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1.
Am J Blood Res ; 11(5): 528-533, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824885

RESUMO

The prognosis of patients with relapsed Early Thymic Precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) remains poor. Unlike B cell Precursor-ALL (BCP-ALL), there are no approved targeted therapies for ETP-ALL. Recent studies have identified a consistent expression of CD38 on the blasts of patients with T-ALL (both ETP-ALL and non ETP-ALL). Pre-clinical studies indicate that CD38 expression persists on the blasts of T-ALL even after receipt of conventional chemotherapy. These findings make CD38 an attractive targetable surface protein for patients with relapsed refractory T-ALL. We were the first to describe the clinical use of daratumumab in a patient of ETP-ALL, with relapsed disease post allogeneic transplant. We describe here the long term outcome of this patient more than 3 years after starting single agent daratumumab.

2.
Am J Blood Res ; 11(5): 564-570, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lenalidomide is an active agent in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); response rates are about 15-30%. There are no well-defined predictive factors for benefit from lenalidomide in AML. One of the mechanisms of lenalidomide is natural killer (NK) cell activation; hence human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles (serving as killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligands) could play a predictive role. We here evaluate the same when lenalidomide was used as a bridge to transplant. METHODS: Consecutive AML patients started on lenalidomide as bridge to transplant between Aug-2013 to Aug-2018 were included in this single centre retrospective analysis. The starting dose and schedule of lenalidomide were at the discretion of the treating clinician. Lenalidomide was scheduled to be stopped about 2-4 weeks prior to planned transplant admission (or was stopped earlier if there was intolerance). For this study, event was defined as progression/relapse while on lenalidomide or within 4 weeks of stopping the drug. The primary endpoint was event free survival (EFS). Those who underwent transplant without an event were censored on the day of transplant. Toxicities and post-transplant outcomes were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: Twelve patients (8 males, median age 29 years) were included. At start of lenalidomide, 7 had complete remission (CR)-1 (measurable residual disease or MRD by flow cytometry was positive in 3, negative in 3, and 1 unknown), 4 CR-2 (all MRD negative) and 1 active disease. In the whole cohort, median EFS was not reached with projected 3 year EFS being 80%. There was a significantly reduced risk of event with HLA A*24 (0% vs 75%, P=0.018) or with HLA B*40 (0% vs 60%, P=0.045). Only 1 patient needed discontinuation due to toxicities (cytopenias). Among patients who underwent transplant, grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) was seen in 83%. CONCLUSIONS: This is first study to show that HLA alleles may have a bearing on the effect of lenalidomide in AML and could serve as predictive biomarkers. These findings need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies.

4.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3436-3444, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461632

RESUMO

The expression of CD20 in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is associated with poor outcomes. The addition of rituximab to intensive chemotherapy in CD20+ ALL has led to improved outcomes in several studies. However, there is no clear evidence regarding the optimal number of doses and its benefit without an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Achieving measurable residual disease (MRD)-negative status postinduction would reduce the requirement for a transplant. Novel approaches are needed to induce a higher proportion of MRD-negative complete remission in patients with high-risk ALL. Given bortezomib's activity in relapsed ALL and its synergism with rituximab in B-cell lymphomas, the addition of bortezomib to rituximab and chemotherapy may provide an incremental benefit in CD20+ precursor B-ALL. We conducted a phase 2 study to test the activity of bortezomib and rituximab in combination with a pediatric-inspired regimen during induction therapy in newly diagnosed adolescents and adults (aged >14 years) with CD20+, Philadelphia-negative precursor B-ALL; bone marrow MRD negativity at the end of induction was the primary end point. From December 2017 through August 2019, a total of 35 patients were enrolled. End-of-induction MRD-negative status was achieved in 70.9% of patients, as opposed to 51.7% in the historical cohort treated with chemotherapy alone. MRD-negative rates improved to 87.5% post-consolidation. At a median follow-up of 21 months, event-free survival and overall survival rates were 78.8% (95% confidence interval, 66-94) and 78.7% (95% confidence interval, 65.8-94), respectively. There was no significant increase in toxicity with bortezomib and rituximab compared with the historical cohort. The incidence of neuropathy was 26% (all less than grade 3). The combination of bortezomib, rituximab, and a pediatric-inspired ALL regimen was active and well tolerated in de novo CD20+ Philadelphia-negative precursor B-ALL. This trial was registered with the Clinical Trials Registry-India as CTRI/2017/04/008393(http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials).


Assuntos
Linfoma de Células B , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adolescente , Adulto , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B , Rituximab
6.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 361-367, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognosis of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that is refractory to bortezomib and lenalidomide is very poor wherein the median survival is between 3 and 9 months. We did this retrospective analysis to study the pattern of utilization, tolerance, and outcomes with pomalidomide in these patients having RRMM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all the patients who were treated with generic pomalidomide at Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, during the period of May 2017 to March 2019 was done. Patients with secretory disease and who had completed at least one cycle of pomalidomide were analyzed for response rates, toxicity, and survival outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients received pomalidomide-based therapy during this study period, out of which 75 were included in the survival analysis. Forty-eight patients (59.3%) were refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib. Overall response rate was 58.7%. Five patients (6.7%) achieved complete response, very good partial response was seen in 13 patients (17.3%), and partial response was seen in 26 patients (34.7%). After a median follow-up of 11 months (range 2-27 months), median progression-free survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 12.9 months). Median progression-free survival for patients who were refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib versus nonrefractory was 5.5 and 12.6 months, respectively, which was significant statistically (P = .04, hazard ratio, 0.35, 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.97). The median overall survival was not reached. Important toxicities included anemia (28%), neutropenia (16%), pneumonia (16%), and venous thrombosis (5%). CONCLUSION: Generic pomalidomide-based therapy is an effective option and is well tolerated in patients with RRMM. Higher response rates and longer survival seen in our study are possibly because of heterogeneity of the study population.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Talidomida/análogos & derivados
7.
Blood Adv ; 5(5): 1178-1193, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635331

RESUMO

The use of pediatrics-inspired protocols in adolescent and young adult (AYA) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) results in superior survival compared with the adult protocols. Pediatrics-inspired protocols carry an increased risk of toxicity and treatment-related mortality in low resource settings, which can offset the potential benefits. We studied the outcomes and prognostic factors in the treatment of AYA ALL with a pediatrics-inspired regimen. We retrieved data regarding demographics, investigations, treatment details, and toxicities from the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with ALL in the 15- to 25-year-old age group who were initiated on a modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 90 (BFM-90) protocol between January 2013 and December 2016 at the Tata Memorial Centre. A total of 349 patients in the 15- to 25-year-old age group were treated with a modified BFM-90 protocol. The use of this pediatrics-inspired protocol resulted in a 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 59.4% and 61.8%, respectively. Only 15 patients underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Minimal residual disease (MRD) persistence postinduction emerged as the only factor predictive of poor outcomes. A modified BFM-90 protocol is an effective and safe regimen for AYA ALL with an OS and EFS comparable to the published literature.


Assuntos
Citarabina , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(7): 1558-1562, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514924

RESUMO

Transplant associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is life-threatening complication post allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT). Risk factors and prognosis of TA-TMA are not well defined. We retrospectively studied consecutive ASCT patients with AML, ALL, and CML from January 2008 to March 2019 to study the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of TMA. Definitive and probable TA-TMA was defined using Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT-CTN) and Cho criteria, respectively. Risk factors explored were age, gender, diagnosis, type of transplant, use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) pre transplant, conditioning regimen, and acute GVHD. Standard statistical methods were used. Total 241 patients, 179 (74.2 %) males, median age of 29 years were studied. Diagnoses were AML in 104, ALL in 85 (Ph+ve 23) and CML 52. Total 26 (10.7%) patients (22 males) developed TA-TMA at median of day+102. On multivariate analysis, pre-HSCT TKI (OR 2.7, p = 0.028), haplo-HSCT (OR 3.16, p = 0.018) and presence of acute GVHD (OR 4.17, p = 0.003) were significant risk factors. With a median follow up of 60 months, median OS with and without TA-TMA was 18 and 97 months respectively (p = 0.021). The association of pre-HSCT with TKI with TA-TMA merits further exploration in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Adulto , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/epidemiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia
9.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1684-1695, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infections remain a major challenge in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Induction-related mortality reported in the literature is approximately < 5% in clinical trials. However, the real-world scenario is different, especially in developing countries, given the high incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, high incidence of fungal pneumonia at baseline, and significant delay before initiation of chemotherapy. We aimed to look at contemporary infections and infection-related mortality and analyze the patterns of infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a large tertiary care oncology center in India. Patients with newly diagnosed AML who were older than age 15 years, considered fit for intensive therapy, and treated in the general wards of the adult hematolymphoid unit from March 1, 2014, until December 31, 2015, were included. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one patients were treated during the study period. The most common presenting complaint was fever (85%). The focus of infection at presentation was found in 63% of patients, with respiratory infection being the most common (47%). MDR organisms were isolated in 55% of patients during induction from various foci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common blood culture isolate (42.9%). Fungal pneumonia was diagnosed in 55% of patients during induction despite antifungal prophylaxis. Treatment-related mortality was 10.7% in all phases, with an induction mortality rate of 7.4%. Complete remission was attained in 69% of patients. Of all patients who received induction chemotherapy, 74% completed all three consolidation cycles. The 121 patients were followed up for a median period of 53 months. Four-year event-free survival was 35.8%, and 4-year overall survival was 41.5%. CONCLUSION: Infections and infection-related mortality are major challenges during AML induction. Gram-negative MDR and fungal infections are particularly common in our region.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090916

RESUMO

Purpose: There is lack of consensus on management of adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma with respect to chemotherapy approach (adult or pediatric). Hence we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. From January 2013 to December 2016, all consecutive patients with AYA (15-25 years, all stages) were analyzed. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). Secondary endpoints were complete response rates (CR) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 220 patients (70% men) with median age 20 years were evaluated. A significant proportion of patients had adverse features such as stage III/IV disease (63%), bulky disease (63%), extranodal involvement (37%), and marrow involvement (22%). After two cycles and end of therapy, 77% patients achieved complete response. Primary progressive disease was seen in 6% patients. With a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 19 (8.6%) patients relapsed, 1 patient developed second malignancy, and 6 patients died. Three-year EFS and OS were 81.3% and 97%, respectively. Bleomycin-induced lung injury was seen in 16% patients. On multivariate analysis stage at presentation, bone marrow involvement, partial response at interim positron emission tomography and International prognosis score (IPS) >3 were predictors of poor EFS. Conclusion: ABVD is an effective and safe regimen in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced disease with high IPS (>3) score needs an early escalation approach to escBEACOPP regimen.

11.
Cancer Med ; 9(23): 8747-8753, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited data on outcomes in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from lower middle-income countries (LMICs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an observational study, conducted between 12 April and 10 June 2020 at Tata Memorial centre, Mumbai, in cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. The objectives were to evaluate cumulative 30-day all-cause mortality, COVID-19 attributable mortality, factors predicting mortality, and time to viral negativity after initial diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 24 660 footfalls and 7043 patients evaluated, 230 patients on active systemic therapy with a median age of 42 (1-75) years were included. COVID-19 infection severity, as per WHO criteria, was mild, moderate, and severe in 195 (85%), 11 (5%), and 24 (11%) patients, respectively. Twenty-three patients (10%) expired during follow-up, with COVID-19 attributable mortality seen in 15 patients (6.5%). There were no mortalities in the pediatric cohort of 31 (14%) patients. Advanced stage cancer being treated with palliative intent vs others [30-day mortality 24%% vs 5%, odds ratio (OR) 5.6, 95% CI 2.28-13.78, P < .001], uncontrolled cancer status vs controlled cancer (30-day mortality37.5%% vs 4%%, OR 14, 95% CI 4.46-44.16, P < .001) and severe COVID-19 vs mild COVID-19 (30-day mortality 71% vs 3%, OR 92.29, 95% CI 26.43-322.21, P < .001) were significantly associated with mortality. The median time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negativity was 17 days [interquartile range (IQR)17-28) in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rates in cancer patients with COVID-19 who are receiving systemic anti-cancer therapy in LMICSs are marginally higher than that reported in unselected COVID-19 cohorts with prolonged time to viral negativity in a substantial number of patients. The pediatric cancer patients tended to have favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Hematol ; 112(6): 835-840, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876851

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization regimens in multiple myeloma typically use filgrastim (GCSF) alone or combination of GCSF with plerixafor or high-dose cyclophosphamide. Murine model and human studies have shown HSPC mobilization potential of bortezomib. A total of 37 patients underwent mobilization using bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 on day 1, 4, 8 and 11, cyclophosphamide 1 g/m2 on day 8 and 9, and GCSF 10 µg/kg from day 10 (B-Cy-GCSF). This regimen was compared with our earlier cohort of patients where cyclophosphamide was given at dose of 1 g/m2 on day 1 and day 2 followed by GCSF 10 µg/kg from day 4 (Cy-GCSF). In B-Cy-GCSF group, median CD34 cells collected were 9.21 × 106/kg (range 4.95-17.1) while in the Cy-GCSF cohort, the median CD34 cell yield was 8.2 × 106/kg (0.4-24.2). Target CD34 cells yield of 5 × 106/kg was achieved with single apheresis in 58.6% of patients after B-Cy-GCSF mobilization as compared to 44.3% in Cy-GCSF group (p = 0.07). Three patients failed mobilization after Cy-GCSF, while no patients failed mobilization in bortezomib group. Addition of bortezomib to Cy-GCSF mobilization showed a trend towards increased CD34 collection and reduced need for apheresis sessions.


Assuntos
Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Feminino , Filgrastim/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(13): 3154-3160, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757686

RESUMO

Panel based next generation sequencing was performed on a discovery cohort of AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Supervised machine learning identified NRAS mutation and absence of mutations in ASXL2, RAD21, KIT and FLT3 genes as well as a low mutation to be associated with favorable outcome. Based on this data patients were classified into favorable and poor genetic risk classes. Patients classified as poor genetic risk had a significantly lower overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS). We could validate these findings independently on a validation cohort (n = 61). Patients in the poor genetic risk group were more likely to harbor measurable residual disease. Poor genetic risk emerged as an independent risk factor predictive of inferior outcome. Using an unbiased computational approach based we provide evidence for gene panel-based testing in AML with RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and a framework for integration of genomic markers toward clinical decision making in this heterogeneous disease entity.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mutação , Proteína 1 Parceira de Translocação de RUNX1/genética
14.
Cell Transplant ; 29: 963689720912925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495641

RESUMO

A universally accepted strategy for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) does not exist. We explored the feasibility of developing a limited sampling strategy (LSS) for TDM of MMF in this setting. Patients undergoing alloHSCT received standard MMF-cyclosporine prophylaxis, with MMF administered twice daily (BD) for matched transplant recipients or thrice daily (TID) in haploidentical transplantation. Intensive blood sampling was carried out on day 7 and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite, was estimated using noncompartmental analysis. The ability of MPA exposure defined by AUC0-12 to discriminate between responders (patients who did not develop GVHD) and nonresponders (patients who developed GVHD) was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients were divided into training and validation sets within BD and TID groups. Mathematical equations were developed from the training set to predict AUC0-12 from an abbreviated AUC involving a limited number of sampling points. The equations were validated in the validation set by comparing the MPA AUC0-12 predicted from LSS with the observed AUC0-12. It was observed that patients with AUC0-12 ≤18.99 mg*h/L had a higher risk of developing aGVHD [odds ratio (OR) = 2.63 (1.17 to 5.87), P = 0.06]. The benefit was more in matched transplant recipients [OR = 3.5 (1.30 to 9.49), P = 0.05] as compared to haploindentical transplant [OR = 2.8 (0.49 to 15.91), P = NS]. Using the mathematical equations, the observed AUC0-12 was predicted with 92.31% accuracy in the BD subset and 100% accuracy in the TID subset for a combined accuracy of 94.76%. A set of just three samples that constituted the abbreviated AUC1-4 was used to develop the predictive models. The LSS could be employed for the therapeutic monitoring of MMF particularly in patients undergoing matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Ácido Micofenólico/farmacologia , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem
19.
Front Oncol ; 9: 450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263671

RESUMO

Introduction: One of the mainstays of chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induction with a goal to achieve morphological complete remission (CR). However, not all patients by this remission criterion achieve long-term remission and a subset relapse. This relapse is explained by the presence of measurable residual disease (MRD). Methods: We accrued 451 consecutive patients of adult AML (from March 2012 to December 2017) after informed consent. All patients received standard chemotherapy. MRD testing was done at post-induction and, if feasible, post-consolidation using 8- and later 10-color FCM. Analysis of MRD was done using a combination of difference from normal and leukemia-associated immunophenotype approaches. Conventional karyotyping and FISH were done as per standard recommendations, and patients were classified into favorable, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups. The presence of FLT3-ITD, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations was detected by a fragment length analysis-based assay. Results: As compared to Western data, our cohort of patients was younger with a median age of 35 years. There were 62 induction deaths in this cohort (13.7%), and 77 patients (17.1%) were not in morphological remission. The median follow-up was 26.0 months. Poor-risk cytogenetics and the presence of FLT3-ITD were significantly associated with inferior outcome. The presence of post-induction MRD assessment was significantly associated with adverse outcome with respect to OS (p = 0.01) as well as RFS (p = 0.004). Among established genetic subgroups, detection of MRD in intermediate cytogenetic and NPM1 mutated groups was also highly predictive of inferior outcome. On multivariate analysis, immunophenotypic MRD at the end of induction and FLT3-ITD emerged as independent prognostic factors predictive for outcome. Conclusion: This is the first data from a resource-constrained real-world setting demonstrating the utility of AML MRD as well as long-term outcome of AML. Our data is in agreement with other studies that determination of MRD is extremely important in predicting outcome. AML MRD is a very useful guide for guiding post-remission strategies in AML and should be incorporated into routine treatment algorithms.

20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1832-1836, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054984

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations are common after allogeneic stem cell transplants, and pre-emptive therapy has been found to be effective. However, in India, treatment options are limited because of high cost and toxicity of ganciclovir and unavailability of cidofovir and foscarnet. Leflunomide is a cheap and easily available anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug that has been shown to have anti-CMV properties both in vitro and in vivo. It also has been used effectively for CMV reactivation after renal transplants. In this retrospective analysis, we analyzed 70 allogeneic stem cell transplants that were conducted between April 2015 and February 2017. There were 49 episodes of CMV reactivations in 43 patients in this period. Leflunomide was used in 24 episodes. It was effective in CMV clearance in 9 of the 24 episodes (38%). When the CMV copy number was <2 × 103 copies/mL, leflunomide was effective in 9 of 17 (53%) episodes, but when the copy number was >2 × 103, leflunomide was ineffective in all of the 7 episodes. This difference was statistically significant (P= .022 by Fisher exact test), suggesting that leflunomide may be more effective in clearance of CMV when copy numbers are low.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citomegalovirus , Leflunomida/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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