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J Glob Health ; 11: 04038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484706


Background: By 2030, Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 aims to reduce the premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the second leading cause of mortality and disability-adjusted life years in India. This review was conducted to estimate the prevalence of COPD using systematic review and meta-analysis technique. Method: Search was conducted using six databases for studies on COPD among population above 30 years in India between years 2000 to 2020. Cross-sectional and cohort studies reporting prevalence of COPD and associated risk factors were included in the present review. Screening and data extraction was done by two authors independently. Studies were appraised for quality using the modified New Castle Ottawa scale and reporting quality was assessed using STROBE guidelines. Result: Our search returned 8973 records, from which 23 records fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Overall, the prevalence of COPD among population aged 30 years and above in India was 7%. Risk factors like active and passive smoking, biomass fuel exposure, environmental tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to dust, indoor and outdoor pollution, and increasing age were reported to have a significant association with COPD among Indian population. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need for a multicentric national-level research study to understand COPD burden and its contributing risk factors. The findings also suggest the need for COPD sensitive health literacy program focused on early screening and primary prevention of risk factors for COPD, which may help early initiation of self-management practices, that are crucial for better quality of life.

Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
Physiother Res Int ; 26(4): e1918, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228383


BACKGROUND: Low physical activity levels in people with stroke may contribute to higher risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Differences in economic status, culture and the built environment may influence the applicability of interventions developed in high income countries (HIC) for stroke survivors in low to middle-income countries (LMIC). PURPOSE: To compare physical activity levels of stroke survivors in HIC and LMIC and to explore the influence of lower limb impairment on physical activity levels. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An exploratory secondary analysis of observational data on physical activity levels of stroke survivors from Australia (HIC) and India (LMIC). Physical activity variables (step count, light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were measured by accelerometery. Comparisons of physical activity levels between (a) Australian and Indian stroke survivors and (b) participants with and without lower limb impairments were performed using independent t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between (i) Australian and Indian stroke survivors (step count mean difference 201 steps [-1375 to 974], LPA mean difference -24 min [-22 to 69], MVPA mean difference 2 min [-8 to 3]), and (ii) stroke survivors with and without lower limb impairments in either country. CONCLUSION: Stroke survivors were highly inactive in both countries. Despite differences in economic status, cultural influences and the built environment, the physical activity of stroke survivors in Australia and India did not differ. People with and without lower limb impairment also had similar physical activity levels.

Países em Desenvolvimento , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Austrália , Países Desenvolvidos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Sobreviventes
Top Stroke Rehabil ; : 1-11, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180370


Background: Adherence to prescribed exercises is essential for home-based programs to be effective, but evidence for strategies to enhance exercise adherence in people with stroke is lacking.Objectives: To determine the effect of adherence strategies on the proportion of people with stroke who adhere to prescribed home-based exercises and their level of adherence at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine the effect of the combined intervention on mobility and quality of life post-stroke.Methods: We conducted an RCT among people with stroke (Exp = 27, Con = 25) living in semi-urban India. Both groups received standard hospital care and a home exercise program. The experimental group also received adherence strategies delivered over five sessions. Adherence was measured using the Stroke-Specific Measure of Adherence to Home-based Exercises (SS-MAHE) , mobility using Mobility Disability Scale, and quality of life using the Stroke Impact Scale.Results: The experimental group had better exercise adherence compared to the control group both at six (mean difference [MD] 45, 95% CI 40, 64, p < .001) and 12 weeks (MD 51, 95% CI 39, 63, p < .001). The experimental group also had better mobility at 12 weeks (median (IQR), experimental 42 (57), median (IQR), control 95 (50), p = .002). There was no difference in the quality of life scores between groups at six or 12 weeks.Conclusion: The adherence strategies were effective in improving exercise adherence and mobility post-stroke but did not improve quality of life.Trial registration: CTRI/2018/08/015212.

Can J Respir Ther ; 57: 14-17, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542948


Background: The Sustainable Development Goals and the National Health Policy of India aim to reduce premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases (NCD) by one-third in the next decade and by 25% by 2025, respectively. Among NCDs globally, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major contributor to death and disability. This underscores the need to understand the burden of COPD at the national level by synthesizing evidence and collating the state-wise COPD data to estimate the prevalence of COPD and to highlight the associated risk factors to inform policymakers. Method: The systematic literature search will be carried out in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ProQuest databases with restrictions for studies published between 2000 and 2020 and available in English. Cross-sectional or cohort studies conducted in and among the Indian population aged 30 years and above will be included. Case reports, randomized trials, meta-analysis, commentaries, and qualitative studies will be excluded from the review. Quality assessment of the included studies will be performed using New Castle Ottawa scale and adherence to reporting standards will be checked using STROBE checklist for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Discussion: Prevalence of COPD in the population aged 30 years and above, diagnosed through spirometry and nonspirometry, will be compared and reported and a meta-analysis will be performed to obtain pooled prevalence rates of COPD and the risk factors associated with COPD.

Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101110, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379645


BACKGROUND: The evidence on aquatic therapy (AT) for improving balance and gait deficits post-stroke is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of AT on balance and gait in stroke survivors. METHODS: We searched CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Science, Aqua4balance, Ewac, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases from inception to 1st November 2019. RESULTS: Eleven studies with 455 participants were included for the review. Meta-analysis showed that AT was effective for improving balance (MD 3.23, 95% CI 1.06, 5.39; p = 0.004; I2 = 61%) and gait speed (MD 0.77, 95% CI 0.25, 1.29; p = 0.004; I2 = 0%) when delivered alone. AT was effective in improving cadence (MD 4.41, 95% CI 0.82, 8.00; p = 0.02; I2 = 68%) when delivered as an adjunct to land-based therapy. CONCLUSION: AT may be used to improve balance and gait after stroke; however, the evidence to support its use is still low.

Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Hidroterapia/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Humanos