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1.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; : 126955, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035698

RESUMO

This article describes the discovery of aryl hydroxy pyrimidinones and the medicinal chemistry efforts to optimize this chemotype for potent APJ agonism. APJ is a G-protein coupled receptor whose natural agonist peptide, apelin, displays hemodynamic improvement in the cardiac function of heart failure patients. A high throughput screen was undertaken to identify small molecule hits that could be optimized to mimic the apelin in vitro response. A potent and low molecular weight aryl hydroxy pyrimidinone analog 30 was identified through optimization of an HTS hit and medicinal chemistry efforts to improve its properties.

2.
Nature ; 574(7779): 565-570, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645726

RESUMO

Co-inhibitory immune receptors can contribute to T cell dysfunction in patients with cancer1,2. Blocking antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) partially reverse this effect and are becoming standard of care in an increasing number of malignancies3. However, many of the other axes by which tumours become inhospitable to T cells are not fully understood. Here we report that V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) engages and suppresses T cells selectively at acidic pH such as that found in tumour microenvironments. Multiple histidine residues along the rim of the VISTA extracellular domain mediate binding to the adhesion and co-inhibitory receptor P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Antibodies engineered to selectively bind and block this interaction in acidic environments were sufficient to reverse VISTA-mediated immune suppression in vivo. These findings identify a mechanism by which VISTA may engender resistance to anti-tumour immune responses, as well as an unexpectedly determinative role for pH in immune co-receptor engagement.


Assuntos
Antígenos B7/química , Antígenos B7/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/farmacologia , Antígenos B7/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos B7/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Histidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
AAPS J ; 21(5): 94, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342199

RESUMO

A mechanistic model of the immune response was evaluated for its ability to predict anti-drug antibody (ADA) and their impact on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) for a biotherapeutic in a phase 1 clinical trial. Observed ADA incidence ranged from 33 to 67% after single doses and 27-50% after multiple doses. The model captured the single dose incidence well; however, there was overprediction after multiple dosing. The model was updated to include a T-regulatory (Treg) cell mediated tolerance, which reduced the overprediction (relative decrease in predicted incidence rate of 21.5-59.3% across multidose panels) without compromising the single dose predictions (relative decrease in predicted incidence rate of 0.6-13%). The Treg-adjusted model predicted no ADA impact on PK or PD, consistent with the observed data. A prospective phase 2 trial was simulated, including co-medication effects in the form of corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression. Predicted ADA incidences were 0-10%, depending on co-medication dosage. This work demonstrates the utility in applying an integrated, iterative modeling approach to predict ADA during different stages of clinical development.

4.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(12): 1170-1174, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613321

RESUMO

BMS-823778 (2), a 1,2,4-triazolopyridinyl-methanol derived analog, was identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme (IC50 = 2.3 nM) with >10,000-fold selectivity over 11ß-HSD-2. Compound 2 exhibits robust acute pharmacodynamic effects in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 = 0.6 mg/kg) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (ED50 = 34 mg/kg). Compound 2 also showed excellent inhibition in an ex vivo adipose DIO mouse model (ED50 = 5.2 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability ranges from 44% to 100% in preclinical species. Its favorable development properties, pharmacokinetics, high adipose-to-plasma concentration ratio, and preclinical pharmacology profile have prompted the evaluation of 2 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in phase 2 clinical trials.

5.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 4932-4948, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537398

RESUMO

BMS-816336 (6n-2), a hydroxy-substituted adamantyl acetamide, has been identified as a novel, potent inhibitor against human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) enzyme (IC50 3.0 nM) with >10000-fold selectivity over human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2). 6n-2 exhibits a robust acute pharmacodynamic effect in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 0.12 mg/kg) and in DIO mice. It is orally bioavailable (%F ranges from 20 to 72% in preclinical species) and has a predicted pharmacokinetic profile of a high peak to trough ratio and short half-life in humans. This ADME profile met our selection criteria for once daily administration, targeting robust inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme for the first 12 h period after dosing followed by an "inhibition holiday" so that the potential for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation might be mitigated. 6n-2 was found to be well-tolerated in phase 1 clinical studies and represents a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other human diseases modulated by glucocorticoid control.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(21): 5045-9, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25266782

RESUMO

A previous disclosure from this lab highlighted the discovery of pyridyl amides as potent 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors. In order to build additional novelty and polarity into this chemotype, replacement of the hydrogen-bonding carbonyl (CO) pharmacophore with the bioisosteric sulfonyl (SO2) group was examined. Despite initial comparisons suggesting the corresponding sulfonamides exhibited weaker activity versus their carbonyl counterparts, further optimization was performed in an effort to identify various potent and unique leads for the program. Judicious incorporation of polar moieties resulted in the identification of compounds with enhanced potency and lipophilicity profiles, resulting in leads with superior aqueous solubility and liver microsomal stability.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
7.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 5(7): 803-8, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050169

RESUMO

Small alkyl groups and spirocyclic-aromatic rings directly attached to the left side and right side of the 1,2,4-triazolopyridines (TZP), respectively, were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme. 3-(1-(4-Chlorophenyl)cyclopropyl)-8-cyclopropyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine (9f) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the 11ß-HSD-1 enzyme with reduced Pregnane-X receptor (PXR) transactivation activity. The binding orientation of this TZP series was revealed by X-ray crystallography structure studies.

8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 24(2): 654-60, 2014 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24360604

RESUMO

A series of 2-adamantylmethyl tetrazoles bearing a quaternary carbon at the 2-position of the adamantane ring (i.e. structure A) have been designed and synthesized as novel, potent, and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Based on the SAR and the docking experiment, we report for the first time a tetrazole moiety serving as the active pharmacophore for inhibitory activity of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme. Optimization of two regions of A, R(1) and R(2) respectively, was explored with a focus on improving the inhibitory activity (IC50) and the microsomal stability in both human and mouse species. These efforts led to the identification of 26, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of human 11ß-HSD1 with a favorable development profile.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/síntese química , Tetrazóis/síntese química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/farmacologia
10.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(22): 6693-8, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983444

RESUMO

Derived from the HTS hit 1, a series of hydroxyisoquinolines was discovered as potent and selective 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors with good cross species activity. Optimization of substituents at the 1 and 4 positions of the isoquinoline group in addition to the core modifications, with a special focus on enhancing metabolic stability and aqueous solubility, resulted in the identification of several compounds as potent advanced leads.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 23(7): 411-8, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19459054

RESUMO

The success of structure-based drug design relies on accurate protein modeling where one of the key issues is the modeling and refinement of loops. This study takes a critical look at modeled loops, determining the effect of re-sampling side-chains after the loop conformation has been generated. The results are evaluated in terms of backbone and side-chain conformations with respect to the native loop. While models can contain loops with high quality backbone conformations, the side-chain orientations could be poor, and therefore unsuitable for ligand docking and structure-based design. In this study, we report on the ability to model loop side-chains accurately using a variety of commercially available algorithms that include rotamer libraries, systematic torsion scans and knowledge-based methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Proteínas/química , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Drogas , Modelos Moleculares
12.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 22(4): 257-66, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19179341

RESUMO

Epothilone F, 21-hydroxyl-epothilone B, is an intermediate in the synthesis of BMS-310705, an antitumor compound that has been evaluated in Phase I clinical trials. A bioconversion process utilizing the Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis was used to prepare epothilone F from epothilone B. In order to improve the yield of epothilone F, a mutagenesis program was performed with the goal of engineering the epothilone-B hydroxylase (EBH) enzyme to improve the yield of epothilone F through oxidative biotransformation. The mutations in EBH increased the yield of epothilone F from 21% in the recombinant expression system to higher than 80% utilizing the best EBH mutants. The studies described here show how a homology model of EBH was used to obtain an understanding of the possible mechanism that led to improved yield of epothilone F in the mutated enzymes. A novel aspect of this study is that it provides some insight into how mutations distant from the binding site can affect enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Domínio Catalítico/genética , Epotilonas/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(11): 3168-72, 2008 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18485702

RESUMO

Several series of pyridine amides were identified as selective and potent 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors feature 2,6- or 3,5-disubstitution on the pyridine core. Various linkers (CH(2)SO(2), CH(2)S, CH(2)O, S, O, N, bond) between the distal aryl and central pyridyl groups are tolerated, and lipophilic amide groups are generally favored. On the distal aryl group, a number of substitutions are well tolerated. A crystal structure was obtained for a complex between 11beta-HSD1 and the most potent inhibitor in this series.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Amidas/síntese química , Amidas/farmacologia , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1774(9): 1184-91, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17707701

RESUMO

11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 regulates the tissue availability of cortisol by interconverting cortisone and cortisol. It is capable of functioning as both a reductase and a dehydrogenase depending upon the surrounding milieu. In this work, we have studied the reaction mechanism of a soluble form of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and its mode of inhibition by potent and selective inhibitors belonging to three different structural classes. We found that catalysis follows an ordered addition with NADP(H) binding preceding the binding of the steroid. While all three inhibitors tested bound to the steroid binding pocket, they differed in their interactions with the cofactor NADP(H). Compound A, a pyridyl amide bound more efficiently to the NADPH-bound form of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1. Compound B, an adamantyl triazole, was unaffected by NADP(H) binding and the sulfonamide, Compound C, showed preferential binding to the NADP+ -bound form of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1. These differences were found to augment significant selectivity towards inhibition of the reductase reaction versus the dehydrogenase reaction. This selectivity may translate to differences in the in vivo effects of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Humanos , Cinética , NADP/metabolismo
15.
Protein Sci ; 16(9): 1999-2012, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17660258

RESUMO

This paper provides an unbiased comparison of four commercially available programs for loop sampling, Prime, Modeler, ICM, and Sybyl, each of which uses a different modeling protocol. The study assesses the quality of results and examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. The set of loops to be modeled varied in length from 4-12 amino acids. The approaches used for loop modeling can be classified into two methodologies: ab initio loop generation (Modeler and Prime) and database searches (Sybyl and ICM). Comparison of the modeled loops to the native structures was used to determine the accuracy of each method. All of the protocols returned similar results for short loop lengths (four to six residues), but as loop length increased, the quality of the results varied among the programs. Prime generated loops with RMSDs <2.5 A for loops up to 10 residues, while the other three methods met the 2.5 A criteria at seven-residue loops. Additionally, the ability of the software to utilize disulfide bonds and X-ray crystal packing influenced the quality of the results. In the final analysis, the top-ranking loop from each program was rarely the loop with the lowest RMSD with respect to the native template, revealing a weakness in all programs to correctly rank the modeled loops.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Oligopeptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Software , Algoritmos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Dissulfetos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Conformação Proteica
16.
Protein Sci ; 15(4): 808-24, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16600967

RESUMO

An open question in protein homology modeling is, how well do current modeling packages satisfy the dual criteria of quality of results and practical ease of use? To address this question objectively, we examined homology-built models of a variety of therapeutically relevant proteins. The sequence identities across these proteins range from 19% to 76%. A novel metric, the difference alignment index (DAI), is developed to aid in quantifying the quality of local sequence alignments. The DAI is also used to construct the relative sequence alignment (RSA), a new representation of global sequence alignment that facilitates comparison of sequence alignments from different methods. Comparisons of the sequence alignments in terms of the RSA and alignment methodologies are made to better understand the advantages and caveats of each method. All sequence alignments and corresponding 3D models are compared to their respective structure-based alignments and crystal structures. A variety of protein modeling software was used. We find that at sequence identities >40%, all packages give similar (and satisfactory) results; at lower sequence identities (<25%), the sequence alignments generated by Profit and Prime, which incorporate structural information in their sequence alignment, stand out from the rest. Moreover, the model generated by Prime in this low sequence identity region is noted to be superior to the rest. Additionally, we note that DSModeler and MOE, which generate reasonable models for sequence identities >25%, are significantly more functional and easier to use when compared with the other structure-building software.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Modelos Estruturais , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
17.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 15(17): 3816-20, 2005 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15993593

RESUMO

A comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSiA) has been performed for cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibition on a series of aryloxypropanolamines to determine the factors contributing to this activity. The model is in agreement with a CYP2D6 homology model constructed on the basis of the mammalian CYP2C5 crystal structure. The energy minimized conformations were generated using the systematic search methodology in Sybyl 6.7. The model not only elucidated the relationship between structure and biological activity but, more importantly, provided useful strategies to modulate CYP2D6 affinity in the aryloxypropanolamine series.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6 , Propanolaminas/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Animais , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Modelos Moleculares , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Biopolymers ; 70(2): 201-11, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14517908

RESUMO

Electronic polarizability, an important physical property of biomolecules, is currently ignored in most biomolecular calculations. Yet, it is widely believed that polarization could account for a substantial fraction of the total nonbonded energy of a system. This belief is supported by studies of small complexes in vacuum. This perception is driving the development of a new class of polarizable force fields for biomolecular calculations. However, the quantification of this term for protein-ligand complexes has never been attempted. Here we explore the polarizable nature of protein-ligand complexes in order to evaluate the importance of this effect. We introduce two indexes describing the polarizability of protein binding sites. These we apply to a large range of pharmaceutically relevant complexes. We offer a recommendation of particular complexes as test systems with which to determine the effects of polarizability and as test cases with which to test the new generation of force fields. Additionally, we provide a tabulation of the amino acid composition of these binding sites and show that composition can be specific for certain classes of proteins. We also show that the relative abundance of some amino acids is different in binding sites than elsewhere in a protein's structure.


Assuntos
Estradiol/química , Ligantes , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Estrogênicos/química , Aminoácidos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Modelos Estatísticos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
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