the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. TL and mtDNA content was measured via qPCR, while the DNA methylome was determined using the human 450K methylation Illumina microarray. Subsequently, DNAm age was calculated according to Horvath's epigenetic clock, and mean global, promoter, gene-body, and intergenic DNA methylation were determined. Path analysis, a form of structural equation modeling, was performed to disentangle the complex causal relationships among the aging biomarkers and their potential determinants. RESULTS: DNAm age was inversely correlated with global methylation (r = -0.64, p < 0.001) and mtDNA content (r = - 0.16, p = 0.027). Cord blood TL was correlated with mtDNA content (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) but not with global methylation or DNAm age. Path analysis showed the strongest effect for global methylation on DNAm age with a decrease of 0.64 standard deviations (SD) in DNAm age for each SD (0.01%) increase in global methylation (p < 0.001). Among the applied covariates, newborn sex and season of delivery were the strongest determinants of aging biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: We provide insight into molecular aging signatures at the start of life, including their interrelations and determinants, showing that cord blood DNAm age is inversely associated with global methylation and mtDNA content but not with newborn telomere length. Our findings demonstrate that cord blood TL and DNAm age relate to different pathways/mechanisms of biological aging and can be influenced by environmental factors already at the start of life. These findings are relevant for understanding fetal programming and for the early prevention of noncommunicable diseases.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal , Envelhecimento/genética , Biomarcadores , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
3.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate sleep duration has been suggested as a chronic stressor associated with changes in telomere length (TL). This study aimed to explore the association between sleep duration and TL using the INMA birth cohort study data. METHODS: A total of 1014 children were included in this study (cross-sectional: 686; longitudinal: 872). Sleep duration (h/day) was reported by caregivers at 4 years and classified into tertiles (7-10 h/day; >10-11 h/day; >11-14 h/day). Leucocyte TL at 4 and 7-9 years were measured using quantitative PCR methods. Multiple robust linear regression models, through log-level regression models, were used to report the % of difference among tertiles of sleep duration. RESULTS: In comparison to children who slept between >10 and 11 h/day, those in the highest category (more than 11 h/day) had 8.5% (95% CI: 3.56-13.6) longer telomeres at 4 years. Longitudinal analysis showed no significant association between sleep duration at 4 years and TL at 7-9 years. CONCLUSION: Children who slept more hours per day had longer TL at 4 years independently of a wide range of confounder factors. Environmental conditions, such as sleep duration, might have a major impact on TL during the first years of life. IMPACT: Telomere length was longer in children with longer sleep duration (>11 h/day) independently of a wide range of confounder factors at age 4 and remained consistent by sex. Sleep routines are encouraged to promote positive child development, like the number of hours of sleep duration. Considering the complex biology of telomere length, future studies still need to elucidate which biological pathways might explain the association between sleep duration and telomere length.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225521, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930283

RESUMO

Importance: Adult telomere length (TL) is a biological marker of aging associated with vascular health. TL at birth is associated with later life TL and may contain early biological information of later life cardiovascular health and disease. Objective: To evaluate whether newborn TL is associated with early life blood pressure differences in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was part of the ENVIRONAGE (Environmental Influence on Aging in Early Life) study, a birth cohort of Belgian mother-child pairs with recruitment at birth and a median follow-up of 4.5 years conducted between October 2014 and July 2021. Participants included for analysis provided full data for evaluation at follow-up visit. Data analysis was conducted between August and September 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cord blood and placental average relative TL were measured at birth using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were evaluated at follow-up. High childhood blood pressure (standardized for child age, sex, and height) was defined following the 2017 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Multivariable adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to associate newborn TL and blood pressure indicators in childhood. Results: This study included 485 newborn children (52.8% girls) with a mean (SD) age of 4.6 (0.4) years at the follow-up visit. Newborn TL was associated with lower blood pressure in childhood. A 1-IQR increase in cord blood TL was associated with a -1.54 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.36 to -0.72 mm Hg) lower diastolic blood pressure and -1.18 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.89 to -0.46 mm Hg) lower MAP. No association was observed with systolic blood pressure. Furthermore, a 1-IQR increase in cord blood TL was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure at the age of 4 to 6 years (adjusted OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98). In placenta, a 1-IQR increase in TL was associated with a -0.96 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.72 to -0.21 mm Hg) lower diastolic, -0.88 mm Hg (95% CI, -1.54 to -0.22 mm Hg) lower MAP, and a lower adjusted OR of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52 to 0.92) for having a high blood pressure in childhood. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective birth cohort study, variation in early life blood pressure at school-age was associated with TL at birth. Cardiovascular health may to some extent be programmed at birth, and these results suggest that TL entails a biological mechanism in this programming.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Placenta , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Telômero , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886381

RESUMO

Air pollution exposure can lead to exacerbation of respiratory disorders in children. Using sensitive biomarkers helps to assess the impact of air pollution on children's respiratory health and combining protein, genetic and epigenetic biomarkers gives insights on their interrelatedness. Most studies do not contain such an integrated approach and investigate these biomarkers individually in blood, although its collection in children is challenging. Our study aimed at assessing the feasibility of conducting future integrated larger-scale studies evaluating respiratory health risks of air pollution episodes in children, based on a qualitative analysis of the technical and logistic aspects of a small-scale field study involving 42 children. This included the preparation, collection and storage of non-invasive samples (urine, saliva), the measurement of general and respiratory health parameters and the measurement of specific biomarkers (genetic, protein, epigenetic) of respiratory health and air pollution exposure. Bottlenecks were identified and modifications were proposed to expand this integrated study to a higher number of children, time points and locations. This would allow for non-invasive assessment of the impact of air pollution exposure on the respiratory health of children in future larger-scale studies, which is critical for the development of policies or measures at the population level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
Environ Res ; 213: 113551, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are known to respond to environmental stressors but whether green space is associated with mitochondrial abundance is unexplored. Furthermore, as exposures may affect health from early life onwards, we here evaluate if residential green space is associated with mitochondria DNA content (mtDNAc) in children. METHODS: In primary schoolchildren (COGNAC study), between 2012 and 2014, buccal mtDNAc was repeatedly (three times) assessed using qPCR. Surrounding low (<3m), high (≥3m) and total (sum of low and high) green space within different radii (100m-1000m) from the residence and distance to the nearest large green space (>0.5ha) were estimated using a remote sensing derived map. Given the repeated measures design, we applied a mixed-effects model with school and subject as random effect while adjusting for a priori chosen fixed covariates. RESULTS: mtDNAc was assessed in 246 children with a total of 436 measurements (mean age 10.3 years). Within a 1000m radius around the residential address, an IQR increment in low (11.0%), high (9.5%), and total (13.9%) green space was associated with a respectively 15.2% (95% CI: 7.2%-23.7%), 10.8% (95% CI: 4.5%-17.5%), and 13.4% (95% CI: 7.4%-19.7%) higher mtDNAc. Conversely, an IQR increment (11.6%) in agricultural area in the same radius was associated with a -3.4% (95% CI: 6.7% to -0.1%) lower mtDNAc. Finally, a doubling in distance to large green space was associated with a -5.2% (95% CI: 7.9 to -2.4%) lower mtDNAc. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating associations between residential surrounding green space and mtDNAc in children. Our results showed that green space was associated with a higher mtDNAc in children, which indicates the importance of the early life environment. To what extent these findings contribute to later life health effects should be further examined.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Parques Recreativos , Criança , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Etnicidade , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Environ Res ; 213: 113656, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are vulnerable to various environmental exposures and lifestyle factors, encompassed in the exposome. Recent research shows that telomere length is substantially determined early in life and that exposures in childhood may have important consequences in setting later life telomere length. OBJECTIVES: We explore in a child population the associations of 17 exposures with telomere length and longitudinal telomere change. METHODS: Children (2.8-10.3y at baseline, 51.3% boys) were followed-up for five to seven years. Relative telomere length was measured at baseline and follow-up using quantitative real-time PCR. Exposures and lifestyle factors included: body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), dietary habits (sugar- and fat-rich food intake, vegetables and fruit intake), psychosocial stress (events, emotions, behaviour), sleep duration, physical activity, and residential environmental quality (longterm black carbon, particulate matter exposure, and residential green space). Cross-sectional (n=182) and longitudinal (n=150) analyses were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status and multiple testing. RESULTS: Our longitudinal analyses showed that higher residential green space at baseline was associated with (ß=0.261, p=0.002) lower telomere attrition and that children with a higher waist circumference at baseline showed a higher telomere attrition (ß=-0.287, p=0.001). These two predictors were confirmed via LASSO variable selection and correction for multiple testing. In addition, children with more unhealthy exposures at baseline had a significantly higher telomere attrition over the follow-up period compared to children with more healthy exposures (ß=-0.200, p=0.017). DISCUSSION: Waist circumference and residential green space were identified as predictors associated with telomere attrition in childhood. These results further support the advantages of a healthy lifestyle from early age onwards and the importance of a green environment to promote molecular longevity from childhood onwards.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Telômero , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(6): 1198-1209, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685322

RESUMO

Introduction: Whether in advanced countries lead exposure still contributes to renal impairment is debated, because blood lead (BL) level is declining toward preindustrial levels and because longitudinal studies correlating renal function and BL changes over time are scarce. Methods: The Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (SPHERL) evaluated the 2-year renal function responses in 251 workers (mean age, 29.7 years) transiting from environmental to occupational exposure. Main study end point was the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) derived from serum creatinine (eGFRcrt), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or both (eGFRcc). BL level was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (detection limit 0.5 µg/dl). Results: In the follow-up, mean baseline BL level of 4.13 µg/dl increased 3.30-fold. In fully adjusted mixed models, additionally accounting for the within-participant clustering of the 1- and 2-year follow-up data, a 3-fold BL level increment was not significantly correlated with changes in eGFR with estimates amounting to -0.86 (95% CI: -2.39 to 0.67), -1.58 (-3.34 to 0.18), and -1.32 (-2.66 to 0.03) ml/min per 1.73 m2 for eGFRcrt, eGFRcys, or eGFRcc, respectively. Baseline BL level and the cumulative lead burden did not materially modify these estimates, but baseline eGFR was a major determinant of eGFR changes showing regression to the mean during follow-up. Responses of serum osmolarity, urinary gravity, or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were also unrelated to the BL level increment. The age-related decreases in eGFRcrt, eGFRcys, and eGFRcc were -1.41, -0.96, and -1.10 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Conclusion: In the current study, the 2-year changes in renal function were unrelated to the increase in BL level. However, given the CIs around the point estimates of the changes in eGFRcc and eGFRcys, a larger study with longer follow-up is being planned.

9.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 39, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768464

RESUMO

A growing number of children born are conceived through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), which has been linked to an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, as well as altered growth profiles and cardiometabolic differences in the resultant individuals. Some of these outcomes have also been shown to be influenced by the use of different IVF culture media and this effect is hypothesised to be mediated epigenetically, e.g. through the methylome. As such, we profiled the umbilical cord blood methylome of IVF neonates that underwent preimplantation embryo development in two different IVF culture media (G5 or HTF), using the Infinium Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip. We found no significant methylation differences between the two groups in terms of: (i) systematic differences at CpG sites or regions, (ii) imprinted sites/genes or birth weight-associated sites, (iii) stochastic differences presenting as DNA methylation outliers or differentially variable sites, and (iv) epigenetic gestational age acceleration.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(5): 57003, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The available evidence for positive associations between urban trees and human health is mixed, partly because the assessment of exposure to trees is often imprecise because of, for instance, exclusion of trees in private areas and the lack of three-dimensional (3D) exposure indicators (e.g., crown volume). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify all trees and relevant 3D structural traits in Brussels (Belgium) and to investigate associations between the number of trees, tree traits, and sales of medication commonly prescribed for mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We developed a workflow to automatically isolate all individual trees from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data collected in 2012. Trait data were subsequently extracted for 309,757 trees in 604 census tracts. We used the average annual age-standardized rate of medication sales in Brussels for the period 2006 to 2014, calculated from reimbursement information on medication prescribed to adults (19-64 years of age). The medication sales data were provided by sex at the census tract level. Generalized log-linear models were used to investigate associations between the number of trees, the crown volume, tree structural variation, and medication sales. Models were run separately for mood disorder and cardiovascular medication and for men and women. All models were adjusted for indicators of area-level socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Single-factor models showed that higher stem densities and higher crown volumes are both associated with lower medication sales, but opposing associations emerged in multifactor models. Higher crown volume [an increase by one interquartile range (IQR) of 1.4×104 m³/ha] was associated with 34% lower mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=-0.341 (95% CI: -0.379, -0.303); men, ß=-0.340 (95% CI: -0.378, -0.303)] and with 21-25% lower cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=-0.214 (95% CI: -0.246, -0.182); men, ß=-0.252 (95% CI: -0.285, -0.219)]. Conversely, a higher stem density (an increase by one IQR of 21.8 trees/ha) was associated with 28-32% higher mood disorder medication sales [women, ß=0.322 (95% CI: 0.284, 0.361); men, ß=0.281 (95% CI: 0.243, 0.319)] and with 20-24% higher cardiovascular medication sales [women, ß=0.202 (95% CI: 0.169, 0.236); men, ß=0.240 (95% CI: 0.206, 0.273)]. DISCUSSION: We found a trade-off between the number of trees and the crown volumes of those trees for human health benefits in an urban environment. Our results demonstrate that conserving large trees in urban environments may not only support conservation of biodiversity but also human health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9924.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Árvores , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390065

RESUMO

Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) modulates angiogenesis and platelet contact-induced activation, which play a role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. We therefore tested the association of incident colorectal cancer and genetic and epigenetic variability in PEAR1 among 2532 randomly recruited participants enrolled in the family-based Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (51.2% women; mean age 44.8 years). All underwent genotyping of rs12566888 located in intron 1 of the PEAR1 gene; in 926 participants, methylation at 16 CpG sites in the PEAR1 promoter was also assessed. Over 18.1 years (median), 49 colorectal cancers occurred, all in different pedigrees. While accounting for clustering of risk factors within families and adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, serum creatinine, plasma glucose, smoking and drinking, use of antiplatelet and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, the hazard ratio of colorectal cancer contrasting minor-allele (T) carriers vs. major-allele (GG) homozygotes was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-3.99; P = 0.013). Bootstrapped analyses, from which we randomly excluded from two to nine cancer cases, provided confirmatory results. In participants with methylation data, we applied partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and identified two methylation sites associated with higher colorectal cancer risk and two with lower risk. In-silico analysis suggested that methylation of the PEAR1 promoter at these four sites might affect binding of transcription factors p53, PAX5, and E2F-1, thereby modulating gene expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that genetic and epigenetic variation in PEAR1 modulates the risk of colorectal cancer in white Flemish. To what extent, environmental factors as exemplified by our methylation data, interact with genetic predisposition and modulate penetrance of colorectal cancer risk is unknown.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
13.
Environ Int ; 164: 107245, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461095

RESUMO

The OECD estimates that greater work absenteeism is one of the main drivers behind the impact of air pollution on gross domestic product loss, but research linking air pollution with work absenteeism is scarce. With air pollution increasingly being linked to poor mental health, and poor mental health having become one of the main reasons for work absenteeism, we examined whether the onset of work incapacity related to mental health conditions is associated with short-term fluctuations in ambient black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), estimating the contributions of these pollutants jointly, while accounting for relative humidity, total solar radiation and temperature. We conducted a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover study with daily air pollution estimates by municipality linked with 12 270 events of work incapacity related to mental health conditions in 2019 in Belgium. We ran single- and multi-pollutant conditional logistic regression models for three different exposure windows (lag 0, 0-1 and 0-2), considering potential confounding by relative humidity and total solar radiation. We observed positive associations between work incapacity related to mental health conditions and BC, NO2, and O3 exposure, but findings for PM2.5 were inconsistent. Results from multi-pollutant models showed a 12% higher risk of work incapacity for an IQR increase in NO2 and O3 at the day of the event (lag 0), with estimates increasing to about 26% for average concentrations up to two days before the event (lag 0-2). We found evidence for effect modification by age and season in the association with NO2, with highest effect estimates in the age group 40-49 years and in spring and summer. For O3, we observed effect modification by type of mental health problem. This country-wide study suggests that air pollution aggravates within 48 h a likely existing propensity to enter work incapacity because of mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental , Transtornos Mentais , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
14.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113272, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439460

RESUMO

Particular matter (PM) exposure is a big hazard for public health, especially for children. Serum CC16 is a well-known biomarker of respiratory health. Urinary CC16 (U-CC16) can be a noninvasive alternative, albeit requiring adequate adjustment for renal handling. Moreover, the SNP CC16 G38A influences CC16 levels. This study aimed to monitor the effect of short-term PM exposure on CC16 levels, measured noninvasively in schoolchildren, using an integrative approach. We used a selection of urine and buccal DNA samples from 86 children stored in an existing biobank. Using a multiple reaction monitoring method, we measured U-CC16, as well as RBP4 (retinol binding protein 4) and ß2M (beta-2-microglobulin), required for adjustment. Buccal DNA samples were used for CC16 G38A genotyping. Linear mixed-effects models were used to find relevant associations between U-CC16 and previously obtained data from recent daily PM ≤ 2.5 or 10 µm exposure (PM2.5, PM10) modeled at the child's residence. Our study showed that exposure to low PM at the child's residence (median levels 18.9 µg/m³ (PM2.5) and 23.6 µg/m³ (PM10)) one day before sampling had an effect on the covariates-adjusted U-CC16 levels. This effect was dependent on the CC16 G38A genotype, due to its strong interaction with the association between PM levels and covariates-adjusted U-CC16 (P = 0.024 (PM2.5); P = 0.061 (PM10)). Only children carrying the 38GG genotype showed an increase of covariates-adjusted U-CC16, measured 24h after exposure, with increasing PM2.5 and PM10 (ß = 0.332; 95% CI: 0.110 to 0.554 and ß = 0.372; 95% CI: 0.101 to 0.643, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using an integrative approach to investigate short-term PM exposure of children, using urine to detect early signs of pulmonary damage, and taking into account important determinants such as the genetic background and adequate adjustment of the measured biomarker in urine.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Pulmão , Material Particulado , Uteroglobina , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/patologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol , Uteroglobina/genética , Uteroglobina/urina
15.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 29, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that air pollution might play a role in the etiology of mental disorders. In this study we evaluated the association between air pollution and mental and self-rated health and the possible mediating effect of physical activity in this association. METHODS: In 2008, 2013 and 2018 the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS) enrolled 16,455 participants who completed following mental health dimensions: psychological distress, suboptimal vitality, suicidal ideation, and depressive and generalized anxiety disorder and self-rated health. Annual exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) were estimated at the participants' residence by a high resolution spatiotemporal model. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out taking into account a priori selected covariates. RESULTS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, BC and NO2 averaged 14.5, 1.4, and 21.8 µg/m3, respectively. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher odds of suboptimal vitality (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.42), poor self-rated health (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.32) and depressive disorder (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41). Secondly, an association was found between BC exposure and higher odds of poor self-rated health and depressive and generalized anxiety disorder and between NO2 exposure and higher odds of psychological distress, suboptimal vitality and poor self-rated health. No association was found between long-term ambient air pollution and suicidal ideation or severe psychological distress. The mediation analysis suggested that between 15.2% (PM2.5-generalized anxiety disorder) and 40.1% (NO2-poor self-rated health) of the association may be mediated by a difference in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5, BC or NO2 was adversely associated with multiple mental health dimensions and self-rated health and part of the association was mediated by physical activity. Our results suggest that policies aiming to reduce air pollution levels could also reduce the burden of mental health disorders in Belgium.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem/análise
16.
Indoor Air ; 32(3): e13011, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347789

RESUMO

Little is known about the potential role of indoor plants in shaping the indoor microbiota. Within the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, we collected settled dust and performed 16S and ITS amplicon sequencing and qPCR measurements to characterize the indoor microbiota, including bacterial and fungal loads and Chao1 richness, Shannon, and Simpson diversity indices. For 155 households, we obtained information on the number of indoor plants. We performed linear regression models adjusted for several a priori chosen covariables. Overall, an increase in indoor plants and density was associated with increased microbial diversity, but not load. For example, we found an increase of 64 (95%CI:3;125) and 26 (95%CI:4;48) units of bacterial and fungal taxa richness, respectively, in households with more than three plants compared to no plants. Our results support the hypothesis that indoor plants can enrich indoor microbial diversity, while impacts on microbial loads are not obvious.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Microbiota , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bactérias , Poeira/análise , Fungos , Humanos
17.
Environ Res ; 211: 113056, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential green space has been associated with mental health benefits, but how such associations vary with green space types is insufficiently known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between types and quantities of green space and sales of mood disorder medication in Belgium. METHODS: We used aggregated sales data of psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics prescribed to adults from 2006 to 2014. Generalized mixed effects models were used to investigate associations between relative covers of woodland, low-green, grassland, and garden, and average annual medication sales. Models were adjusted for socio-economic background variables, urban-rural differences, and administrative region, and included random effects of latitude and longitude. RESULTS: Urban census tracts were associated with 9-10% higher medication sales. In nationwide models, a 10% increase in relative cover of woodland, garden, and grass was associated with a 1-2% decrease in medication sales. The same association was found for low green but only for men. In stratified models, a 10% increase in relative cover of any green space type in urban census tracts was associated with a decrease of medication sales by 1-3%. In rural census tracts, no protective associations between green space and mood disorder medication sales were observed, with the exception of relative woodland cover for women (-1%), and low green was associated with higher medication sales (+6-7%). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that living in green environments may be beneficial for adult mental health. Woodland exposure seemed the most beneficial, but the amount of green space was more important than the type. Results underline the importance of conserving green space in our living environment, for the conservation of biodiversity and for human health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Bélgica , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prescrições
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(4): 1627-1650, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169104

RESUMO

Aging starts at the beginning of life as evidenced by high variability in telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNAc) at birth. Whether p53 and PGC-1α are connected to these age-related markers in early life is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that these hallmarks of aging are associated at birth. In 613 newborns from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort, p53 and PGC-1α protein levels were measured in cord plasma, while TL and mtDNAc were measured in both cord blood and placental tissue. Cord blood methylation data of genes corresponding to the measured protein levels were available from the Human MethylationEPIC 850K BeadChip array. Pearson correlations and linear regression models were applied while accounting for selected covariates. In cord, a 10% increase in TL was associated with 5.22% (95% CI: 3.26 to 7.22; p < 0.0001) higher mtDNAc and -2.66% (95% CI: -5.04 to -0.23%; p = 0.032) lower p53 plasma level. In placenta, a 10% increase in TL was associated with 5.46% (95% CI: 3.82 to 7.13%; p < 0.0001) higher mtDNAc and -2.42% (95% CI: -4.29 to -0.52; p = 0.0098) lower p53 plasma level. Methylation level of TP53 was correlated with TL and mtDNAc in cord blood and with cord plasma p53 level. Our study suggests that p53 may be an important factor both at the protein and methylation level for the telomere-mitochondrial axis of aging at birth.


Assuntos
Placenta , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Envelhecimento/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Telômero/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Environ Res ; 210: 113014, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218716

RESUMO

In epidemiological studies, assessment of long term exposure to air pollution is often estimated using air pollution measurements at fixed monitoring stations, and interpolated to the residence of survey participants through Geographical Information Systems (GIS). However, obtaining georeferenced address data from national registries requires a long and cumbersome administrative procedure, since this kind of personal data is protected by privacy regulations. This paper aims to assess whether information collected in health interview surveys, including air pollution annoyance, could be used to build prediction models for assessing individual long term exposure to air pollution, removing the need for data on personal residence address. Analyses were carried out based on data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS) 2013 linked to GIS-modelled air pollution exposure at the residence place of participants older than 15 years (n = 9347). First, univariate linear regressions were performed to assess the relationship between air pollution annoyance and modelled exposure to each air pollutant. Secondly, a multivariable linear regression was performed for each air pollutant based on a set of variables selected with elastic net cross-validation, including variables related to environmental annoyance, socio-economic and health status of participants. Finally, the performance of the models to classify individuals in three levels of exposure was assessed by means of a confusion matrix. Our results suggest a limited validity of self-reported air pollution annoyance as a direct proxy for air pollution exposure and a weak contribution of environmental annoyance variables in prediction models. Models using variables related to the socio-economic status, region, urban level and environmental annoyance allow to predict individual air pollution exposure with a percentage of error ranging from 8% to 18%. Although these models do not provide very accurate predictions in terms of absolute exposure to air pollution, they do allow to classify individuals in groups of relative exposure levels, ranking participants from low over medium to high air pollution exposure. This model represents a rapid assessment tool to identify groups within the BHIS participants undergoing the highest levels of environmental stress.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Bélgica , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Autorrelato
20.
Environ Epidemiol ; 6(1): e193, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169671

RESUMO

Immune-mediated, noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases-are chronic disorders, in which the interaction between environmental exposures and the immune system plays an important role. The prevalence and societal costs of these diseases are rising in the European Union. The EXIMIOUS consortium-gathering experts in immunology, toxicology, occupational health, clinical medicine, exposure science, epidemiology, bioinformatics, and sensor development-will study eleven European study populations, covering the entire lifespan, including prenatal life. Innovative ways of characterizing and quantifying the exposome will be combined with high-dimensional immunophenotyping and -profiling platforms to map the immune effects (immunome) induced by the exposome. We will use two main approaches that "meet in the middle"-one starting from the exposome, the other starting from health effects. Novel bioinformatics tools, based on systems immunology and machine learning, will be used to integrate and analyze these large datasets to identify immune fingerprints that reflect a person's lifetime exposome or that are early predictors of disease. This will allow researchers, policymakers, and clinicians to grasp the impact of the exposome on the immune system at the level of individuals and populations.

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